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ol. 15 

January, 1943 

No. 1 


— Original photograph by Fred Baker — Copy by H. Brayer 


Four miles north of present Encampment on George Peryam's ranch. Joseph 
Doggett, clerk, standing in doorway; Pierce Culleton on sled; Henry P. "Doc" 
Culleton on horse. Nichols was appointed postmaster when Swan was created 
a postoffice in 1884. All that remains today to mark the site is the excavation 
which formed the cellar of the store. 

Published Quarterly 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 

HH^ald. ojj l4j4fX)4ni4€a 

Vol. 15 January, 1943 No. 1 

v. I&-/& 

\^A->-A'^ page 


By Herbert O. Brayer 

DO YOU KNOW THAT 37, 67, 84 


By Judge A. C. Campbell 

By Mrs. Charles Ellis 

By J. Elmer Brock 

By H. B. Henderson, Sr. 



By Fritiof Fryxell 

















Published Quarterly by 


Cheyenne, Wyoming 

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Entered a.s matter September 10, 1941, at the Po-st Office in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Co)>yriKht, 194.'5, by the WyominK Historical Depai-tment. 


Lester C. Hunt, President Governor 

Mart T. Christensen Secretary of State 

Wm, "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Earl Wright State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary .... State Librarian and Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody. L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 

Frank Barrett, Lusk Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 

George Bible, Rawlins Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green 
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin River 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee E. V. Knight, Laramie 
Struthers Burt, Moran W. C. Laurence, Moran 
Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
J. L. Cook, Sundance R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
William C. Deming, Cheyenne A. J. Mokler, Casper 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep L. L. Newton, Lander 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River R. I. dinger, Newcastle 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 

G. R. Hagens, Casper E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 

R. H. Hall, Lander Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 


State Museum 

Gladys F. Riley, Editor State Librarian and Historian 

Lola M. Homsher, Co-Editor Assistant Historian 




Taken in the '80s 

*7^c £7 Rx*nck&i 


By Herbert O. Brayer* 

With the construction and completion of the trans- 
continental railroad in 1869, the "Great Western Cattle 
Industry" entered upon its first, and perhaps most color- 
ful, period of expansion. In the development of the live- 
stock industry, the two and one-half decades from 1870 
to 1895 might well be labeled as the "Era of the Public 
Domain" for there "can be but little doubt that the vast 
grass-covered but unfenced and unsettled western ranges 
made possible the first phenomenal expansion of cattle 

While it is true that the typical cattle ranch utilized 
thousands of acres of range upon which to graze its stock, 
it should be noted that during this early period the largest 
part of almost every ranch was actually public domain — 
land owned by the nation but freely utilized by the rancher. 
The basis of the average "spread" v/as a small tract of 
patented land, sometimes as small as a quarter section 
but usually amounting to a section or two. In frequent 
instances, such as those to be found in the following ac- 
count of the L7 ranches, even this basic tract was actually 
part of the public domain to which no patent had been 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH — Dr. Herbert O. Brayer, born June 
1, 1913, in Montreal, Canada, obtained his Ph.D. degree at the 
University of California. For several years he taught Latin-Amer- 
ican History at the University of New Mexico, from which position 
he was called to become State Director of the Historical Records 
Survey. He was also director of the Coronado Cuarto Centennial 
celebration in New Mexico. 

Dr. Brayer is now on leave from his present position as archivist 
and historian for the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad at 
Denver, Colorado, and is engaged in special research for tne Com- 
mittee for Research in Economic History, Social Science Research 
Council, Rockefeller Foundation. He is preparing for publication 
a work on the life of William Blackmore, English entrepreneur of 
the Southwest. Dr. Brayer is the author of numerous articles and 
books including To Form a More Perfect Union. Puehlo Indian Land 
Grants of New Meixco and Inscription Rock. 


An adequate water supply and good grass were the 
two fundamental necessities of cattle ranching: Water for 
the stock and headquarters, and to foster the growth of 
hay in the bottoms ; grass for the grazing of the stock. 
With this principle as a guide the rancher usually selected 
a location along a stream or near a spring as the site for 
his headquarters. Located in the bottom land along the 
stream or below the spring was the "hay lot," used to 
produce a small quantity of hay for the horses, and, in 
periods of crisis, winter feed for the cattle. In the latter 
instance, however, few ranches raised sufficient hay to 
feed a large herd during the winter. 

The unfenced public domain was freely used by the 
ranchers — freely in the sense that no payment was made 
for the use of the tens of thousands of acres upon which 
a herd ranged. In actuality, as will be pointed out later 
in this study, the ranges were closely regulated by the 
ranchers through cooperative action. This regulation, it 
is true, was in the interest of those most concerned, and 
when later threatened with the loss of their ranges — the 
economic basis of their livelihood — this regulation served 
as the basis for cooperative action against the "nestor," 
sheepman, and farmer. The advent of the latter and the 
opening of the public domain to homesteading, abetted 
by a series of disastrous winters, heralded the end of the 
"Era of the Public Domain" in the history of the livestock 

The L7 ranches in southern Wyoming and northern 
Colorado were representative of the period. From various 
sources, some admittedly fragmentary, it is possible to 
trace the organization, development, and eventual decline 
of the L7. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to out- 
line in a specific instance, the economy of a typical western 
cattle ranch during the initial period in the founding of 
this industry — an industry of vital importance in the de- 
velopment of the West. 

William Franklin Swan 

William Franklin Swan, the son of Henry and Clarissa 
Fuller Swan, was born June 4, 1848, on a farm near Car- 
michaels, Greene County, Pennsylvania. In 1854 his parents 
moved to a farm near Mount Vernon, Ohio, and a short time 
later to Mount Pleasant, Iowa. In addition to attending 
the public schools, William Swan spent one year at the 
Eastman Business College, Poughkeepsie, Nev/ York. 


In 1873 he married Miss Mary Ruth Evans of Mal- 
vern, Iowa, and shortly thereafter went with his father 
to Cheyenne, Wyoming, where the elder Swan became a 
member of the firm of Swan Brothers, the other members 
being Alexander H. Swan and Thomas Swan. During this 
period William Swan operated a stock ranch at the head 
of the Chugwater under the name "W. F. Swan and Son."' 
Although his father had withdrawn from the company on 
April 6, 1878,2 William Swan became a member of Swan 
Brothers in 1879. The arrangement was short-lived, how- 
ever, for on January 8, 1880, the newspapers at Cheyenne 
carried a formal notice of the dissolution of the firm as 
of the sixth of January and of the retirement of W. F. 
Swan from the co-partnership. 3.. Although the eh Seven 
Cattle Company was not organized until 1883, Swan con- 
tinued to be active in stockraising. In February 1882, 
he purchased the "Hat Ranch" on Pass Creek in the North 
Platte Valley,"* and within one year was listed as "one 
of Carbon County's cattle kings. "^ 

He was a member of the Laramie Cattle Growers 
Association from its inception in 1873, and served as a 
member of the Executive Committee of the Association. 
When, in 1878, this association was reorganized as the 
Wyoming Stock Growers Association, Swan continued to 
take an active interest in its affairs. He was elected a 
member of the Executive Committee in 1885, representing 
Carbon County, ^ and in that year served on the committee 
to equalize assessments. This committee was composed 
of representatives from Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, 
Dakota, and Montana. Swan and Ora Haley represented 

Although engaged in cattle ranching, first on the 

1. Cheyenne Daily Sun, July 31, 1878, 4:3; Oieyenne Daily 
Leader, February 15, 1879, 4:4. 

2. Cheyenne Daily Leader, April 6, 1878, 4:3. 

3. Ibid. January 8, 1880, 4:3. 

4. Carbon County Journal, February 11, 1882. The transcripts 
of the Carbon County Journal used by the writer did not contain 
page and column references; because of the condition of the volumes, 
the owner of the only set available did not desire them to be further 
handled, which accounts for the incomplete citations used herein 
when referring to this newspaper. 

5. Ibid. July 8, 1882. 

6. Report of Mr. Russell Thorp, Secretary-Chief Inspector, Wyo- 
ming Stock Growers Association, Cheyenne, Wyoming, to Mr. Henry 
Swan, Denver, Colorado, January 28, 1942. 

7. Carbon County Journal, April 11, 1885; John Clay, My Life 
on the Range, p. 252. 


North Platte River in Wyoming and subsequently on the 
Snake and Bear Rivers in northwestern Colorado, Swan 
moved his home to Denver in 1882, leaving his ranches 
under the management of John Wilcox, and, after 1883, 
Emmet C. Green. In 1888, to recoup his fortunes after 
the disastrous winter of 1886-7 on the North Platte, Swan 
went to Chicago and became a buyer for Nelson Morris 
and Company, subsequently moving to Mississippi where 
he had a substantial body of timber land. He died in 
Biloxi, Mississippi, June 17, 1932.8 

Ell Seven Cattle Company Founded, 1883 

After severing his connection with Swan Brothers on 
January 6, 1880,^ William Swan apparently operated inde- 
pendently until the founding of the Ell Seven Cattle Company 
in the Fall of 1883.'° According to the certificate the pur- 
poses of the company were: 

". . . The buying, selling, grazing and breeding of live stock in 
the Territory of Wyoming and in the other States and Territories 
of the United States, as the successful prosecution of the busi- 
ness may require, and also to hold, purchase, sell and convey 
real estate, ranches, ranges, water-rights and privileges in the 
Territory of Wyoming, and in other States and Territories of 
the United States as may be necessary or conducive to the in- 
terests of the said company; also to acquire by purchase or other- 
wise any interest in the capital stock or other property of other 
corporations having like objects with this corporation; also to 
purchase, sell, ship export and import and otherwise dispose of 
dead meats or any of the products of manufacturers of live 
stock; also to establish a butcher shop or shops, or any other 
manufacturing establishment for the purpose of handling in any 
form any of the products of live stock and to operate and con- 
duct the same . . ." 

Capital stock of the company was placed at one million 
dollars, consisting of ten thousand shares of a par value 
of one hundred dollars each. In addition to Swan, John 
Cudahy, one of the noted organizers of the Cudahy Pack- 
ing Company; George Adams, Wyoming cattleman; Emmet 
C. Green, Chicago stockman; William W. Corlett, Chey- 
enne attorney, were listed as trustees of the new company. 
The official headquarters of the Ell Seven Cattle Co^npany 

8. Biographical material supplied by Mr. Henry Swan, Denver, 
Colorado, from family records. He is the son of W. F. Swan. 

9. Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 8, 1880, 4:3. 

10. While the "Certificate of Incorporation" was not notarized 
until March 7, 1884, it would appear from Swan's official report in 
1885 that the company operations actually began on September 
]. 1883. 


was established at Cheyenne, although it was stipulated 
in the certificate of incorporation that, "A part of the 
business of the said Company is to be carried on outside 
of the Territory of Wyoming, to wit : in the City of Chicago 
in the State of Illinois."" 

One year after its founding the company paid a 12 
per cent dividend on $530,100 in paid up stock — 6 per cent 
in cash and 6 per cent in stock. The annual report of 
January 1, 1885, ^^ summarizing activities of the company 
from September 1, 1883, showed: 

Total sales $96,851.02 

Total expenses 29,321.34 

Total net proceeds $67,529.68 

Reinvested in cattle $31,199.10 

Cash dividend paid 31,812.00 63,011.10 

Cash on hand $ 4,518.58 

No other annual reports or summaries have been found 
for the period subsequent to 1885. Emmet Green, who 
also served as manager until 1888, severed his connection 
with the L7 in that year.^^ Thg remaining members of 
the company, Adams, Corlett, Cudahy and Swan continued 
their association until the company ceased operations in 

Snake River Cattle Company 

On October 13, 1883, Swan filed articles of incorpora- 
tion in Cheyenne for the Snake River Cattle Company. Capital 
was placed at $200,000 and was divided into two thousand 
shares of a par value of one hundred dollars each. Accord- 
ing to the certificate the company was to engage in stock 
growing within Laramie County and was to maintain of- 
fices at Cheyenne, Denver and Chicago. Named as trustees 
of the new company were George Adams, Emmet C. Green, 
George Baggs, former New Mexico rancher, W. F. Swan, 
and Samuel Rosendale, Wyoming stockman and broker. '"* 
Unfortunately additional records of this company have not 
been found. It is also apparent from official county records 
that Swan's later activities on the Snake were under the 

11. Corporation Record No. 19. Laramie County, Wyoming, pp. 

12. William F. Swan, "Report L7 Cattle Co. Jan. 1, 85." Hand- 
written original in possession of Henry Swan, Denver, Colorado. 

13. Carbon County Journal. October 12, 1889. 

14. Cheyenne Daily Leader, October 16, 1883, 4:1. 




Top to bottom: L7 Lake Creek Headquarters; Cow Creek Ranch "71", 

Foreman John Wilcox on horse, L7 prize bulls; L7 Headquarters 

at Baggs, Wyoming; remains of L7 bunk on Snake River vVinter 

Ranch, "Maggie's Nipple" in background. 


auspices of the Ell Seven Cattle Company rather than the 

Snake River Cattle Company. ' ^ 

The Ranches 


In February of 1882 WiUiam F. Swan, whose legal 
address was given as "Fort Steele, "^^ purchased for $30,000 
the so-called "Hat Ranch" from the Jones and Hawley Cattle 
Company.^'' Headquarters of the outfit was in the North 
Platte Valley on Pass Creek, near the base of Elk Moun- 
tain, about twenty-four miles from Saratoga, Wyoming. 
As in so many other instances, this purchase carried no 
land title of any description, as the ranch was then located 
on public domain. Swan merely purchased the improve- 
ments, a small log cabin, and the hat " n " brand which 
went with the herd. 

With the development of the ranch several new, small, 
dirt-roofed, log buildings, including a log barn and horse 
corral, were constructed under the direction of Foreman 
Johnny Wilcox. In the bunkhouse the men slept on wooden 
bunks, although there were a few bedsteads made out of 
boards or poles. Slough grass was used as padding for 
mattresses. The usual cowpuncher's bed was his own 
blankets or quilts and a tarpaulin. Almost all the furni- 
ture used in the buildings was homemade. Wood for 
buildings, furniture and fuel was cut in the nearby wood- 
lands where there was plenty of pine, cedar and aspen, 
as well as cottonwoods in the bottoms. Coal oil and candles 
furnished light at night. The only fence on the ranch 
was that around the hay meadow near the headquarters, 
where from five to seven tons of hay were cut annually. '^ 

From a headgate on the Hat Creek, a mile-long ditch 
— "Hat Ditch" — was constructed during 1883 and the 

15. County tax records: Routt County, Colorado; Carbon Coun- 
ty, Wyoming. See chart, pp. 23 and 24. 

16. Assessment Record, Carbon County. 1882. (Unpaged). 

17. Brand Record (original, not numbered, lettered, or paged). 
County Clerk's basement vault, Courthouse, Rawlins, Wyoming; A. D. 
Jones, partner of ex-sheriff William Hawley, resided in London, 
England, Carbon County Journal, May 29, 1880; "Consideration 
thirty thousand dollars, the location of the range was selected some 
years ago, and is considered one of the best in Carbon County." 
Carbon County Journal, February 11, 1882. 

18. Charles W. Neiman, "Recollections," p. 2, (cited hereafter 
as Neiman); Mrs. John Wilcox, "Brief Sketch of the Life of John 
Wilcox, L7 Foreman," p. 1, (hereafter cited as Wilcox). 


water appropriated for use at the headquarters and for 
irrigation of a small hay lot.'^ As this water was insuf- 
ficient and too uncertain, a second ditch — "Hat Ditch No. 
2" — was constructed in October of 1883, and the waters 
of Pass Creek were carried one mile from the headgate 
to the headquarters. 2o 

Improvements on the ranch during 1883 increased 
the value of the property from five hundred to fifteen 
hundred dollars, and the County Assessor recorded that 
the ranch possessed two carriages or wagons worth fifty 
dollars each. As yet, however, the official name of the 
company was still that of its owner, "W. F. Swan," and 
his official residence had now been changed from Fort 
Steele to Cheyenne. 2' 

In the fall of 1883 Swan and his associates incorpor- 
ated the ^^T' Seven Cattle Comjmny, and Emmet C. Green be- 
came manager for the company. By the end of the year 
Manager Green and Foreman "Johnny" Wilcox had built 
the second largest outfit in the area — ^being surpassed 

only by the Swan Land and Cattle Company, the latter owned 
by the uncles of William F. Swan. 22 

Water, always a problem to the Wyoming ranchers, 
again troubled the L7 in 1885. During November, Fore- 
man Wilcox directed the construction of a third ditch — 
"The Swan Ditch" — the three-mile narrow channel of 
which tapped the waters of Pass Creek. 23 Swan recorded 
his water right claims to the three ditches, "Hat Ditch," 
"Hat Ditch No. 2," and the "Swan Ditch" in November 

Although Swan had occupied the "Hat Ranch" since 
its purchase from Jones and Hawley in February 1881, 
no title to the property had ever been issued by the fed- 
eral government. In the fall of 1886, Swan appeared at 
the office of the Registrar of the General Land Office 
at Cheyenne and filed a desert claim to the land upon which 
the ranch and hay fields were located. On January 19, 
1887, a patent to part of section 10, township 19, "north 
of range 83," amounting to 560 acres, was issued and 
registered in the Recorder's Office of Carbon County. The 

19. Book "L," p. 9, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, V^yoming. 

20. Book "L," p. 8, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

21. Assessment Record, Carbon County, 1883. (Unpaged). 

22. Ibid. 

23. Book "L," p. 8, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

24. Ibid. pp. 8-9. 


original patent, or a recorded copy, has not been located, 
but a record of the patent can be located in the "Range 
Book" in the office of the County Clerk at Rawlins. Fol- 
lowing the disastrous winter of 1886-7 Swan decided to 
sell the Platte ranches and move his remaining stock to 
the Snake River ranges near Baggs. The patented portion 
of the "Hat Ranch" was sold to George Brenner for $2,500 
on October 19, 1888. ^s According to county records Bren- 
ner mortgaged the ranch to the EU Seven Cattle Company 

ten days later, October 29, 1888, for $1,900.^6 Of interest 
is the fact that, according to the official records, this 
mortgage was never paid off or released and therefore 
constitutes a cloud on the present title of the property. ^^ 

A second patent for the "Hat Ranch" holdings, issued 
to William F. Swan, was signed by President Benjamin 
Harrison on March 20, 1889, and granted a title to 560 
acres described as " . . . the East half: the North West 
quarter, and the North half of the South West quarter of 
Section ten in township nineteen. North of range Eighty 
Three, West of the Sixth Principal Meridian, in Wyoming 
Territory . . ."^s This tract was also sold to George Bren- 
ner for an unspecified amount, on January 18, 1890.2 9 

cow CREEK RANCH, "71" 

In 1884, Swan purchased the improvements on a small 
tract of land along Cow Creek, between Encampment and 
Saratoga. This ranch subsequently became known as the 
"71" ranch. There is some doubt as to the title to this 
property. According to county records no formal owner- 
ship existed until a patent was issued in the 'nineties — 
some years after Swan had moved to the Baggs ranch on 
the Snake. Mrs. John Wilcox, wife of the L7 foreman 
and a contemporary owner of a ranch below the "71", 
states that the ranch was obtained in 1884 from Grout 
and Lee, Eli Lee — one of the partners — remaining with 
the L7 as foreman of the Cow Creek place under "Johnny" 
Wilcox.3o Henry P. "Doc" Culleton, also a contemporary, 
agrees with Mrs. Wilcox as to the date, but is certain that 
"Will" Swan purchased the place from Lang and Ryan, 

25. Book "R," p. 31, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

26. Range Book, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

27. Miss Ruth Petersen, Deputy County Clerk, Rawlins, Wyo- 

28. Book "W," p. 268, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

29. Book "26," p. 38, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

30. Wilcox, p. 2. 


whose stock Swan had bought in 1881 when they were 
ranging on the Cow Creek property. 3' 

From all available accounts this ranch was used by 
Swan to produce hay, and for late fall and winter pasture. 
A log house and corral had been constructed by 1886. It 
was on this property that "Will" Swan kept a number of 
fine registered bulls which attracted the admiration of the 
neighboring stockmen. 

The Cow Creek ranch was sold by Swan in 1888 to 
"Bob" Pilson, jovial 350-pound cattleman. ^^ Swan had no 
title to the land and therefore the sale included only the 
improvements. This ranch was later acquired by Ed 
Sears who obtained a patent to the land,^^ and was later 
purchased by its present owner "Andy" Anderson, who 
combined the property with his own adjoining "A-Bar-A" 
ranch. A brush fire along the creek destroyed the L7 
log cabin and other structures several years ago.^^ 


Below Saratoga some four and one-half miles on Lake 
Creek, and a half mile above the United States fish hatch- 
ery, is the Lake Creek Ranch, principal headquarters for 
the L7 Cattle Company from 1886 to 1888. "Will" Swan 
bought this property from Fred Wolf in 1884, and within 
a few weeks Foreman Wilcox had constructed the most 
elaborate of the several L7 ranch headquarters. ^^ It was 
at this ranch that Swan, Green, and Wilcox entertained 
eastern visitors. The L7 occupied the Lake Creek Ranch 
until 1888, when the headquarters and livestock were 
transferred to the Baggs ranches on the Snake. 

In the late summer of 1888 the Lake Creek property, 
which was still part of the public domain as no patent had 
been issued by the federal government, was sold to Fred 
Geddes, Platte Valley stockman. ^^ The old bunkhouse, 
part of the original corral and the headquarters building, 
the latter completely renovated, are still intact and oc- 

31. Interview with Henry P. "Doc" Culleton, July 24, 1942. 

32. Ibid. 

33. Wilcox, p. 2; the Wilcoxs' purchased an adjoining ranch on 
Cow Creek. 

34. Interview, A-Bar-A foreman, July 24, 1942. 

35. Carbon County Journal, July 26, 1884. The sale included 
the Wolf cattle; the Journal mistakenly credited the purchase to the 
Swan Land and Cattle Company instead of to W. F. Swan, a fre- 
quent but understandable error. 

36. Carbon County Journal, August 11, 1888. 


cupied.3^ At present the ranch is operated by the Newman 
family but the property is owned by the Thomas Cook 
estate. 3 3 


VSometime early in 1880 George Baggs, a New Mexico 
cattle rancher, entered the Snake River valley with a small 
trail herd and established a ranch and headquarters at 
the partially deserted community of "Old Dixon." The 
settlement soon became known as Baggs, Wyoming. ^ 9 
Baggs was quite successful and his herd soon numbered 
(officially) around fifteen hundred head of cattle. '*° Dur- 
ing the summer and fall the cattle pastured near the head- 
quarters, ranging on the plateaus bordering the Snake. 
In winter the stock was driven to a range forty-two miles 
south of Baggs on the Snake River in Colorado. 

Domestic difficulties beset Baggs in 1882, and the fol- 
lowihg year he sold the ranch improvements for some- 
thing around $350 to the Eii Seven Cattle Company and re- 
turned to New Mexico.^' Although Baggs had filed a 
desert claim to his headquarters ranch and to that in 
Colorado used as a winter ranch, the government disallowed 
his claim, and no title to the land passed from Baggs to 
"Will" Swan or the Ell Seven Cattle Company. 

The Snake River headquarters was considerably more 
improved than the Platte River outfit. Baggs, the former 
owner, had been a hospitable individual, putting up all 
who passed the ranch and desired a night's lodging. The 
buildings at Baggs were built of logs with dirt roofs. 
"Store furniture" purchased at Rawlins gave the Baggs 
headquarters a comfortable and prosperous appearance. 
A Concord stage coach, drawn by from four to six horses, 
brought daily mail to Baggs from the railroad at Rawlins. 
There was little if any fencing on the Snake River when 
the L7 bought the Baggs ranch. According to Foreman 
Charles Neiman, in 1884 there were only two corrals on 
the entire Snake and Bear River ranges. 

37. Identified as the original structures by Mrs. Johnny vVilcox. 
for whom the house was built and who lived on the Lake Creek 
ranch with her foreman-husband from 1884-1888. 

38. Interview with Mrs. Newman, July 24, 1942. 

39. H. F. Burch, "The L7 at Baggs, Wyoming," p. 1. (Here- 
after cited as Burch). 

40. Tax Assessment Roll, 1883-1887. p. 1, Routt County, Colo- 

41. M. Wilson Rankin, Reminiscences of Frontier Days. p. 120. 



At the winter ranch located on the Snake some forty 
miles south of Baggs, and practically at the foot of "Mag- 
gie's Nipple," there was a small log building which served 
as both bunkhouse and storehouse. This building was ac- 
tually two small log cabins connected by a middle addition 
which served as the storeroom, thus making a three room 
building. Each room was about twelve by fourteen feet 
and had a puncheon floor. Only one entrance was pro- 
vided, and this was by a door in the center of the store- 
room, doorways from the other rooms opening only into 
this storeroom. In the room on the northeast there was 
one window facing northwest toward the "Nipple." The 
cook stove stood against the southeast part of the room, 
and a cupboard was built into the end of the room. The 
southwestern room contained two windows, one at the end 
of the room and the other facing toward the "Nipple." 
This was the bunkroom and had a bunk in the west corner. 
A fireplace was constructed into the south wall. 








' / 






on — T^r ^^x 

^^CaoK jrsvi 

I Bunk ij. 



\ llxoow^^ 

After Baggs met "Maggie," a dancer in a Chicago 
dance hall, he brought her out to Wyoming. Maggie rode 
everywhere with her "husband" and soon visited the lower 
or winter ranch where the cabin described above was lo- 
cated. She thoroughly disliked the bare log walls of the 
cabin and soon set about papering them. The only available 
paper was a number of copies of the "Police Gazette," 
brought from Chicago, and these soon covered the room in 


which the fireplace was located. The somewhat lurid pic- 
tures adorning the walls were enjoyed by both the cowboys 
and the Indians — the latter visited the place frequently. 
The Indians, however, were interested almost entirely in 
those picture showing horses, horse races and hunts. 
Maggie Baggs also had a large flagstone laid in front of 
the cabin entrance to try to keep the mud and dirt from 

The storeroom was used to good advantage to store 
food for winter and enough to carry through the spring 
roundup. The freight teams didn't work in winter and 
therefore it was necessary to "lay in" sufficient supplies 
for from three to four months. 

Provisions, usually purchased at the general store 
of Hugus and Company, were freighted from Rawlins to 
Baggs and the "winter camp." Sufficient provisions were 
bought in the fall after the cattle were shipped to last 
until the following fall. )The foreman was responsible for 
purchasing the supplies. Food was basic on the ranch 
and the menu was very regular. Major supplies purchased 
included flour in hundred-pound sacks — the sacks v/ere 
very useful on the ranch; thick slab salt side bacon — 
cooked for lard as well as meat; sacks of white (navy) 
beans ; canned corn and tomatoes ; twenty-five pound boxes 
of dried peaches; apples; apricots; prunes and large cans 
of baking powder. Coffee was purchased in whole bean 
form and came in large sacks. The principal brands of 
coffee used on the L7 were Arbuckle's and Lion's. The 
beans were ground in special coffee grinders, one of which 
was always fastened to the side of the grub wagon. ^^ 

Just north of the Snake River crossing at Baggs, on 
the west side of the present Rawlins highway, is the lo- 
cation of the old Baggs and L7 ranch headquarters. Onlv 
one building remains, and, unfortunately, it too is rapidly 
disintegrating. On the o!d winter ranch south of Baggs 
no visible reminder of the L7 bunkhouse remains. Ac- 
cording to legend a hewn-log cabin standing on the east 
bank of the Snake, about a quarter of a mile below the 
site of the old L7 winter headquarters, is part of the old 
bunkhouse. It was supposedly moved to its present site 
by a "sheepherders outfit" in 1920 or 1921.4 3 

42. Neinian, pp. 3-5, 11. 

43. Interview with J. Toole. Baggs, W^yoming, July 22, 1942. 
Mr. Toole guided me over the former L7 property. A close examina- 
tion of this deserted cabin leads me to question seriously the ac- 
curacy of the story. 


The severe winter of 1889 was disastrous to the L7. 
Approximately seventy-five per cent of the herd died in 
the snow on the Snake River range. Swan managed to 
remain in business, however, but the "L7" never fully re- 
covered from this setback.^^ In 1895, with only 450 cattle 
reported on the ranch. Swan sold his interests in the 
"L7."^5 The headquarters ranch at Baggs was sold to 
"Bob" Temple for less than four hundred dollars, and the 
winter ranch south of Baggs, in Colorado, was sold for 
a reported $150 to Charles E. Ayer.'^^ 

As was the case in the Platte River valley ranches, 
except for the "Hat Ranch" after 1887, the Swan title to 
the Baggs property in Wyoming and Colorado was nebu- 
lous. Baggs, having no title to the land, could sell only 
the irnprovements, and possibly his "squatter's rights." 
Though the government turned down his early desert 
claim filings, ^^ a patent was issued on March 31, 1888, 
in the name of George Baggs, to the winter ranch in Colo- 
rado, describing the property as 160 acres in Sec. 23, T. 
10, R. 96.^^ Since Baggs had sold his interest and de- 
parted in 1883, the patent was of dubious value, and was 
not recorded until April 5, 1906. ^^ 

"Bob" Temple "proved up" on the old headquarters 
property at Baggs and received a patent to the property 
from the United States. 5° The winter ranch, sold to 
Charles E. Ayer, has a more complicated record. Despite 
the "Baggs patent" of 1888, no legal ownership of this 
property, except as part of the public domain, was re- 
corded until 1906. Swan evidently sold Ayer the im- 
provements, as indicated by three factors: (1) No deed 
or other title instrument to the land bearing the name of 
Swan or Eii Seven Cattle Company was ever recorded in 
Routt or Moffatt Counties, Colorado, or Carbon County, 
Wyoming; (2) Ayer never claimed title through sale from 
Swan; (3) the plat and range records in the aforesaid 
counties show no settlement of title until 1906. 

44. See chart, p. 24. 

45. Assessment Roll, 1895. 

46. Burch, p. 2. Burch lived next to Temple and had intimate 
knowledge of the transaction. 

47. Ibid. 

48. Book "28," p. 371, Routt County; Book "G," p. 109, Moffatt 
County; described as EVs NE14, Ei/^ SE14. 

49. Ihid. 

50. Burch, p. 2; Range Book, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, 


There is little doubt, however, that Ayer claimed the 
use of the property. Probably because of the dubious char- 
acter of title under the 1888 Baggs patent, Ayer deter- 
mined to obtain title through a tax sa'e. Aware of the 
patent, though it had not been recorded, the Routt County 
Assessor put the property on the tax roll in 1901. Ayer 
failed to pay the taxes and the property was sold in 1906 
for the 1901 taxes. Ayer bought the property at the tax 
sale and obtained a Treasurer's tax deed on February 5, 
1906.5 1 On April 5, 1906, Ayer recorded the "Baggs patent" 
of 1888 and thus extinguished any cloud on the title that 
may have existed because of this instrument. ^^ a year 
later, July 6, 1907, Ayer sold the old "L7" winter ranch 

to the Willow Creek Land and Cattle Company. 

L7 Operations 


After the organization of the Ell Seven Cattle company, 
in 1883, "Will" Swan left the actual operation of the 
ranches to a manager and foreman. Emmet C. Green 
served as manager from 1883 to 1888, and Foreman John 
Wilcox ably operated the Platte ranches — "Hat Ranch," 
"Cow Creek Ranch," and "Lake Creek Ranch" — until the 
L7 combined its herds on the Snake River in 1888. Wilcox 
had been foreman for Sv/an previous to the incorporation 
of the Ell Seven Cattle Company. Charles Ivey was made 
foreman of the Snake River ranch after that property 
had been acquired from George Baggs in 1884. He served 
until 1888. The disaster of 1886-7, together with the 
withdrawal of Green, made necessary a complete reor- 
ganization of the L7. The Platte ranches were sold, and 
under a new manager, Mac Stewart, and a new foreman. 
Charles Neiman, the L7 continued to operate with all 
cattle combined on the Snake River Ranch. Both Stewart 
and Neiman served until 1890 when Dow Doty became 
manager and Kirk Calvert undertook the duties of fore- 
man. Doty served until the Company ceased its opera- 
tions in 1895, and, after Calvert resigned in 1891, con- 
tinued as both manager and foreman. 

"Cowpunchers" received forty dollars a month and 
their food, such lodging as was needed, their equipment — 
except for saddle, bridle, and bedroll — and their horses. 

51. Book "B," p. 547, certificate No. 7, Routt County, Colorado. 

52. Book "28," p. 371, Routt County, Colorado. 


Some men owned their own horses, but while at work used 
those belonging to the Company. A top-hand, and there 
was at least one in each outfit, received from fifty to 
sixty dollars a month. The foreman was paid from one 
hundred to one hundred twenty-five dollars per month 
and was responsible to the manager for the operations of 
the ranch and the execution of the owner's orders. 

The men wore blue-denim overalls and woolen shirts. 
Two-piece "Canton Flannel" underwear were worn in 
winter but were exchanged for cotton in summer. A 
"wind-breaker" coat and "Stetson" were as necessary to 
the cowboy as were his narrow-pointed, high-heeled boots. 
The latter were bought in Rawlins for five to six dollars 
a pair. Many punchers had their boots custom built at 
from $15.00 to $18.00 a pair, but one pair would last a 
whole year. Leather chaps were used in brush country 
and most riders were provided with a slicker for use in 
wet weather. Men from Texas, California, Idaho, Nevada, 
Oregon, Montana, a few from New York and other eastern 
states made up the personnel of the ranch. Occasionally 
a Mexican "puncher" would drift in with one of the Texas 
trail outfits. Several negroes became cowboys and, ac- 
cording to their foremen, they made better than ordinary 

After the cattle had been shipped in the fall, it was 
usual to discharge all but two or three men of the ten or 
twelve "punchers" in the outfit. The remaining men would 
take care of the herds during the winter and the discharged 
men would head for the cities to spend their money. After 
the money was gone — and it usually didn't take very long 
— many of the men worked the "grub-route." This con- 
sisted of going from ranch to ranch in the cattle country, 
stopping for a few days at one of the ranches and then 
moving on again. The cowboys were welcome to stop at 
any ranch and stay at long as they wanted — at least until 
time for the next spring roundup when they could again 
be placed on the payroll. It was not unusual for the men 
to remain at the ranch where they had been hired or to re- 
turn to it after they had disposed of their year's earnings. ^^ 


During 1881, on Oregon trail herd of about four 
thousand head of short horned cattle, belonging to Lang 
and Ryan, and road branded "L," entered southern Wyo- 

53. Neiman, p. 8-9, 13. 


ming. "Will" Swan purchased the entire herd, and, after 
taking possession at Rock Creek, rebranded the cattle 
by reversing the Lang and Ryan branding iron which 
thereby added a "7" to the road brand and created the 
«L7 "54 The new brand was registered with the County 
Clerk at Rawlins on August 5, 1881.5 5 By the end of 1881 
Swan was credited with owning twenty-five horses and 
four thousand head of "Neat Cattle" with an assessed 
valuation of $61,250.5 6 

After the organization of the Ell Seven Cattle Company 

the herds grew so rapidly that official records showed the 
company to be the second largest in Carbon County, with 
two hundred horses and 5,200 cattle valued at $111,650.57 
The L7 herds were increased by the purchase of trail herds, 
buying out smaller out-fits, and by encouraging large calf 
crops. One of the largest recorded purchases occurred in 
April 1884, when Swan bought for $40,000, ^s the entire 
herd belonging to Jay Pettibone. In his annual report on 
January 1, 1885, "Will" Swan made an official report to 
his co-partners showing all livestock on the LT:^^ 

"Cattle on Hand: 

9,041 cows 

1,667 heifers 2 years old 

1,519 heifers 1 year old ^^^^ ^^.^^^ 1884 = 3038 

1,519 steers 1 year old 
1,670 steers 2 years old 
3,614 steers 3 years old and up 
324 bulls 

19,354 cattle 
345 horses 

Total 19,699" 

Some idea of the annual fluctuation in the number of 
livestock owned by the L7 on the Platte ranches can be 

54. Information supplied by Henry Swan from recoi'ds oi W. F. 
Swan; Monte Blevins, "Recollections of the L7," p. 3. 

55. Brand Record (original, not numbered, lettered or paged), 
County Clerk's basement vault. Courthouse, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

56. Assessment Record, 1881, Carbon, County, 

57. Assessment Record, 1883, Carbon County. 

58. Carbon County Journal, October 12, 1889; April 26, 1884. 

59. William F. Swan, "Report L7 Cattle Co. January 1 , 85." 


obtained by referring to the chart showing yearly assess- 
ment in Carbon County. ^° 

Cattle ranching was subject to frequent losses oc- 
casioned by unseasonable or severe weather. A long dry 
spell necessitated winter feeding, consequently increas- 
ing the costs of production and cutting heavily into profits. 
The dry summer and fall of 1886-1887, combined with a 
record cold spell, hit the upper North Platte valley stock- 
men almost as severely as it did the ranchers in the rest 
of Wyoming. Stockmen were forced to buy large quan- 
tities of feed for their rapidly weakening herds which in 
many places were existing by browsing on willows and 
sage brush. 6 1 Early in February, Manager Emmet Green 
purchased one hundred tons of hay in an endeavor to 
save part of the L7 stock. ^ 2 The company went into the win- 
ter of 1886-7 with a recorded count of 6,300 head of cattle. 
The spring roundup in 1887 showed only 2,851 head on 
the L7 ranges. 6 3 This catastrophe led to the decision to 
combine all the L7 herds on the Snake River property, 
south of Baggs, where the severe effects of the winter had 
not been felt. The Saratoga correspondent of the carbon 
County Journal reported on July 13, 1887: 

"The roundup is over and the cattle men nave disbanded and 
gone home. From the most reUable sources we learn that the 
loss has been far greater than anyone anticipated — just hovi^ 
much no one can tell exactly. But it is fair to say that many 
men would be happy if they could gather 50 per cent . . ."64 

60. Caution must be used in analyzing the official county rec- 
ords cited in this report. Assessment figures on the number of stock 
on a ranch in any given year are subject to challenge as the report 
from which such figures were obtained was made by the owner of 
the stock and more often than not was a decided understatement. 
As a matter of record it should be pointed out that the ranchers — 
except in unusual cases — seldom knew exactly how many head of 
stock they possessed. The assessors certainly had neither the time 
nor money to count personally the stock on each ranch. In addition, 
it was the general practice of county officials of the day deliberately 
to understate the number of stock in order that winter losses and 
normal "depreciation" would be taken into consideration. It should 
also be noted that while some returns were made before the annual 
shipment to market others were made after shipment. I should 
venture to guess that the actual figures would have oeen from 15% 
to 25'^/r greater than those shown, but I confess that this is based 
upon the most flimsy evidence. For example compare the 1885 
report above quoted with the assessment record for 1885, chart p. 23. 

61. Carbon Countij Journal, March 5, 1887; February 12, 1887. 

62. Ibid. February 16, 1887. 

6.3. Assessment Record, 1887 and 1888, Carbon County. 
64. Carbon County Journal, July 16, 1887. 

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Unfortunately the county records of both Colorado 
and Wyoming fail to reflect the increase in the Snake 
River cattle after the combining of the L7 Platte River 
herds with those on the Snake. According to the Carbon 
County, Wyoming, records there were 2,851 head of stock 
on the Platte ranches in 1888, which, accordingly, should 
have either shown on the Snake in 1889, less those shipped 
to market, or should have been added to the Routt County, 
Colorado, figures in that year.^^ The Wyoming records 
fail to show any L7 stock in 1889 and only one thousand 
head at Baggs in 1890. ^^ A glance at the Colorado record 
indicates that in 1887 the L7 had 3,075 head of cattle at 
the winter ranch, 2,801 head in 1888, 3,260 head in 1889, 
thus providing no evidence of the addition of the Wyo- 
ming herd.^^ 

One vital fact gleamed from the official records is 
the effect of the winter of 1889 upon the L7 cattle on the 
Snake River ranch. A drought had burned most of the 
forage by the end of July. Fall and winter feed became 
a serious problem. The range was heavily overstocked 
and the cattle grew steadily weak and thin.^s By February 
1, 1890, one correspondent reported, "More dead (cattle) 
are found on the ranges than ever before and the back- 
bone of the winter is not yet broken . . . Some stock- 
men predict that the loss will be as high as 50 per cent 
and extreme alarmists place the figure as high as 75 per 
cent."69 Almost one month later there was still no let 
up in the weather. From Dixon, a few miles from the L7 
Baggs ranch, it was reported on February 28 that the 
snow was anywhere from eighteen inches to five feet in 
depth and that the temperature that morning had been 
twenty-eight below zero. "Fine weather for the annihila- 
tion of stock. "7o The L7, according to official records, en- 
tered the winter with approximately 3,260 head of cattle 
on the winter range, south of Baggs, in northern Colorado, 
The loss was staggering. One neighbor referring to the 
effect of the winter on the L7 stock commented : 

65. Assess7nents, 1888, 1889, Carbon County. 

66. Ibid. 1890. 

67. Assessment Roll, 1887, 1888, 1889, Routt County, Colorado; 
Neiman, p. 7. 

68. Neiman, p. 16. 

69. Carbon Connty Journal, February 1, 1890. 

70. Ibid. March 8, 1890. 


"The loss of L7 cattle . . . has been large, but they were 
half starved and in a dying condition when they were turned 
loose on the range south of town, and the wonder is not that 
so many of them died, but that any of them are alive. "7 1 

In the Spring of 1890 the L7 was officially reported 
to have only three hundred head of stock left at the winter 
ranch, and one thousand head in Wyoming. Thus, out of 
officially 3,260 head in 1889, the L7 was able to count 
only 1,300 head after the ruinous winter.'^^ 

"Charley" Neiman was foreman of the L7 during the 
disaster of 1889-90, and had charge of executing the 
emergency drive which was designed to save part of the 
herd. His description of the episode gives further evi- 
dence of the hazards of cattle raising as well as the need 
for competent judgment and immediate action on the part 
of the cattleman: 

"The winter of 1889 was one of the hardest in the history 
of the West. The range was heavily overstocked with from 
twelve to fifteen thousand head of stock in each of the three 
largest outfits — the L7, the Ora Haley ranch, and the Leaven- 
worth Cattle Company — and a number of smaller outfits had 
about one thousand head each. The cattle became thin and 
weak. A number of cattle men decided to drive the stock to 
the Red Desert country north of Rawlins. But the decision 
to undertake this program was made by manager Stewart who 
acted too late. It was the middle of November before the order 
to drive was given. Wilson Rankin, foreman of the Haley out- 
fit, was the first to start. He drove from the Snake River, 
pushing the cattle ahead as far as he could each day and then 
turning them loose. The stragglers and drifters were enormous. 
It sometimes took until two in the afternoon for the men to 
get the cattle bunched again in order to continue the drive. 
Rankin averaged only three miles a day. I went next with 
the L7 cattle — the Leavenworth Cattle Company was not in 
favor of the drive but they did send two men with me. I drove 
the Snake River bottom northward. By the time I had reached 
Baggs, some forty-four miles north — I had ten thousand bawling 
cattle ,many weak and in no condition to travel, and many with 
calves. Drifters and stragglers were numerous. The day before 
Christmas, somewhere between thirty and forty miles north 
of Rawlins toward the Red Desert, I turned the cattle loose. 
They just couldn't go any further. Many died on the drive. 
Many were too weak to complete the trip and dropped back. 
Many died after we had arrived at our destination. It was 
the worst slaughter I had ever seen. That summer we had 
branded between 3,500 and four thousand head of calves; the 
following spring only 174 or 175 calves were branded. I checked 
this with Stewart myself. The loss of cattle during the winter 
of 1889 was estimated at 75%! We also lost about two-thirds 
of the saddle horses. "7 3 

71. Ihid. April 19, 1890. 

72. Assessment Roll, 1888, 1889, Routt County, Colorado. 

73. Neiman, p. 16-17. 


In two disastrous winters — the first on the Platte in 
1886-7, and the second on the Snake in 1889-90— the L7 
had been virtually "wiped out." Failure of the grass on 
the range to return to its former condition,^-* combined 
with low cattle prices and the inability to recoup losses 
sustained, caused the company to go out of business in 


The annual Spring and Fall roundups climaxed the 
year's activities for management and personnel alike. In 
the Spring the stock was gathered for branding while in 
the Fall the purpose of the roundup was chiefly to "cut 
out" the stock to be shipped to market. Each roundup 
was a cooperative affair joined in by all ranches using the 
range upon which the roundup was to be held. Annually, 
at an early meeting of the Stock Growers Association the 
roundups were planned for each range, a roundup foreman 
or captain chosen and the dates for beginning the roundups 
selected. All owners, foremen and riders were bound to 
obey the orders of the roundup foreman, and his decisions 
were final. At the stock growers meeting held at Warm 
Springs (Saratoga) March 29, 1881, the ranchers agreed, 
"That we follow the directions of the captain, and any 
person refusing to obey such orders be excluded from all 
privileges of the Round-Up."^^ John Wilcox, efficient fore- 
man of the L7 for its incorporation until 1888, was regu- 
larly chosen roundup foreman for the area in which the 
L7 stock ranged.^ s At various times one roundup crew 
would join with that engaged in working an adjoining area 
and thus provide complete coverage of the range for hun- 
dreds of miles in all directions. An excellent example of 
this practice occurred in 1884, when "Roundup No. 25," 
covering the area which included part of the L7 range, 
met at Fort Steele, and after working part of the assigned 
territory joined forces with "Roundup No. 26" for several 
days and worked a peripheral area; after completing this 
part of the range "No. 25" left "No. 26" and continued to 
work its assigned range alone until it joined forces with 
"No. 7" to work a second peripheral territory. ^^ 

74. Carbon County Journal, February 18, 1893, and Februarj' 
3, 1894. 

75. Carbon County Journal, April 2, 1881. 

76. Ibid. April 7, 1883; April 11, 1885; April 17, 1886; April 
16, 1887. 

77. Ibid. January 5, 1884. 



The Spring roundup started soon ofter the first of 
May, after the cattle had shed their winter hair and their 
brands could be easily read, and after the horses had 
"fleshed up" so they could be ridden. Essential parts of 
the outfit on every roundup were the grub wagon and bed 
wagon. The latter held the bed rolls and all extra equip- 
ment needed on the roundup. The "cavvy," which, on the 
L7 usually consisted of around one hundred and twenty- 
five horses, eight or nine mounts to a man, was driven to 
camp before breakfast by the horse wrangler. Two ropes 
tied to the wagon and held at an angle formed a tem- 
porary corral in which the horses were held until after 
breakfast when the men would drop their ropes over the 
heads of the horses they were going to ride. The various 
outfits taking part in the roundup camped a quarter to 
half a mile apart in order that the horses would not be- 
come mixed. The foreman of the various outfits would 
gather with the roundup captain in the evening and lay 
out the work for the following day. All the outfits would 
gather after breakfast and the roundup foreman would 
assign the tasks and the men would scatter to their ap- 
pointed jobs. Dinner and supper came at irr'egular inter- 
vals, whenever the job was finished or such portion of it 
that the men could leave without holding up the work. 
Some would eat lunch at eleven in the morning, while others 
would only be able to stop work at two, or even three, in 
the afternoon. Frequently cattle had to be held in a herd 
at night, and this necessitated night riding, two men in 
four shifts. The L7 outfit on roundup usually consisted 
of eight or ten "cowpunchers," a cook, day and night horse 
wranglers and three or four "reps." The "reps," or rep- 
resentatives, were men from other ranches whose cattle 
were ranged near enough to become mixed with L7 stock. 
During the roundup period each ranch would send "reps" 
to the other nearby roundups to be on the lookout for their 
stray stock. These men also helped in the roundup and 
thus augmented the regular men. 

On roundup the men had only one regular meal, 
breakfast, which was eaten just before dawn. The cook 
arose at 3:30 A. M. and prepared breakfast. Just before 
retiring he would grind the coffee beans and place the 
coffee in a large well-dented and brown-stained pot. When 
he arose the pot was hung over the fire. The men liked 
their coffee hot — and strong. It was the general practice 
on roundup to add just a few fresh grounds to the al- 
ready cooked ones and reheat the pot. In dutch ovens 


and iron kettles suspended from hooks attached to the 
pot rack, salt-side and corn, tomatoes and beans were 
cooked. The meals were served in tin plates and tin cups. 
Cold biscuits and jam completed the meal. Biscuits were 
almost always served cold. There was a good reason. 
Hungry men could devour hot biscuits by the dozens, and 
the time necessary to provide such quantities was pro- 
hibitive. After the men were gone from camp the cook 
usually prepared baking powder biscuits by the "bushel." 
These were kept in a large tin and served cold at meals. 
When the supply ran low a new batch was baked. Be- 
sides the cook, one other man, the horsewrangler, was 
kept at camp. It was part of his job to provide the wood 
for the cook's fire. 

The chief work of the roundup was to gather into 
herds all the cattle that could be found. This necessitated 
riding all hills, valleys, arroyos and "draws," box canyons, 
stream beds and the level range. Once the cattle were 
rounded up the real work began. Each outfit would "cut 
out" from the herd the stock bearing its brand. Calves 
were credited to the brand carried by the mother cow, 
and were branded accordingly. All other unbranded stock 
were promptly branded by the outfit to which they be- 
longed. Mavericks, calves or other stock of unknown 
ownership were branded with an "M" on the left jaw and 
later sold for the benefit of the Stock Association. 

Some variation of this method arose on the Snake 
River ranches. On the Snake and Bear Rivers, upon and 
between which the L7 cattle grazed, there were three large 

outfits, the L7, the Leavenworth Cattle Company (pot hook 

brand "IP" ), J. B. Insley, manager and the Ora Haley Cat- 
tle Company (two-bar brand on right hip). These three 
ranches divided and controlled the vast range — almost 
all of which was part of the public domain. The L7 home 
range was on the lower Snake River; that of the Leaven- 
worth outfit was in the upper Snake country ; Haley's range 
was in the Bear River country. Between the three large 
outfits and a number of smaller ranchers the range was 
efficiently controlled. This division of the range was one 
of convenience as actually the stock of the three large 
ranches roamed at will and became quite thoroughly mixed. 
The theoretical division, however, operated during the 
joint spring roundup, as the manager of that portion of 
the range upon which the roundup was held was also 
the manager of the roundup, and his outfit received all 


mavericks found at the roundup. Thus when the roundup 
was on the L7 portion of the range, the L7 foreman was 
in charge of all the men from the other ranches as well 
as those from his own, and the L7 took all mavericks 
found at the roundup. The same circumstances held 
when the roundup was on the Haley or Leavenworth por- 
tions of the range. 

It is interesting to note the comparison between this 
system and that on the Platte ranches described above. 
The three major ranches were opposed to stock associa- 
tions. Haley especially opposed the extension of the strong 
and powerful stock association of Wyoming. Under the 
association all mavericks found at the spring roundup 
were "jaw-branded" and then sold to the highest bidder. 
During the winter small ranchers took all the mavericks 
they could find. This system naturally led to rustling 
and numerous cattle wars. The strange thing about this 
was that the rustlers would steal from the association 
members and not harm the herds of non-association mem- 
bers living in the same area."^^ 


On July 21, 1884, Swan reregistered all of his brands 
in the name of his recently incorporated eu Seven Cattle 
Company. In his certificate Swan stated that he owned ten 
brands, and County Recorder D. H. Hughes drew into the 
official county brand records a sketch of each.^^ 


On October 14, 1884, a new brand, the "Keystone" — ^7 

— was registered as having been purchased by the 
Ell Seven Cattle Company from M. Quealy.s° 

It is possible to trace the origin and evolution of 
some of these brands, although the record of their trans- 
fer or purchase by Swan is not complete. 

With the purchase of the Hawley and Jones "Hat 

78. Information for this section was obtained chiefly from the 
unpublished accounts of the surviving former L7 foreman, Charles 
Neiman and Dow Doty, and from Monte Blevins, who once rode 
for the L7. 

79. Brand Record (unnumbered, unlettered, unpaged). 

80. Ihid. 


Ranch" and herd in 1882, Swan obtained the "J^" hat 
brand. This brand was originally filed on September 11, 
1873, by S. Parkins, si and had been purchased from him 
by Hawley and Jones and refiled on February 23, 1878.^2 

The device "if " brand was originally adopted in 
Carbon County by W. T. Davis of Warm Springs (Sara- 
toga), who filed the brand on April 4, 1878. One year 
later, April 7, 1879, Davis transferred the brand to William 
Bangs. No record of the brand was found from that date 
until it was registered in 1884 by the ''L7."83 

The "21" brand, originally filed by Thomas Bird of 
Fort Stee'e on September 29, 1874, was transferred to 
C. F. Bean of Warm Springs (Saratoga), June 20, 1879.^4 

The keystone brand, filed by Swan in October 1884, 
was first registered in Carbon County on June 7, 1878, 
to John 

When Swan bought out Vansant and Mannhinney in 
1882 he took over their brand and on July 10 registered 
the brand "__J" v/ith the county clerk at Rawlins. 

Fisher and Her, owners of the s Mile Creek Cattle 
Company, were the first in the county to use the "two-bar," 
having recorded their mark on April 9, 1877. ^^ Their 
title, however, was short-lived. On January 5, 1878, H. 
W. Eaton recorded the brand and no protest was entered 
against it.8"7 

Oldest of the brands used by the EU Seven Cattle Company 

was the horseshoe, •• T / " • W. C. Bangs, at one time also 

owner of the device brand, recorded the horseshoe brand 
on May 22, 1874.88 

The L7 experienced the usual brand difficulties. News- 
paper accounts, court records and stock association cor- 
respondence show several incidents of wilful misbranding 
of stock on the L7 North Platte ranches. Major diffi- 
culties arose, however, on the Snake River ranges. A dis- 

81. Brand Record, "A," Carbon County, Wyoming, p. 23. 

82. Ibid. p. 44. 

83. Ibid. p. 62 

84. Ibid. pp. 10, 65. 

85. Ibid. p. 50. 

86. Ibid. p. 29. 

87. Ibid. p. 38. 

88. Ibid. p. 7. 


patch from Dixon on December 24, 1885, lanconically 
reported : 

"Trouble is brewing between the L7 and the Pot Hook out- 
fits, the. latter being" accused of wilful misbranding of grown 
cattle. Both outfits are wealthy and from reports in circulation 
there will soon be music in the air.' 89 

No further record of this difficulty has been located and 
it may be assumed that the "music" continued "sweet and 
low." A possible explanation of this incident, although 
no evidence is available to support the supposition, might 
possibly be found in the fact that an L7 foreman was 
found guilty of rustling and "running brands" within two 
years after the quoted report was printed. The "gentle- 
man" in question rightfully owned a small herd of about 
fifty head of stock, but within a short time turned up with 
several hundred head. Without the knowledge of Swan, 
or his manager, the culprit had filed two private brands, 

the - K^" (K face) and the "969." It will be noted that 
the L7 brand could easily be altered to form either or 
both of these two brands, the "K face" by adding only 
two "backs" and the "969" by simply altering the L7 and 
adding an altered "7" — converted into a "9" — ^before the 
regular brand. 

Lit. = L1 ^^ ■ L^ 

The guilty party was detected by the men under 
him. It had been noticed that he always carried a running 
iron, which was simply an iron ring, tied to his saddle, 
and that he made many unaccounted for and unaccom- 
panied rides over the L7 range. The services of this 
rustler were soon dispensed with and the gentleman handed 
over to the sheriff for trial. 3° 


Cattle were shipped to market in the Fall after the 
roundup. The stock was driven to the most convenient 
railroad yards, which varied from year to year, depending 
on grass conditions en route to the shipping point and 
the conditions existing at the yards. At various times 

89. Carbon County Journal. December 26. 1885. 

90. David Wilcox, p. 2. Wilcox was a rider for the L7 at the 
time and knew personally the details of the incident. 



L7 cattle were shipped from Rawlins, Fort Steele, and 
Medicine Bow. After 1888, a large part of the cattle 
were driven to Wolcott where they were shipped by the 
newly-constructed Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. Ship- 
ments were consigned to various commission agents at the 
markets where the sales were made. Cattle buyers sel- 
dom, if ever, visited the ranches during the 'eighties. L7 
cattle were usually consigned to Chicago, but if markets 
en route, Omaha and Kansas City, were good the commis- 
sion agents would take advantage of them, or, if poor, the 
cattle would continue to the midwestern market. ^^ 

It is somewhat difficult because of inadequate records 
to present a complete account of the annual purchases 
and shipments of cattle from the L7 ranches. Unfortun- 
ately only a scattered record of shipments from Rawlins 
has been preserved. This incomplete record, however, pre- 
sents some indication of the quantity of stock handled by 
Swan and his associates, and since most of the record is 
from 1888 to 1894, it constitutes chiefly a record of ac- 
tivities on the Snake River ranch. ^^ 


September 22, 1883 14 cars George Allen & Burke, Chicago 

August 27, 1887 16 cars 

October 21, 1891 18 cars Chicago 

October 22, 1891 2 trains Chicago 

September 20, 1892 35 cars 

September 16, 1893 12 cars Chicago 

October 28, 1893 34 cars South Omaha 

November 11, 1893 1800 head 

August 25, 1894 25 cars 

September 1, 1894 13 cars 

October 13, 1894 10 cars 

November 9, 1895 10 cars Kansas City-Chicago 

But few records are available giving the actual re- 
ceipts of the L7. The 1885 annual report of the Eii Seven 
Cattle Company, prepared by William Swan, summarizes re- 
ceipts for 1883 and 1884.^3 

91. Neiman, p. 15. 

92. Carbon County Journal, September 22, 1883; August 27, 
1887; October 22, 1891; September 10, 1892; September 16, 1893; 
October 28, 1893; November 11, 1893; August 25, 1894; September 
1, 1894; October 13, 1894; November 9, 1895. 

93. William F. Swan, "Report L7 Cattle Co. Jan. 1/85." 


'Sales in 1883 $30,876.00 

Sales in 1884 1092 steers 

175 cows 

28 bulls 

1295 cattle net $64,410.62 

42 horses net 1,564.40 


In 1887 and 1888, however, the market dropped, depsite 
the shortage of Wyoming cattle occasioned by the severe 
winter of 1886-1887, and a fat cow brought only fourteen 
or fifteen dollars. ^^ The quoted market value of southern 
Wyoming cattle in 1888 at Chicago was from $3.75 to $5.10 
per hundred pounds for "good, fat steers. "^^ During the 
fall of 1894, cattle sold at the Omaha market by Burke 
and Frazier brought from $2.95 to $3.80 per hundred 
pounds for common Wyoming steers averaging 1,287 
pounds, and $1.25 to $3.00 per hundred pounds for good 
cows of medium weight. ^^ 


The thousands of small ranchers who suffered drought 
and severe winter, prairie fire and disease, who fought 
for the best ranges and adequate water, who made one 
loan only in order to pay off another, and who annually 
competed for the best markets in Denver, Omaha, Kansas 
City and Chicago, laid the foundation upon which our 
present meat industry was founded. The western cattle 
industry of our day is the result of the effort of those 
pioneer ranchers who were willing to accept great risks 
in order to obtain profits which were, more often than 
not, far from what had been anticipated. Some of the more 
fortunate became wealthy while others, less fortunate 
failed. The great majority, however, managed just to 
make a living, but in so doing they contributed to the 
techniques and methods of modern cattle raising. Even 
those who failed contributed to the extent that they formed 
part of the over-all pattern of a major western industry. 

94. Neiman, p. 15. 

95. Carbon County Journal, September 15, 1888. 

96. Carbon County Journal, September 1, 1894. 


In this scheme of things Wilham Frankhn Swan earned 
himself a rightful and deserved place. ^^ 

Selected Bibliography 

A. Manuscripts: 

Charles Willis Neiman, "Recollections." Unpublished manu- 
script. 1942. 19 pp. 

Mrs. John Wilcox, "Brief Sketch of the Life of John Wilcox, 
L7 Foreman." Unpublished manuscript. 1942. 3 pp. 

Harry F. Burch, "The L7 at Baggs, Wyoming." Unpub- 
lished manuscript. 1942. 2 pp. 

Monte Blevins, "Recollections of the L7." Unpublished 
manuscript. 1942. 5 pp. 

Dow Doty, "Recollections." Unpublished manuscript. 1941. 
4 pp. 

David Wilcox, "The L7." Unpublished manuscript. 1942. 
2 pp. 

B. Official Records: 

Deed Record, Volume W, County Clerk's Office, Carbon 

County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Deed Record, Volume 28, County Clerk's Office, Routt 

County, Steamboat Springs, Colorado. 
"Reception Journal," Books, 4, 7, A, B, H, L, R, vV, County 

Clerk's Office, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Record, 1882, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Record, 1883, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Record, 1884, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Record, 1885, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessmeyit Record, 1886, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Record, 1887, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Record, 1888, Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Assessment Roll, 1883-1887, Routt County, Steamboat 

Springs, Colorado. 
Assess77i€nt Roll, 1888-1889, Routt County, Steamboat 

Springs, Colorado. 

97. The author acknowledges the assistance of Mrs. Agnes 
Wright Spring who made the newspaper transcripts from which the 
citations used in this article were taken; the aid given by Mr. David 
Grammer, Jr., while the author was surveying the records of Car- 
bon County at Rawlins is gratefully remembered; Miss Elizabeth 
Stafford, secretary to the writer, gave unstintingly of her time in 
typing the manuscript. Throughout the many interviews with 
pioneer stockmen and in the final preparation of the article my 
wife and assistant. Garnet M. Brayer, has labored long and con- 
tributed much to whatever success the article might attain. I am 
immeasurably indebted to Mr. Henry Swan of Denver, Colorado, 
who not only made possible the gathering of the material used in 
the article but also provided the author with the opportunity to 
explore personally those areas of Colorado and Wyoming on which 
the L7 cattle once ranged, fifty years ago. 


Assessment Roll, 1890- [1891], Routt County, Steamboat 

Springs, Colorado. 
Assessment Roll, 1892, Routt County, Steamboat Springs, 

Assessment Roll, 1893, Routt County, Steamboat Springs, 

Assessment Roll, 1894, Routt County, Steamboat Springs, 


Assessment Roll, 1895 Routt County, Steamboat Springs, 

Range Book, Carbon County, County Clerk's Office, Rawlins, 

"Cash Book," Guy Nichol's Store and Saloon, Swan, Wyo- 

Brand Record [unnumbered, unlettered, unpaged]. Carbon 
County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

Brand Record "A," Carbon County, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

C. Transcripts of Newspapers: 

Carbon County Journal, Volumes 1-16, 1879-1895. 
Cheyenne Daily Leader, 1875-1883. 
Cheyenne Daily Sun, 1877-1882. 

D. Family Records: 

In the possession of Mr. Henry Swan, Denver, Colorado, 
is a vast collection of papers gathered over many years and 
dealing not only with the life and work of his father, 
William F. Swan, but also with the cattle industry during 
the last decades of the nineteenth century. 

E. Published sources quoted or cited: 

John Clay, My Life on the Range. Lakeside Press, Chicago, 

Illinois. 1924. 366 pp. 
Wilson Rankin, Reminiscences of Frontier- Days. Smith 
Brooks, Denver, Colorado. 1938. 140 pp. 


Senator Clarence D. Clark was Wyoming's first rep- 
resentative in Congress, serving until March 1893? — 

(Beard, Wyoming from Territorial Days to tlxe Present, p. 515.) 

The first smelter in the State was opened at Grand 
Encampment on July 27, 1901? The ores of the Char- 
ter Oak Copper Mine were handled by the smelter. — 

(Wyoviing Industrial Journal, August 1901, p. 81.) 

By Judge A. C. Campbell* 


"When Judge A. C. Campbell of Cheyenne responded to an 
invitation from the Natrona County Bar Association to deliver an 
address before a joint meeting of the Bar Association and the Casper 
Literary Club in Casper he chose for his subject 'Fading Memories'. 

"The paper was so rich in anecdote, in whimsical thought and 
in historical data of permanent worth that when Judge Camtapell 
had finished speaking, the two Societies appointed a joint committee 
to arrange to have the information and entertaining manuscript put 
into permanent form. 

"Accordingly the Committee not only offered the State Historian 
the privilege of publishing this scholarly address in the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING but gave substantial financial assistance to promote 
this issue of ANNALS. 

"We take this opportunity to acknowledge our indebtedness to 
the Natrona County Bar Association, the Casper Literary Club and 
Judge Campbell and to thank each for the fine spirit of cooperation 
with the State's Department of History." — Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State 
Historian. 1 

In one of his essays Lord Macaulay said that the "best 
portraits are perhaps those in which there is a shght mix- 
ture of caricature; and we are not certain that the best 
histories are not those in which a httle of the exaggeration 
of fictitious narrative is judiciously employed. Something 
is lost in accuracy but much is gained in effect." 

My pen portraits are not perfect; nor is there "a 
slight mixture of caricature" in any of them. But there 
may be embroidery around some of the events mentioned. 

Dating from the time I began to live I was born in 
Cheyenne, December 6, 1882, aged 29 years and 8 months. 

At that time Wyoming's heroic period had reached 
its peak; its romantic era had begun to decline; its con- 
structive epoch had commenced. Cheyenne had two daily 

1. This note by Mrs. Beard was attached to the original manu- 
script, which was written in 1931 and placed in the files of the 
Wyoming Historical Department. Since the present State Historian 
and Editor of the ANNALS agrees with Mrs. Beard as to the his- 
torical worth and value of the article, and since it was never pub- 
lished in the ANNALS, it is being presented here in accordance 
with the original plans, thereby making it available to readers of 
the ANNALS and to researchers. — Ed. 


newspapers. Bill Nye was the editor of The Laramie Boomerang, 

also Laramie's postmaster. In October, 1883, he resigned 
as postmaster, and informed the Postmaster General that 
the key of the office "was under the door mat." 

The population of the Territory did not exceed 30,000. 
The census of 1880 gave it 21,000. Cheyenne had less than 
6,000. The Union Pacific was the only railway in the Ter- 
ritory. More than 80 per cent of the voters lived within 30 
miles on either side of it. William H. Hale was the Gov- 
ernor; Morton E. Post was the delegate in Congress. 
Francis E. Warren was the Territorial Treasurer. Joseph 
M. Carey was the Mayor of Cheyenne. 

The Judicial Department consisted of a Supreme Court 
and of three district courts. The former was composed 
of a Chief Justice and two associate Justices. Ex officio, 
they were the judges of the district courts. As was 
cynically remarked, the three district judges met in Chey- 
enne once a year, as associate justices, to affirm each 
others errors. 

James B. Sener was Chief Justice and Judge of the 
First District, composed of Laramie County and the unor- 
ganized county of Crook; Jacob B. Blair and Samuel C. 
Parks were the associate justices. Blair was Judge of the 
Second District, composed of Albany and Johnson Coun- 
ties. Parks was Judge of the Third District, composed of 
the counties of Carbon, Sweetwater and Uinta. At that 
time there were only six organized counties. 

Sener was a Virginian but not of a "first family." He 
had been a Confederate but not a soldier. After the Civil 
War had ended he became a "scalawag" and was elected 
to the Lower House of Congress as a Republican. The 
second time he ran he became a "lame duck." In 1878 
President Hayes commissioned him as Chief Justice of 
Wyoming. He was uncultured but not uneducated. Na- 
ture had not moulded him to shine in a drawing room, nor 
to add dignity to the Bench. He was unpopular with the 
Bar. He had no intimates and but few friends. He was 
a miser. It is needless to add he was a bachelor. Blair 
was a widower and a grandfather, hence, human. Much 
of his monthly pay checks were invested in mining stocks, 
which yielded "Irish dividends." He was born and reared 
in that part of Virginia now West Virginia. In 1861, after 
Virginia had passed a secession ordinance, and after the 
Congressmen elected in 1860 from Blair's district had 
had allied himself with the Confederates, Blair was elected 


to the Lower House of Congress as a Unionist. In the 
creation of West Virginia he was an important factor. 
After its creation he was again elected from his district 
serving until March 4, 1865. While in Congress he became 
intimate with James G. Blaine. Blair afterwards became 
our Minister to Costa Rica. In 1876 President Grant ap- 
pointed him associate justice of Wyoming. He had a 
charming personality and an amiable disposition. He also 
possessed a keen sense of humor which was frequently 
displayed upon the Bench and occasionally savored a writ- 
ten opinion. I quote from one of them: 

"We have read with due care the testimony given on 
the trial and find, as is usually the case in actions founded 
on verbal agreements or understandings, that the parties 
had no difficulty in disagreeing as to all material matters." 
(3 Wyo. 163). 

Judge Parks was from Illinois. He succeeded Judge 
Peck, who will be hereinafter referred to. Parks knew 
Lincoln when both were young. Parks preceptor was 
David Davis, who became an associate justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States by the appointment of 
President Lincoln. Before he came to Wyoming Parks 
had been an associate justice in Idaho. A son and a 
nephew have been residents of Wyoming for many years. 
Each is a banker. 

Among the Cheyenne lawyers were William W. Corlett, 
Joseph W. Fisher, William Ware Peck, John A. Riner, 
Charles N. Potter, John C. Baird and Hugo Donze^mann. 
Corlett had distanced all of his competitors. I have heard, 
in the Supreme Court of the United States and in other 
courts, the great lawyers of this generation and of the 
one preceding. In my opinion Mr. Corlett was the peer of 
most of them. William Ware Peck was a finished scholar, 
finely cultured and widely read. His memory was a marvel. 
He could quote correctly lengthy passages from the Old 
Testament and from the New. He could name off-hand 
Dickens' leading characters. He could repeat pages of 
Scott's poems. He could reproduce striking sentences from 
Webster's speeches and from the opinions of Marshall, of 
Taney and of Story. For several years he had practiced 
his profession in Burlington, Vermont, his native state. 
Later he went to New York City and became a law partner 
of John Van Buren, son of President Van Buren. Presi- 
dent Hayes, a classmate of Peck at the Harvard Law 
School, made him an associate justice of Wyoming. Al- 
though a learned lawyer, as a trial judge. Peck was not 


a success. Like Charles Sumner, whom he greatly ad- 
mired, he was an idealist, hence unfitted for a judicial 
position in a frontier community. 

Joseph W. Fisher was Wyoming's second Chief Justice. 
He was a Pennsylvanian. In 1865, for his gallantry at 
Gettysburg in 1863, he was rewarded by the brevet rank 
of Brigadier General. Grant, in his memories, referred 
to him in complimentary terms. 

With Lee, at Gettysburg, was a private aged 16. In 
a Confederate's account of that battle he is mentioned for 
his bravery. In 1892 he was elected a member of the 
Supreme Court of Wyoming. He came to Cheyenne from 
Fort Collins in 1885, and soon was justly regarded as a 
very able lawyer. A school building in Cheyenne bears 
his name. I refer to Honorable Gibson Clark. 

During the Presidential campaign pf 1868 I heard 
General Fisher and Senator John Sherman speak from 
the same platform. I was then 15 years of age. Fisher 
received more applause than did Sherman. Before the 
speaking began I carried a torch in the parade. I was 
decorated with a Grant and Colfax button. It was as 
big as the bottom of the prehistoric beer bottle. I wore 
a wool cap; a gray flannel shirt; a roundabout coat; blue 
jean trousers; red topped boots with brass protected toes; 
yarn stockings which had been knitted at the fireside 
under the light of a tallow candle by an old lady who made 
shrouds for the dead and trouble for the living, whose 
husband was the town drunk and the devoted friend of a'l 
the one gallowsed bare footed boys in the village, one of 
whom I was. A Tom Sawyer and a Huckleberry Finn 
could be found in every village in the county in which I 
was born, and in most of them a "nigger" Jim and a good 
natured drunk. 

To return to the Cheyenne lawyers of 1882, not the 
least important was John C. Baird. By his invitation I 
came to Cheyenne to become his partner. He was a 
fairly good lawyer and a ready and impressive speaker. 
At the time he died, December, 1901, he was the United 
States Attorney for Hawaii. Bob Breckons succeeded him. 
Breckons died in 1919. Judge John A. Riner, Judge 
Charles N. Potter and General Hugo Donzelmann belong, 
in part, to the present generation. The career of each is 
familiar to you all. 

Among the lawyers of the Territory in 1882. outside 
of Cheyenne, were M. C. Brown, S. W. Downey, J. W. 


Blake and H. V. S. Groesbeck in Laramie; Homer Merrill 
and G. C. Smith in Rawlins; A. B. Conaway in Green 
River, and Judge C. M. White and C. D. Clark in Evanston ; 
H. S. Elliott in Buffalo. Downey had been delegate in 
Congress; Brown became President of the Constitutional 
Convention. Groesbeck became Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the State; Blake become a District Judge; 
Merrill served two years on the State Supreme Bench; 
Conaway succeeded Groesbeck as Chief Justice. Elliott 
served as Judge in the State of Washington. Brown served 
as District Judge in the State of Wyoming for two years 
and later as Territorial Judge in Alaska for four years. 
Clark represented the State in the Lower House of Con- 
gress for two years, and in the Upper House for more 
than 22 years. 

As District Judge, Peck's first term was at Green 
River. He had an Episcopal minister open the court with 
prayer. The citizens of that town would have been less 
astonished had one of their number had opened a jack pot 
in the same manner. As Associate Justice he sat with 
Fisher and with Blair. He suggested to Blair that when 
sitting as members of the Supreme Court they should wear 
gowns. Inwardly Blair chuckled; outwardly he approved 
the proposal and asked Peck to submit the same to Fisher. 

Peck did so. Fisher replied: "I'll be d if I'll ever wear 

one." Peck was shocked; Blair was amused. Fisher and 
Blair gowned would have been as comfortable and as happy 
as would now a bootlegger in a Presbyterian pulpit. 

Owing to his impaired eyesight I frequently assisted 
Judge Peck in preparing Briefs. That is to say, I would 
read to him decisions applicable to the questions involved 
in the cause he represented. When I had finished reading 
an opinion he would discuss and dissect the same. His 
anayls's, comments and sometimes criticism were an edu- 
cation and a revelation to me. 

Were I asked what part of my imperfect training has 
counted most in my professional life, the first place wouM 
be given to my contact and comradeship with lawyers of 
superior minds. The second place would be given not to 
the perusal of text books or to the study of judicial de- 
cisions but to what I gained in trial courts by observing 
and by studying the methods of able lawyers in handling 
important cases, civil and criminal, and in listening to 
knowledged leaders arguing great causes in the Appellate 
courts, national and state. 

Again referring to Judge Peck: None of his family 
came to Wyoming to live. During my bachelor days in 


Cheyenne he frequently came to my office in the evening, 
bringing a book or a magazine from which I would read 
aloud. After I ceased to be a bachelor he would come to 
our home on Sunday evenings after having first attended 
the Episcopal evening service. During these visits I would 
read aloud for about an hour a magazine article, an essay 
or a forensic argument. When I had finished reading, 
then my wife, he and I would partake of a lunch which she 
had prepared. While at the table he would illuminate with 
his learning and enrich with his comments that which I 
had read. In those days most of us had the simple life. 
Men of family spent Sunday evenings at the fireside or 
on the front porch. Some men, not many, could be found 
at church. The house of a young married couple, whether 
mansion or cottage, was a home, and whether elaborately 
or sparingly furnished, there in could be found the novels 
of Dickens, the romances of Scott and the poems of Tenny- 
son. A hanging lamp was in the hallway, also a hat rack; 
an album in the parlor; a vinegar cruet on the dining room 
table; a pickle jar in the pantry; a moustache cup in the 
china closet; and within the statutory time after the mar- 
riage ceremony a baby carriage in the sitting room. That 
incubator of divorce suits and promoter of alimony clubs, 
the apartment house, was unknown; the movies had not 
arrived. Satan had not invented auction bridge; draw 
poker was the diversion of gentlemen and stud poker, now 
masquerading under the name of Rubles, was a gambler's 

The evening before election day, 1884, Judge Blair 
announced from the Bench: "This court stands adjourned 
until the morning after James G. Blaine is elected Presi- 
dent." The Judge called upon President Cleveland soon 
after March 4, 1885. In one respect the conversation 
between them resembled that which took place between 
Alexander of Macedon and Diogenes. The President asked: 
"What can I do for you. Judge Blair?" Blair did not 
answer as did Diogenes, "Stand out of my light," but in 
the words of Jefferson Davis uttered early in 1861, "I 
want to be let alone." The President good naturedly re- 
plied that unless serious charges against him were filed 
and proved, he would not be disturbed. Blair then said: 
"Mr. President, the most serious charge that I have heard 
is that I bet on Blaine; now no one is more sorry for that 
than I am." He was not removed. 

Judge Blair occupied two rooms on the first floor of 
the Albany County Court House. One of them was his 


official chambers, the other his bedroom. The court room 
was on the floor above. Soon after I became the United 
States Attorney for Wyoming, the government brought a 
suit in Blair's court against Matt. Patrick of Omaha. It 
grew out of a so-called Star Route mail contract. John 
L. Webster, then a leading lawyer in Omaha, was Patrick's 
attorney. Webster demurred to the complaint. When he 
came to Laramie to present the demurrer, Patrick accom- 
panied him. The argument lasted most of the day. At 
its conclusion the Judge entered an order overruling the 
demurrer. That evening the Judge, Webster, Patrick and 
myself played whist in the Judge's Chambers until a late 
hour. He and I were partners. We had extraordinary 
luck. We won every game. When we had finished Judge 
Blair extended his hand across the table to me and said: 
"Put it there; we can beat them upstairs and we can beat 
them downstairs." For the moment Webster lost his 
temper and heatedly said: "Yes, and damn you, you hold 
the cards in both places." About four years ago I saw 
Webster in the lobby of the Brown Palace, Denver. He 
was then past 80. I went to where he was sitting and 
spoke to him. He did not recognize me until I repeated: 
"Yes, and damn you, you hold the cards in both places." 

J. W. Blake, afterwards Judge Blake, and I were sitting 
near each other in Blair's court during the trial of a crim- 
inal case. Mr. Groesbeck, later Chief Justice, was the 
Prosecuting Attorney. Judge Blair rapped for order. 
Groesbeck looked up inquiringly. The room "was full of 
thick solemnity and silence." Looking in our direction, 
the Judge said: "Mr. Groesbeck, you were interrupting 
Mr. Blake and Mr. Campbell ; when they have finished their 
conversation you may proceed." Later, I was an onlooker 
in the same court during the trial of a young man for 
homicide. A gunsmith was on the witness stand. He 
held in his hand the defendant's revolver. The witness sat 
within a few feet to the right of the Judge. As the latter 
turned to deposit a mouthful of tobacco iuice in the cus- 
pidor, he saw the revolver pointed toward him. When he 
had unloaded the cargo he inquired: "Mr. Witness, is that 
gun loaded?" "Yes, your honor," was the answer. The 
judge then said: "Point it toward the lawyers, good judges 
are scarce." 

Honorable John M. Meldrum, known to his friends 
as "Jack," and in Yellowstone Park as Judge, and who for 
almost 40 years has been the magistrate there, at one time 
was the clerk of Judge Blair's court. It is a delight to 


hear Jack describe unique and amusing instances which 
occurred in that court while he was clerk. 

I can but faintly reproduce Jack's description of the 
opening scene of the first term of court held in Buffalo, 
Johnson County. Nat James, formerly a cowboy, was the 
sheriff. He was unfamiliar with court proceedings. The 
evening that Judge Blair and Jack arrived in Buffalo Nat 
called upon Jack to be instructed and coached. Jack told 
him not to appear in court with his chaps and spurs. 
Jack also wrote upon a slip of paper what Nat should say 
when the Judge asked him to open court. On the Monday 
morning following, when Judge Blair entered the court 
room, Nat arose. Never was Beau Brummel so gor- 
geously attired. Between Saturday night and Monday 
morning Nat had assembled a greater assortment of colors 
than were ever worn by a yokel at a County Fair. The 
Judge sensed the situation. He called upon the Sheriff 
to open court. Nat began: "Oh, yea! O, yea; O, yea!" Then 
he stopped, stammered, hesitated and took a fresh start 
but did not reach the quarter pole. He flagged himself 
back. He placed his hand in his vest pocket. A pained 
expression came over his face. He turned toward Jack 
and with trembling voice said: "What in hell did I do 
with that paper you gave me." 

Early in 1884 President Arthur appointed Mr. Perry, 
a Brooklyn, New York, lawyer to succeed Judge Sener. 
Perry did not qualify. He died suddenly at his home. 
Shortly thereafter John W. Lacey of Indiana was com- 
missioned Chief Justice of the Territory. He resigned in 
the fall of 1886. President Cleveland appointed William 
L. Maginnis of Ohio to succeed Lacey. Maginnis was but 
28. Perhaps the youngest of the Territorial judges, un- 
doubtedly one of the brightest. That same year Samuel 
T. Corn of Illinois succeeded Judge Parks. Early in 1887 
Micah C. Saufley of Kentucky succeeded Judge Blair. Late 
in 1889 President Harrison appointed Willis Van Devanter 
to displace Judge Maginnis. Early in 1890 C. D. Clark 
was named by the President and confirmed by the Senate 
as Judge Corn's successor. Clark declined whereupon A. 
B. Conaway of Green River was appointed. Van Devanter, 
Saufley and Conaway were the last to serve as Territorial 
judges. Van Devanter was the last Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the Territory and the First Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of the State. 

Before the translation from territory into state Wyo- 
ming's colorful history had begun to fade, Sunday had 


crossed the Missouri River, vaulted over Julesburg and 
Sidney and had invaded the Rocky Mountain region. Ad- 
venture had begun to lose the flavor of romance. The 
hospitality of the pioneer had become an article of sale. 
The roundup and the chuck wagon had begun to vanish 
from the picture. The stage coach, the mule team and the 
prairie schooner, now to be seen only in museums, mural 
decorations and the movies, were being displaced by the 
locomotives and the Pullman palace car. The mule skinner 
and his blacksnake whip, the stage coach driver and his 20 
feet of lash, the cowboy and his lariat were disappearing 
as rapidly as were Keno, Mexican Monte and the fine dis- 
tinctions between right and wrong. 

If the advance during the next 70 years is as rapid 
as it has been the preceding 70, the locomotive, the Pull- 
man and the auto may, before the end of the century, be 
pathetic reminders of a dead civilization. Less than 70 
years ago steam boats landed passengers at St. Joe, 
Missouri; stage coaches carried them from there to Sac- 
ramento, California, a distance of almost 2,000 miles in 
16 days, making 125 miles each 24 hours. Between the 
same points, Ben Holiday's Pony Express was carrying 
the United States mail at $5.00 a letter, in 8 days, making 
250 miles each 24 hours. That was some speed at that 
time. When one of Ben's riders was told of the marvelous 
feat of Moses in guiding the Children of Israel through 
the desert, a distance of 300 miles in 40 years, he scorn- 
fully replied: "300 miles. Humph! Ben Holiday would 
have fetched them through in 36 hours." 

I knew one of Ben's pony riders. I know a pilot who 
picks up mail at Cheyenne in the evening. It arrives in 
San Francisco the next morning. Friday afternoon late 
in June, 1888, Willis Van Devanter and I left Cheyenne 
for Lander, by train to Rawlins, and by jerky stage from 
there. We were not delayed. We arrived in Lander Sun- 
day afternoon. One morning last August BiU Dubois left 
Cheyenne for Lander. He was there three hours. At 
4:30 that afternoon he was upon the Cheyenne Country 
Club golf links. During the life of some one now living 
may he not be transported from St. Joe, Missouri, to Sec- 
ramento, California, in as many hours as days as was the 
mail by Ben Holiday's Express? And may not one now 
living in Cheyenne go to Lander in the morning and be 
back in Cheyenne for breakfast? 

With an opportunity such as is this, it is difficult to 
suppress the urge to relate in detail some personal exper- 


iences as a practicing lawyer during the 80's and the early 
90's. But I refrain for the reason that after one passes 
the 70th milepost it is much easier to express than to re- 
press the ego; hence, instead of particularizing any of 
them I will generalize a few. 

Early in September, 1885, 28 Chinamen were mur- 
dered at Rock Springs. A few days later, at the request 
of Secretary of State, Mr. Bayard, I was directed by At- 
torney General Garland to go there and render what ser- 
vice I could to Colonel Bee, Chinese Consul at San Fran- 
cisco, and certain officials of the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company who were at Rock Springs conducting an in- 
vestigation. By request of Governor Warren, President 
Cleveland had ordered General McCook, then Commandant 
at Fort Douglas, Utah, to proceed to Rock Springs with 
two or three companies of United States troops. Among 
others that I met there was Marcus A. Hanna, then the 
government Director of the Union Pacific. At that time 
he was politically unknown. He did more listening than 
talking. We occupied a private car. I was there a week. 

The description of General Grant, written by Charles 
Francis Adams 2d in May, 1864, fits the impression I 
received of Mr. Hanna in September, 1885, namely: "No 
intelligent person could watch him without concluding that 
he is a remarkable man." But, "It would require some 
study to find in his appearance material for hero worship." 

Following that investigation Congress indemnified 
the Empire of China for the loss of lives of 28 of her sub- 
jects, and for the value of their property destroyed and 

In 1887, Dan Bogan, a Texas outlaw, killed Charlie 
Gunn in a Lusk saloon. For that crime Bogan was sen- 
tenced to be hanged. His counsel sued out a writ of error. 
Before his appeal had been perfected Dan escaped from 
the Laramie County jail. For several days he was the 
guest of Harry B. Hare, at the latter's ranch near Wend- 
over. In due time Dan arrived at the ranch of Dave Kemp 
near Pecos City, Texas. Dan and Dave had been jointly 
tried for murder in that state. In the early 90's Dave 
had migrated from Texas to Eddy County, New Mexico. 
Later he became its sheriff. I became a resident of that 
county in November, 1895. While I was there Dave killed 
the sheriff elect. For that crime he was tried at Roswell. 
the county seat of Chaves County. Occasionally I was 
present during the trial. Bogan was present from the be- 
ginning of the trial to the end, so I was told by Dave after 


his acquittal. Dan told Dave that I had helped to con- 
vict him in 1887 at Cheyenne for the murder of Charlie 
Gunn. In this Dave was mistaken. In some matters pre- 
liminary to the trial I appeared for the Territory when the 
Prosecuting Attorney was "indisposed." 

In none of my many conversations with Dave did he 
indicate the whereabouts of Dan except that he was in 
Texas. In one of these conversations I asked Dave if Dan 
had not broken his leg when he jumped through the 
Weatherford Texas Court House window. "No!" he sur- 
prisingly answered, "that was me whose leg was broke at 
that time; we were being tried together." Dave returned 
to Texas, reformed, joined the Republican party, became 
an applicant for the office of United States Marshal and 
was disappointed that his former attorney, Albert B. Fall, 
would not assist him. When I last heard of Dan he had 
married, owned a ranch some place in Texas, was branding 
mavericks and raising Hoover Democrats. 

In April, 1901, I registered at a Washington, D. C, 
hotel. Above my signature was that of Dutton Schultke. 
Ten years before I had assisted in prosecuting him for 
killing a Lander druggist. During the trial the Doctor 
threatened to kill me. After he had been acquitted I told 
the foreman of the jury that if I had an enemy that I 
desired to get rid of I would lure him into Fremont County. 
In the late 80's and early 90's homicide was both an indoor 
and an outdoor sport in Fremont County while cattle steal- 
ing was a pastime. Petit juries discharged the bondsmen 
of those accused of crime and emptied the jail. 

In the early 90's the manager of a cattle company in 
Fremont County was murdered. I assisted in prosecuting 
the two men who had been indicted for that crime. After 
they had been convicted I learned that in 1875 when a law 
student I had been present in a Pennsylvania Court room 
when the deceased was being tried for manslaughter. He 
v/as then a Pinkerton detective and a peace officer. 

Should I be tapped I might leak some facts concerning 
the Johnson County Raid, omitted, unintentionally, of 
course, from Frank Canton's Frontier Trails. Frank was not 
generous to a fallen foe, otherwise he would have paid 
deserved tribute to Nate Champion, who, from about day- 
light until late in the afternoon held at bay 20 Texas gun- 
men and 20 Wyoming stockmen. No doubt Nate was a 
rustler. But none of those who died in the Alamo ex- 
hibited greater courage than he did in his cabin at Kaycee, 
Wyoming. The stockmen had provocation; so had the 


Vigilantes in San Francisco, so had the leading citizens of 
New Orleans when they hanged the leaders of the Mafia. 

Were I sworn to tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, I might corroborate the account of 
the lynching of Jim Averell and Ella Watson, which may 

be found in Mokler's History of Natrona County. I might also 

add a supplement to that account. I knew all of the 
lynchers. I was quite intimate with the leader during the 
later years of his life. If he had any regret for that 
atrocious deed or any remorse, he successfully concealed 
the same. 

There are other episodes of the late 80' s and the early 
90's woven in the warp and woof of Wyoming's history 
that might be referred to and stripped of embroidery. 
But I refrain. Any audience can absord truth only in 
small doses. 

Wyoming's first Governor was appointed in 1869. I 
knew all of his deceased successors. I know all of those 
now living. I knew all of the Territorial Judges but three. 
I knew and have known all of the State Judges. I knew 
all of the Territorial delegates to Congress except two. I 
knew and know all of Wyoming's Attorneys General. 

None of the lawyers who came to Wyoming before 
I did is living. All of the Judges then living are dead. Of 
the 45 members of the Convention who framed the Con- 
stitution only five survive. ^ Four of them live outside the 
State. Two are my seniors; two are my juniors. None 
of my intimates of the 80's or early 90's is alive but one. 

Unless one retains "some of the salt of his youth," he 
is destined to have a tasteless old age. But, there are 
penalties which advancing years cannot escape, most 
poignant of which are the loss of the companions of his 
early life, the loss of the intimates of his maturing man- 
hood, and the loss of the comrades of his later years. 

However, old age is not devoid of compensation and 
pleasure. In retrospect he does not recall the rough and 
thorny parts of the path he has trodden. In reverie, when 
the past comes over him as a dream, he sees beauty and a 
smile in vanished faces ; he hears the music of silent voices. 

2. Only one member is now (1943) living, W. E. Chaplin who 
resides in California. — Ed. 

HoLeni ^aote 

By Mrs. Charles Ellis* 

Robert Foote was born February 2, 1834, in Dundee, 
Forfarshire, Scotland. When twenty-two years of age he 
came to America and to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He 
was granted United States citizenship in 1857, and im- 
mediately after this he left for the "wild west." He ar- 
rived at Fort Laramie where he enlisted in Troop F, 2nd 
United States Cavalry and served the three year term. 
The work of the western soldier at that time was protect- 
ing the emigrants from attacks by Indians. It was risk- 
ing one's life to live in Wyoming then, and Mr. Foote said 
when he left Fort Leavenworth to come to Fort Laramie, 
"We left the old Missouri behind, and few were the set- 
tlements then. We might just as well say we were bidding 
farewell to the church bell, and to me, who had lived in a 
crowded city, this new life was a wonderful change. The 
first night I made my bed on the open priarie I slept little, 
for I was thinking and wondering what the future had in 
store for me." 

Robert Foote had learned the tailor's trade in his 
native land, and while a Cavalryman at Fort Laramie he 
also got in an hour or so at his trade each day or evening 
and made some extra money in this way. He traded 
horses with the emigrants and had accumulated quite a 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH — Olive Herman Ellis was born 
February 12, 1879, at Chanute, Kansas, the daughter of Fred and 
Ellen McDonald Herman. The family moved to Wyoming in April 
1880, locating at Elk Mountain. On January 4, 1899, she was mar- 
ried at her home to Charles Ellis, also of Elk Mountain. 

Mrs. Ellis held the office of postmistress at Difficulty, Wyoming, 
for thirty-four years. She has been the secretary of the East Carbon 
County Taxpayers League, secretary of the Tributary Platte River 
Water Users Association, and for the past three years the secretary 
of the Carbon County Cattle Growers Association. Several articles 
written by Mrs. Ellis have appeared in earlier issues of the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, and she has contributed to the Cheyenne Tribune, 
Liaramie Republican-Boomerang , Rawlins Republican, Omaha Daily 
Journal Stockman, Wyoming Stochman-Farmer and other publica- 

Mrs. Charles Ellis has written the biography of Robert Foote 
from stories which he and his sister, Mrs. Ellis' mother-in-law, 
told her. 


valuable bunch of horses, which, although they were very 
poor, foot sore and worn out when he got them, v/ould 
soon recuperate when turned out on the nutritious Wyo- 
ming grasses. He would trade one good fat horse for two 
or three poor ones, or perhaps he would buy the worn out 
animal for a small sum. When he received his discharge 
he had quite a nice herd of horses and had employed a 
half-breed to herd them just outside the Government Reser- 
vation. There had been a crowd of "Coffee Coolers" 
(beggars) camped down on the Rawhide, and they were 
generally a harmless outfit. However, a band of young 
Bucks had joined them, and that always made a bad com- 
bination. The result of this was that one evening Mr. Foote's 
horses failed to come in. The half-breed had crossed the 
river with them, and he, the horses and the whole Indian 
camp had faded away. Their trail pointed north. This is 
the way Mr. Foote told the story: 

"By the time I could get an outfit together to folow 
them, they had two days' start. John Hunter and Tom 
Maxwell had volunteered to accompany me. The com- 
mander of the Fort sent a squad of Cavalry under Ser- 
geant Herman Haas with orders to go with us as far as 
the Cheyenne River Valley. We reached the breaks with- 
out any trouble or adventure worth telling, and by the 
appearance of the trail we were as far behind them as 
when we started. The soldiers could go no farther — orders 
must be obeyed — and it looked like a hopeless task for 
three men to undertake. Equipped as we were, a great 
many would have called it a fool-hardy job, I do not doubt. 

"An Indian's wealth is counted by the horses he owns, 
and he will go through hellfire to get or keep them, and 
we all know that at this stage of the game they are almost 
a necessity to a white man's existence, and that is why 
I did not want to give up the chase now. So it was with 
my companions — they were not the kind of men to quit. 

"With many good wishes for our success and sincere 
regrets that they could not accompany us and be in the 
fight, if battle it had to be, Herman and his troop went 
back while we went on. Two days and a half we traveled 
before we sighted their camp, about a mile and a half 
away. The commotion that the sight of us created in their 
camp was proof that they did not expect to be followed. 
Half a mile farther on the half-breed came out to meet us ; 
his tale of woe that the young bucks had taken the horses 
and himself with them. When we asked him if the Indians 
would give the horses up, he replied by asking us, 'How 


many soldiers behind?' We asked, 'Why you think we 
got soldiers with us?' and he said, 'You no got guns — 
only big pistols.' We did not give him any satisfaction 
on that point, but told him that the old men had been 
around the Fort for a long time and had been well treated 
there, and if there was any trouble now, they could not 
come back there any more. They would have to give 
back my property and make no more trouble. He only 
shook his head and said, 'Too many young men, they 
want horses,' then added, 'me go back and make talk. If 
give back, I make sign, then come on — if no make sign 
then go back, too many for you fight.' 

"Hunter thought it possible that the half-breed had 
told the Indians that he owned the horses, and, if that 
was the case, the old men would be inclined to be friendly, 
and if he (Hunter) could get in among them, he could in- 
duce them to give back the horses, but it mostly would 
depend on how many young bucks were in camp. Hunter 
had an Indian wife and family and had been a long time 
among them. The who'e Sioux tribe knew him to be a 
man who always spoke the truth, and feared neither man, 
beast nor evil spirit. They also believed faithfully that 
neither gun, spear, arrow nor any weapon they possessed 
could harm him. On all this we banked as a great deal 
in our favor. 

"However, in about an hour an Indian rode out and 
gave the sign for us to come in. Hunter suggested, as 
we rode in, that we keep our hands on a gun, and if they 
meant treachery, to charge straight through, shooting as 
we went. Getting through we could find shelter where 
we could stand them off. And that was just what hap- 
pened. We all three got through alive, and must have 
done some damage in return for what they did for us, 
which was enough. Tom and I each got two arrows — 
Hunter, with his usual luck, untouched, though one buck 
took a shot at him with the rifle (which the half-breed 
had taken with him) and although he was not more than 
thirty feet from him. Hunter was missed completely. The 
failure of the shot stopped the attack for the time being, 
otherwise I think that we would have been as full of 
arrows as a sage hen is of feathers. 

"About a quarter a mile away we dove into a patch 
of willows and crossed a shallow chalky stream that bent 
around under the lea of a clay butte, which was so perpen- 
dicular that it could not be climbed. It would have been 
a perfect- place for a defense except for a pass made 


through the middle of the butte by water at flood times, 
and the wash from the Platte beyond had made an open 
space in front. 

"We got rid of the arrows and dressed our wounds 
as best we could. The one I got in my neck lacked but a 
small fraction of an inch of being fatal, but the other 
did not do much damage. I had learned something of sur- 
gery while in the army and it came in handy now, other- 
wise our wounds might have been dangerous. But they 
soon became sore enough to suit the fiendish expectation 
of our enemies, whom we had to prepare to fight. The 
gap through which the draw emptied into our retreat 
was narrow. We joined three logs and laid them across 
it — not much of a fortification, but we thought it might 

"One piece of good luck was that we had our pack 
horse — pack came through without a scratch, and by the 
time we had eaten our cold bread and meat, Hunter had 
figured out just what would happen. First they would 
do some scouting to see if there were any soldiers com- 
ing, and satisfied on that score, if they did make an at- 
tack, it would be about an hour before sundown. Then, 
if they found us all able to fight, it would be mostly a 
bluff, but they would consider it worth an attemDt to 
get our four horses. It would probably be by the oM men 
in front, making a wild demonstration to draw our atten- 
tion, while the youns: bucks slipped in on us through the 
pass. But if they did not succeed in killing one of us, 
which they might accidently do with their old rifle, it 
would all end in a few minutes. 

"They could not get an arrow through the willows 
at short range, for, if they got that close, our oM dragoon 
pistols were much longer range than their bows Our 
only danger would be from that young buck's rifle, and 
if one of us should be unlucky enough to get his last cpII. 
he must hold his breath until he gets out of sight of the 
Indians before he drops. 

" 'I think either of us has nerve enough to do that, 
for once I shot an antelope throusrh the heart and it ran 
a hundred yards before it fell. If they have no success 
on their first attack they will let us alone and after dark 
we can ride away just as if there was not an Indian within 
a hundred miles!' 

"The attack began as Hunter had predicted, like a 
clap of thunder out of a clear sky. Dashing around the 


front, they sent their arrows from under their horses' 
necks. None reached the willows over which Tom and I 
responded, doing damage to their ponies with some care- 
ful shots. Although we had twenty-four cartridges in 
our guns, we did not care to waste any. Hunter was 
guarding the gap in the butte. Suddenly the Indians in 
front made a dash as if they were intending to charge the 
works, shooting arrows into the willows. We got in some 
good work and stopped them by dropping six ponies. While 
that was going on in front, a party of young bucks came 
in at the head of the pass. Hunter opened on them with 
a shot from each of his guns while they thought they were 
almost out of range, which caused them to stop and dodge 
around. Then he jumped up on the logs and began shoot- 
ing first with one hand and then the other. Just as I got 
there to help, the buck with the rifle sent a bullet through 
Hunter's heart. Hunter still stood straight, fired the 
last two bullets from his guns, jumped backwards off the 
log and walked behind the brush where he fell dead. 

"The Indians, believing they had missed him, gave up 
the game and we saw them no more. 

"After darkness had kindly spread its mantle over all, 
we packed Hunter's body on his horse, then rode out up 
the gulch and onto the plain. Keeping as direct a course 
as possible toward the south, we went until we judged 
that we had put eight or ten miles between us and the 
place of our battle. The moon was up high enough to 
give us light. With our small camp shovels we made a 
grave and laid the remains of our friend down into the 
Bosom of mother earth. V\^e covered and obliterated every 
trace of a grave and stood there and looked upon it for 
some time. Tom repeated from the burial of Sir John 
Moore : 

"No useless coffin enclosed his breast 
Not in sheet nor in shroud we wound him, 
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest. 
With his martial cloak around him." 

"As we rode silently and sorrowfully away, I thought 
of the one we had left behind and how many friends would 
miss him. I wondered if death is the end of all this. If 
we live again over in the Great Beyond, then our heroic 
friend is there with all the great that have gone before him, 
where no king can claim the right to wear brighter jewels 
than he. 

"It was a toilsome journey back to the Fort, but we 
got in about as near dead as two men could be and yet 


be alive. We were consigned to the hospital in Fort Lara- 
mie for six long weary weeks, and after we got out neither 
Tom nor myself seemed to feel ourselves of much account. 

"Some time after this I was lying down on a bunk in 
my cabin when my half-breed horse herder walked in. He 
had no weapon but a knife in his belt, and as he stood in 
the middle of the room, he smote himself on the breast 
and said, 'Me good Indian!' 

"An old horse pistol lay on the bed beside me, and I 
grabbed it up and let him have the contents. Then I said, 
'Yes, you are a good Indian now!' 

"The post commander said that I was a httle too 
rough and locked me up in the guard house. I stayed 
there until Colonel Moonlight' came with a Kansas regi- 
ment and took command of the Fort. He turned me out 
and indorsed my claim against the Government for in- 
demnity for the loss of my property, which was paid by 
making me a post trader there. It was perhaps better for 
me than a cash payment as claims against the Government, 
if paid at all, are delayed for years." 

Mr. Foote was post trader at Fort Laramie for a year 
and when Fort Halleck was established in 1862 he went 
there. He had charge of a commissary there, was post- 
master and conducted a general store. He operated a 
freight train between Fort Halleck and Fort Laramie, and 
on almost all the trips he drove one trail wagon himse^.f. 
Each driver had ten or twelve yoke of oxen hitched to 
two or three wagons trailed together. On three different 
occasions the entire train of cattle and wagons was de- 
stroyed, but the drivers managed to escape with their lives. 
The Indians would carry away some of the goods with 
them and set fire to the wagons, burning the rest. 

It would take pages to tell of all the narrow escapes 
in which Robert Foote figured. His life was one of ad- 
ventures. Very small in stature, he was quick, wide awake 
and alert, and he made his mind work to make up for 
what he lacked in size. He was Justice of the Peace at 
the Fort also, and he was kept busy in his attempts to 

1. Colonel Thomas Moonlight was the leader of the Eleventh 
Kansas Cavalry which in March 1865 endured the hardships of a 
terrible march from Ft. Kearny to Ft. Laramie, where the regiment 
was assigned to duty protecting the telegraph lines and the overland 
stage route. Colonel Moonlight was mustered out at Ft. Kearny 
July 17, 1886, and on December 20, 1886, was appointed Governor 
of the Territory of Wyoming, which office he held until April 9. 1889. 


preserve law and order. At times many of the soldiers 
would imbide too freely of the firewater furnished by the 
saloon at the Fort, and for a time chaos and wild disorder 
reigned. There were many lawless characters around the 
Fort also, and many crimes should be written in the his- 
tory of the old Fort. On one occasion an Irishman was 
arrested after three army blankets had been found in 
his possession, and the case was brought to trial before 
Robert Foote. The Irishman had been around the Fort 
for several months and was known only as "Pat," and 
although it was suspected that he was not entirely honest, 
nothing could be proven against him until the blankets 
were found hidden in his bunk. 

"What is your name?" inquired the Judge. 

"Pat Murphy, yer honor," replied the defendant. 

"How came you in possession of the blankets, Mr. 

"They are mine. I had them made." 

"How does it happen then that these blankets are all 
stamped with U. S.?" inquired Mr. Foote. 

"Those are my initials, sir," replied Pat. 

"Your initials? How do you make that out?" 

"Well sir, it's like this. U stands for Pat and S stands 
for Murphy." 

"All right, Pat. You will have to spend twenty days 
in the guard house, and if you wasn't such a damn good 
speller you would have to stay thirty days." Pat went 
to the guard house for three weeks. 

On September 10, 1865, while returning to Fort Hal- 
leck with two trail wagons loaded with flour, Robert Foote 
and Frank Daley were suddenly attacked at the crossing 
of a small stream about two miles northwest of the old 
Rockdale stage station by a band of Indians who swooped 
down upon them from the hills on the north and west. 
The Indians were armed with guns and immediately killed 
the oxen. The two men sought refuge behind the wagons, 
and, sack at a time, removed the flour from the wagons 
and managed to construct a rude protection for them- 
selves. The position was very hazardous, for, whenever 
the Indians caught sight of them above the wagons or 
around them, they shot at them, but at last in the face 
of these dangers the two men succeeded in getting suf- 
ficient flour off the loads to shelter them, and thus they 
avoided being killed. In the melee, Foote received a bullet 


through the shoulder which disabled him from active ser- 
vice, although he and Daley succeeded in killing a few of 
the ponies ridden by the Indians. When the savages 
charged the rude fort they came at full speed, rushing 
past it sideways and always leaning over the opposite sides 
of their ponies, shooting from beneath the horses' necks. 
All through the night the Indians kept them there. When 
the freight wagons failed to arrive at the Fort on scheduled 
time, a squad of soldiers were sent to look for them. When 
the Indians saw them coming, they rode away into the 
hills and did not return. The two men were taken back 
to the Fort and there the bullet wound in Foote's shoulder 
was dressed and he was nursed back to his former health 
by his wife. The little creek which was the scene of the 
disaster was named Foote Creek in honor of Robert Foote 
and is still known by that name. 

While still confined to his bed as the result of the 
exposure and the wounded shoulder, an Indian came to 
the Fort and to the Foote home and asked that he be ad- 
mitted to Mr. Foote's room, as he was friendly and had 
brought a hind quarter of antelope meat which he wished 
to present to Mr. Foote. The Indian being slightly known 
to them, Mrs. Foote allowed him to go to her husband's 
room. The Indian spoke a few words and then quickly 
drew a gun intending to shoot the wounded man, but Mr. 
Foote, seeing what he meant to do and always having a 
gun beneath his pillow, instantly jerked his own pistol 
from its hiding place and killed the Indian. 

Mr. Foote started a little store at the crossing of 
Foote Creek on the Overland Trail, but during the summer 
of 1865 a large force of Indians appeared on the Overland 
Stage Road and made an attack on the place. In escap- 
ing from the savages Mr. Foote was shot in the leg with 
an arrow and his store was burned. What followed is 
best described by an emigrant whose story to W. H. Kuy- 
kendall^ foUows, and who cried like a child at the horrible 
recollection of the scene. 

"Our emigrant party of thirty-five men, women and 
children, returning from the west in wagons, passed Foote's 
store just before the Indians appeared. When we reached 
Rock Creek the train moved on, while I and two other 
men on horseback stopped at a tent in which a Frenchman 
had a few goods. His wife was a Sioux squaw. She very 

2. Frontier Days by Judge W. L. Kuykendall, pp. 92-94. 


soon ran into the tent, greatly excited. We all ran to 
the door and saw the Indians near at hand. They would 
have killed us at once but for the protestations of the squaw 
and the Frenchman that the soldiers would come down from 
Fort Halleck and kill them. We were directed to mount, 
take the road and we would not be killed before reaching 
the train. The Indians believed they would soon overtake 
and kill us and our families. In anguish of mind we moved 
down the road a little in advance of the main body, with 
a few of the young Bucks surrounding and making life 
miserable for us. 

"In going over a hill about three miles south of Rock 
Creek we met a wagon and saw another at the foot of the 
hill. The driver shot one of the Indians and was immed- 
iately killed. Their stopping to plunder that wagon gave 
us an opportunity to forge ahead. In the rear wagon was 
the owner and with him his wife, two daughters aged 
ten and sixteen respectively, and a son thirteen years old. 
He and the boy crawled out behind and running down a 
dry gulch escaped, the man being shot through the arm. 
The woman and the girls got out of the wagon and, be- 
lieving we belonged with the Indians, begged us to save 

"The Indians having finished plundering the other 
wagon killed the mother and the youngest girl in our 
presence. While the plundering of that wagon was in 
progress we gained some distance ahead and on reaching 
the top of the next hill were gladened with the sight of a 
large Bull train being hurriedly corralled not far away, 
the wagon master thoroughly understanding his business. 

"He arrested us, believing we belonged with the In- 
dians, there being many reports at that time that white 
men were leading them. Our explanation that we belonged 
with the emigrant train which he said was camped at a 
Quaking Asp and willow grove under the hill convinced 
him and he sent a few men with us to get our wives and 
children into his corral, where he was preparing to stand 
off the several hundred Sioux then in sight. The train 
was finally surrounded and when in range of the Bull- 
wacker's guns the Indians kept up their yelling and shoot- 
ing at long range, being careful to keep out of reach of 
any bullet until nightfall, when they drew off and dis- 
appeared to give their leader, who is was claimed was the 
wily Red Cloud, time to prepare a plan for an ambush. 

"We moved with the train early next morning, 


stopped and buried the three mutilated bodies and removed 
the remains of the burned wagons out of the road. Directly 
after reaching Rock Creek about fifty Indians appeared 
on a hill across and north of the creek, having a white 
woman (unknown to us) with them, whom they treated 
in a fiendish manner in plain view of all of us. This so 
enraged the men of our emigrant party that we started 
to go over and attack them, when the wagon master drew 
his revolver and said he would shoot the first man who 
attempted to leave the corral. 

"We charged him with cowardice and he replied that 
we were the greatest pack of fools that he had ever met 
on the plains. He wanted to know if we had any idea, as 
he had, of where all the other Indians were located and 
added that it was well he was present to save the train 
and lives of our women and children. When the Indian 
chief found he had a man as wily as himself to deal with, 
he hurriedly moved out of the willows across the creek 
where he had secreted his men, called off those on the 
hill and silently stole away. We saw them no more. They 
turned the woman loose because she had gone crazy and 
she managed to reach the train in a pitiful condition but 
was unable to give any account of herself." 

While on one trip from Fort Laramie to Fort Halleck 
with their freight wagons, Robert Foote and Frank Daley 
were caught in a heavy rain which lasted for three days 
and nights. The roads were heavy and the oxen became 
tired and leg weary. When they camped for the night 
on these trips it must be in a deep ravine, where their 
campfire would be obscured from the eagle eye of any 
prowling Indian. On this particular night the gullies were 
all running water, the sagebrush was wet and the ground 
muddy. After much difficulty they located a place which, 
although it was far from nice, seemed a little better than 
the rest just then to build a fire. Upon investigation it 
was found that all the matches Daley had were soaked 
beyond their lighting abilities, and Foote had but one 
that was not saturated. They felt discouraged, for who 
ever heard of anyone being able to light a fire with only 
one match when all the circumstances were favorable, to 
say nothing of a situation like this? 

They decided after much discussion to pray that they 
might have good luck with their lone match, and, kneeling 
down in the mud and rain, they fervently sought the help 
of the Good Lord in the fire question. It would have been 
an unusual sight to have beheld these two men kneeling 


there in silent prayer, far away from civilization and in 
such weather. They arose, got some sagebrush and with 
their one match kindled the fire — and it burned! Mr. 
Foote often repeated this tale and added that they knew 
God was with them on that trip. 

A lawless character named Bill Bevins and his partner 
were camped among the willows growing along the little 
stream which flowed past the Fort. Bevins had a bad 
reputation and on a previous occasion had held Foote 
up, relieving him of a sum of money. Their actions now 
caused suspicion, and Mr. Foote went to the camp to 
investigate. As soon as Foote appeared, Bevins, who was 
a large and powerful man, seized him and wrenched the 
gun from his hands. Bevins knocked him down and pro- 
ceeded to choke him. Mrs. Foote, who had been watching 
from the open window, realized that her husband was in 
need of assistance. The window of the kitchen was propped 
open with a heavy stick, and she leaped out taking the 
stick with her as she went. She was a small woman, and 
when she rushed at Bevins with the stick he managed to 
hold Foote down on the ground by the throat, and, seizing 
the lady's implement of defense, he threw it away and 
grabbed her firmly by the foot. There he had them both. 
He kicked the gun out of the way so neither of them could 
reach it. Mrs. Foote screamed for help and a Mrs. Hansen 
who lived at the Fort appeared. Mrs. Foote bade her 
bring a gun and in a few minutes she returned with one, 
handing it to Mrs. Foote. Bevins, well knowing that she 
could and would shoot him, turned them both loose and 
fled. Mrs. Foote shot at him as he disappeared in the 
brush but missed him. On another occasion before this, 
Bevins and Foote had had some trouble which ended in 
a gun play during which the bullet pierced the Foote 
family Bible, but no one was seriously hurt. 

Two brothers named Lee were trappers near the Fort, 
and Robert Foote told them that if they would capture 
Bevins and bring him back to the Fort he would give 
them two hundred dollars. The offer was accepted and 
the trappers followed Bevins and his partner. Within a 
few days they returned with the outlaws, each tied onto 
a horse. The Lees received the reward, but later the two 
men escaped. It was learned that they had been run out 
of Montana by a vigilance committee. The two desperadoes 
were later sent to prison for crimes they committed in 
the east. 

Another dangerous outlaw with whom Robert Foote 


had had trouble was a man named Musgrove,^ who had 
joined a band of Indians and acted as leader for one of 
the most dangerous of gangs. Horses were stolen, men 
murdered and property destroyed by them. At Fort Steele 
the safe was in the Quartermaster's tent, and one night 
the tent was cut open, the safe removed to a gulch where 
it was blown open and $1,800 taken. A reward was of- 
fered for Musgrove, dead or alive. One day Musgrove 
rode down from Elk Mountain to Percy, a station on the 
Union Pacific Railroad. It chanced that Robert Foote, 
who had run the sutler's store at Fort Halleck, was at 
Percy on the morning of Musgrove's arrival and visited 
Mrs. Stimpston's restaurant for his breakfast. On enter- 
ing he noticed a man at one of the tables whom he took 
to be the outlaw. He studied the man's face carefully, 
and, finally convincing himself that he was not mistaken, 
walked over and, covering the stranger with a pistol, 
commanded him to throw up his hands. The resolute 
bearing of the little Scotchman convinced the desperado 
that it was best to obey. It turned out that Mr. Foote had 
not been mistaken in the identity of his man. He took 
his prisoner to Fort Steele where he was ironed by the 
blacksmith at the post, and a day or two later he was 
sent to Denver where he was placed in jail. A few days 
later he was taken out by the vigilance committee which 
formed on Blake Street and hanged to a timber on the 
Larimer Street Bridge. 

Mark Goad owned a wood train which delivered wood 
from a camp on Elk Mountain to the Union Pacific Rail- 
road at Percy Station. Robert Foote was manager of 
this train. The wood was used to fuel the engines. Five 
drivers were employed on this train, and some of the 
wagons were drawn by mu^es while others were pulled 
by oxen. On a Saturday afternoon in August 1869, while 
the wood train was passing a small lake near the foot- 
hills south of Percy, a band of Indians suddenly swept 
down from the breaks, and with bows and arrows waged 
a wicked war against the drivers. Three of the men were 
killed while the other two, though wounded, ran up the 
draw just south of the high pinnacle behind the lake and 
made their escape from the savages, who had now turned 
their attention to the oxen and mules. The oxen were 
driven into the lake and there they were ham-strung. 

3. For a more complete account of Musgrove's activities see 
Coutant's History of Wyoming, pp. 616-618. 


There they stood helpless and suffering, their blood 
mingling with the waters of the lake, turning it to crimson. 
The Indians then took the mules and disappeared among 
the hills. 

When assistance arrived, the rescuers found many 
arrows imbedded in the flesh of the murdered men, and 
these arrows were removed and were still in the possession 
of Mrs. William Richardson at her death. 

This was the last trip ever made over this road by 
the wood wagons. The lake has, since this memorable 
day, been known as "Bloody Lake," and it is near the 
road between Elk Mountain and Hanna. 

Robert Foote was married at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, to Miss Amanda Norris on April 10, 1868, and to 
them five sons were born, three of whom died in infancy. 

After Fort Halleck was abandoned and the soldiers 
transferred, Robert Foote made his home there for some 
time, still running a store and acting as postmaster. In 

1880 the post office was moved to Elk Mountain Crossing, 
where it is today, and after that Mr. Foote disposed of his 
store goods. He made a trip to Scotland and on his way 
back stopped in Denver. There he hired Sam Barkley to 
help him move his belongings to Buffalo, Wyoming. In 

1881 he moved to Buffalo where he started the first store^ 
in the town. In March 1892 his store and entire stock 
of goods including 30,000 pounds of sugar were destroyed 
by fire. Mr. Foote had extensive livestock interests in 
Johnson County and served as State Senator from there, 
being elected to the office in 1892. His sons had left the 
old home to shift for themselves, one to Idaho, the other 
to Phoenix, Arizona. When Mr. Foote's health began to 
fail, it was to the home of his son Byron at Phoenix that 
he went, and it was there on November 12, 1916, that he 
passed away, leaving his wife and two sons, Byron and 
Robert Jr., besides two grandchildren. 

4. A picture of the Robert Foote store on the east side of Main 
Street, Buffalo, taken about 1883, appears on the front cover of the 
April 1940 issue of the ANNALS OF WYOMING. For additional 
information see the article on page 119 of the same issue. 

By J. Elmer Brock* 

Early-day incidents of the range country, trivial 
though they were, are well worth recording. They add a 
tinge of color to the romance of that rough and ready 
period— those days when a new land was passing from the 
rule of the six-shooter to more tranquil regulation by 
courts of law. 

Writers have filled countless volumes glorifying the 
man who was quickest on the draw. Too little has been 
said about the grand juries and primitive courts of law, 
along with the efforts of the pioneer to secure and maintain 
their establishment as a safeguard of society. Too fre- 
quent miscarriages of justice in early-day courts were 
often a deterrent rather than an incentive to abandon the 
old order for the new. The fortitude of the pioneer in 
bringing about the change is deserving of more mention 
than has ever been made. 

All this has no bearing whatever on the incident I 
am going to write about other than as a preamble to 
justify placing this story in the historical files of the Wyo- 
ming Historical Department and the Wyoming Stock Grow- 
ers Association. The passage of time may make it of 
interest to depict the accepted standards of that era. 

I am writing of something that took place in and near 
Gillette, Wyoming, in the middle nineties. The principal 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— John Elmer Brock was born Sep- 
tember 21, 1882, at Versailles, Missouri, the son of Albert L. and 
Julia A. Brock. In September of 1884 the family moved to Wyoming 
and located in Johnson County where they engaged in ranching. 
Mr. Brock was president of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association 
for 1930-33 and president of the American National Livestock As- 
sociation for 1940-41. In 1941 he was a member of a party of five 
sent by the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace to visit 
Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. He is a thirty-second degree York 
Rite Mason, a Shriner, a member of the Episcopal Church and the 
Rotary Club. 

In 1910 he was married to Janet Clara Thom of Buffalo, a 
native of Wyoming and the daughter of W. J. Thom, pioneer banker 
of the northern part of the State. One son, Culbertson Thom, is 
serving with the armed forces; a daughtei', Margaret Julia, operates 
a photo study in Buffalo, Wyoming. His eldest son. John E., was 
killed several years ago in a hunting accident. 


character is George Curry, later known as "Flat Nose" 
George Curry, an outlaw of considerable note, but not to 
be confused with another outlaw often using the aliases 
of Kid Curry, Harve Logan, etc. 

George Curry lived and ran cattle in the Hole-in-the- 
Wall country. During the winter he rode to Gillette and, 
leaving his horse in a livery barn, joined his sister, follow- 
ing which they visited their parents. Their parents, for- 
merly from Chadron, Nebraska, were at that time residing 
in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in the mouth of 
the St. Lawrence River. 

Curry's sister evidently preceded him on their return. 
She left the train either at Moorcroft or Newcastle, to 
go to Sundance where she was teaching school. Some- 
where along her route she picked up the rumor via moc- 
casin telegraph that some officers of the law were intend- 
ing to kill George if and when he returned to Gillette. 
Barbara Curry had been going with, or at least correspond- 
ing with, Alex Ghent, then owning a ranch in the Hole-in- 
the-Wall country. She wrote Ghent, telling him of the 
plot and giving the date of her brother's arrival. Ghent, 
Al Smith and Hi Bennett immediately left for Gillette. 
They had to make a very long hard ride — one hundred and 
twenty-five miles in the bitter January cold — to get to 
Gillette by the time Curry was due to arrive. In fact, the 
train carrying Curry was whistling in as these men entered 
the outskirts of Girette. 

Curry, on nearing Gillette, had, as a seat companion, 
an old man who was very interested in wild yarns about 
the tough West. He inquired in particular about a char- 
acter by the name of "George Curry." Curry kidded him 
along until they neared Gillette. Then he told him who he 
was and said, "They intend to kill me when I get off the 
train here." As the train came to a stop, Curry pointed 
out of the window to a man standing on the platform with 
a rifle. He said, "There is one of the men who wants to 
kill me," whereupon the oM man started making space 
between himself and Curry as rapidly as possible. 

Curry took his bag in his right hand, threw his over- 
coat across his left shoulder, and, with his cocked six- 
shooter in his left hand under the tail of his overcoat, got 
off the train and started walking toward the armed man. 
He intended to shoot him if he made a false move. Before 
Curry had gone far, his friends, all heavily armed, stepped 
up to him. This is all that saved Curry, for another armed 
man was in the eating house to the east of him looking 


out through the glass of the storm door. 

Curry's friends told these officers they could not kill 
Curry and had as well go home. These men were John 
Nelan and Jim Ricks. They were both men with notches 
on their guns and were colorful figures in their own rights. 
According to John Carter, who was town marshal in 
Gillette at the time of this incident, Curry looked John 
Nelan squarely in the eye as he approached and Nelan did 
not have the nerve to use his gun. 

Curry and his friends then went to Mrs. Meserve's 
log restaurant, and, with one man on sentry duty, enjoyed 
a good warm meal. They then picked up Curry's horse 
from the livery barn where Curry had left him and all 
returned to the Hole-in-the-Wall country. 

At some time during Curry's visit, he had hired a 
young cowboy by the name of Thompson and sent him to 
the Jack Garner ranch to gather some of Curry's horses. 

I digress here to relate a recent conversation I had 
with Mike Elmore of Gillette. Mike says the old Garner 
ranch is now a part of his holdings. Mike further called 
attention to the fact that not far distant from the Garner 
ranch was a place known then and still referred to by old- 
timers as the "Curry Spring." It seems that Curry and 
his associates frequently camped at this spring. Some 
allege this was while moving stolen horses from the 

Shortly after Curry's return to Gillette Jim Ricks 
accidentally discovered a TJ steer that had been butchered 
by Garner. Garner had cut the TJ out of the hide but 
had overlooked the "safety" J. This gave Ricks an op- 
portunity to go to the Garner ranch in his official capacity. 
Ricks tried to get Curry's man, Thompson, to tell him 
about the butchering of the steer by Garner, but Thomp- 
son just laughed at him and would tell him nothing. Ricks 
then went back to Gillette, and, after getting John Nelan 
to accompany him, returned to the Garner ranch. Thomp- 
son was sitting at a table when the officers entered the 
house. Nelan shot Thompson through the neck v/hile 
Ricks ran into another room and started shooting at 
Thompson through the partition, but did no damage. The 
officers then loaded the boy's body into a buckboard and, 
with his feet dragging in the snow, drove to Gillette and 
threw the body into the jail. Here John Carter, the 
marshal, later found it and cut the boots off the frozen 
feet. Most of the old-timers around Gillette seem to think 


the killing of Thompson nothing but a brutal murder com- 
mitted in retaliation for the officers' loss of nerve and 
consequent failure to kill Curry. The general impression 
by many at that time and by those still familiar with these 
events is that Thompson was an innocent young cowboy 
getting work wherever he could. 

Garner was subsequently convicted for butchering the 
steer and served a short term in the penitentiary. 

Curry later became an outlaw of considerable note 
and at one time the Union Pacific Railroad offered $3,000.00 
for him dead or alive. This was for the Wilcox train rob- 
bery where $60,000.00 in unsigned bank notes was taken 
from the safe in the express car. After this robbery 
Curry, Logan and Lonabaugh came back into this country 
near our ranch, after they had killed Joe Hazen, Converse 
County sheriff, near the present Salt Creek oil field. 

Curry was killed by officers near Price, Utah, April 
17, 1900. 

Walt Monett^ of Gillette, Wyoming, who furnished me 
much authentic information for this article, writes me 
(November 2, 1942) as follows, "Though his (Curry's) 
father claimed the body at Price, Utah, it is thought by 
many that it was not George's body. C. P. Berry^ was 
called in to identify it, which he could not do. The sup- 
position was that though the father realized the mistake 
he wished the authorities to think George dead." 

I once asked George Smith, brother of Al Smith of the 
party who met Curry at Gillette, if he ever saw the photo- 
graph taken of Curry after he had been killed. He said, 
"yes, he had, and anyone who knew Curry would know 
at a glance that it was a picture of him from 'those ears 
set a way down low on the side of his head'." 

I knew Curry well. He was a likeable fellow, not 
quarrelsome. He helped me pack in the first deer I ever 
killed when I was twelve years old. It was a ten-point 
buck and I could not load it on a horse. My sister, three 
years younger than I, used to be the recipient of much 

1. Walt Monett is a successful cattleman near Gillette. I rode 
the roundups with him more than forty years ago. He was in the 
Hole-in-the-Wall fight the time Bob Smith was killed and Al Smith 
had his six-shooter shot out of his hand. I talked this over with 
Monett during our Stock Growers Convention last June. (1942). 

2. C. P. Berry of Gillette was many years ago a livestock in- 
spector and detective of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association. 
At the last annual convention of this organization, Mr. Berry was 
made an honorary life member. 


candy from the cowboys who stopped at our place where 
we then had the Mayoworth post office. ^ Curry did not 
think so much candy was good for a little girl, so instead 
he bought her yards and yards of blue ribbon. After all, 
there is a lot of bad in the best of us, and some good in 
the worst of us.^ 

3. At this time Mayoworth was the line between lawlessness 
and law and order. Peace officers did not venture south of this point, 
and outlaws did not go north of it. 

4. I am much indebted to George Smith for some of the above 
information. I also am very grateful to Walt Monett of Gillette 
who, in addition to his own information, contacted John Carter who 
was town marshal of Gillette and owned a livery barn at the time 
of this event. Mrs. C. P. Berry gave Mr. Monett the information 
about Curry's sister. Monett says, "I went to school with Curry's 
two brothers, Hugh and Don, in Chadron; they wer^ nice boys and 
considered George quite a hero. They thought he would never be 
caught. George Curry's sister, Barbara, taught near Chadron when 
I was there and near Sundance at the time of this incident. She was 
a fine girl and very sensitive of George's shortcomings." -Author. 


The first county library in the United States was es- 
tablished at Cheyenne, Laramie County, Wyoming Terri- 
tory, in the fall of 1886, the books and quarters of the 
Cheyenne Library Association being its nucleus? — (The 

Carnegie Public Library, Memorial Volume, 1902, p. 56.) 

When Wyoming Territory was organized in 1869 Car- 
ter County was one of the four counties with established 
governments within the new territory? In comDh'ance with 
a proclamation by Governor Campbell. Carter County went 
to the polls on September 2, 1869, and elected three mem- 
bers to the council body of the legislature and three mem- 
bers to the House of Representatives which convened in 
Cheyenne October 12, 1869. Elected at that time were 
Wm. H. Bright, George Wardman and W. S. Rockwell as 
councilmen; James W. Memefee, Ben Sheeks and John Hol- 
brook as representatives. This is the only legislative as- 
sembly wherein Carter County, as such, ever had any rep- 
resentation or voice. Before the first legislative assembly 
of Wyoming Territory adjourned it changed the name 
of this county from Carter to Sweetwater. — ^ Laics of wyo- 

jning 1869, Council Journal of 1869 and House Journal of 1869.) 

By Harry B. Henderson, Sr.* 

Five and one-half decades residence in one's adopted 
state offers an opportunity for observation as to people 
and the development of its resources. This has been my 

Cheyenne in 1884 was the gate city to eastern Wyo- 
ming, the Black Hills and was the residence of many of 
Wyoming's then cattle barons. Livestock might be run 
on the Sweetwater or Cheyenne Rivers and their owner 
or the representative of the owners have his palatial home 
in Cheyenne. 

Rock River was the gateway to Fort McKinney and 
Buffalo, the metropolis of northern Wyoming. There was 
a small settlement at Big Horn and a post office, but 
Sheridan was yet in the horning. 

The first herd of cattle was thrown north of the Platte 
River by the Frewen Brothers in 1879. They established 
a ranch that year in the Powder River country. Immed- 
iately, the trail for moving catt^.e to Montana was opened 
and eastern Wyoming was the great trailway to the Yel- 
lowstone and Missouri River countries. 

Rawlins was the gateway for the central part of the 
state to the Stinking Water River, almost three hundred 
miles north. It was likewise the gateway to Dixon, Baggs, 
the Bear River country in Colorado and as far south as 
the post office of Rifle. 

Opal was the outfitting point for the Green River and 
its tributaries, while Evanston was the trading point of 
the people in the southwest corner of the state. Coke- 
ville, just a hamlet, took care of the settlers in its im- 
mediate vicinity. 

Lander had just been made the county seat of the 
new county of Fremont, and Fort Washakie was the head- 
quarters for a couple of companies of soldiers who were 
needed to keep the Indian people from committing depreda- 

*Mr. Henderson is an eminent pioneer of Wyoming. For bio- 
graphical data see the ANNALS OF WYOMING, Volume 11, No. 4, 
October 1939, pp. 237-9. 


tions. Military forts were maintained at Fort Russell, 
Fort Steele, Fort Bridger, Fort Washakie, Fort McKinney 
and Fort Laramie. 

The Union Pacific Railway was the only line of rail 
transportation. Travel to any point north or south of 
this railway could be accomplished by horseback, by team- 
drawn buckboard, or the covered wagon, or by walking. 
There was practically no irrigation of lands and the only 
effort to provide provender for animals was the cutting 
of native hay for saddle horses kept up during the winter 
months. The rural southern half of the then Territory, 
now State, had more population at the period of which 
I write than it has today. 

The Territory of Wyoming was divided into eight 
counties, all of which were organized. There were three 
Judicial Districts presided over by U. S. District Judges 
who also comprised the Supreme Court. The Territory 
was represented at Washington by a delegate in Congress. 
J. M. Carey and C. P. Organ were the candidates for dele- 
gate. There were telegraph lines from Cheyenne to Fort 
Laramie, from Rawlins to Fort Washakie and along the 
Union Pacific Railway. Laramie, Albany, Carbon, Sweet- 
water and Uinta Counties had court houses. Churches 
were located at the respective county seats, and schools 
were opened at each town or village. Generally speaking, 
the town and village people attended church on the Lord's 
Day if services were held in their particular church. At 
Sunday morning service a very large majority of the people 
attended worship. C. P. Arnold's father was the Pres- 
byterian minister, a man by name of Bannister was the 
Episcopal rector, Dr. Conway's brother was Priest at 

Our assessed valuation was $26,000,000.00. Coal 
mines were operated at Carbon, Rock Springs and Almy. 
Cattle raising was the chief industry, but there were some 
sheep. Raising good horses was a paying business. Min- 
ing for precious metals, except by placering at Rock River 
and in Atlantic City District, had been abandoned. 

There were no state buildings or institutions. There 
was a territorial penitentiary building at Laramie. The 
highways were those built by nature. The streams of the 
state, except the Platte at Fetterman, were unbridged, save 
where the railway was built. 

Doctor Graff began the drilling of an oil weU at Popo 
Agie. Jake Ervay began drilling at the Rattlesnake Range 



almost at the same time. The doctor brought in a good 
well, but he was ahead of his time. There was neither the 
demand for or transportation for oil. 

There were twelve banks, Cheyenne supporting four of 
them. There was a rolling mill at Laramie, but no grist 
mills in the Territory. There were no electric light plants, 
no buildings with passenger elevators and no telephones. 
I have told you some of the things we had and of 
some of the things we did not have fifty-seven years ago. 
You may make the inventory of the possessions of today. 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Build- 
ing in Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, 
the Museum provides for the preservation and display of 
the prized possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your his- 
torical collections and relics in your State Museum, where 
they may be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the 
thousands of visitors. 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is num- 
bered, labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring 
permanent identification. 

^Uo'4fiGA. Man.G4t^6. ^au^ute4€ 

By Fritiof Fryxell* 

(Published in Augustana Historical Society Publications, 
Number 2, 1932) 

Thomas Moran^ was 34 years of age when he made 
his memorable first visit to the Rocky Mountains. The 
opportunity for this journey came in 1871 when he was 
invited to become the guest of the Hayden Territorial Sur- 
veys and accompany the first of the successive field 
parties which were appointed by Dr. F. V. Hayden to in- 
vestigate the scenic wonders of that portion of north- 
western Wyoming which a year later was to become cele- 
brated as Yellowstone National Park. The most notable 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Fritiof Melvin Fryxell was born 
at Moline, Illinois, on April 27, 1900. A geologist, he took his A.B. 
degree at Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois, his M.A. at the 
University of Illinois, his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago and 
has since taken graduate study at the Universities of Colorado and 
Iowa. He has held the position of professor of geology at Augustana 
College since 1929 and has also acted as naturalist for the Grand 
Teton National Park, Wyoming, from 1929 to 1935. He served on 
the museum planning staff of the National Park Service for 1935-7 
azid engaged in geological exploration in the Philippine Islands, 
1939-40. He is the author of Science at Augustana College; Physio- 
graphy of the Region of Chicago; Glacial Features of Jackson Hole, 
Wyoming; The Teton Peaks and Their Ascents; The Tetons: Inter- 
pretations of a Mountain Landscape. His article, "The Story of 
Deadman's Bar" appeared in the June 1929, Vol. 5. No. 4 issue of 
the ANNALS OF WYOMING, and "Placing the Grand Teton Me- 
morial Tablet" in the January 1930, Vol. 6, No. 3 issue. 

Mr. Fryxell was married to Regina Christina Holmen on June 
22, 1928, and they have three children: John B., Roald H. and Thomas 
W. He is at present with the U. S. Geological Survey, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

1. Thomas Moran, who passed away on August 25, 1926, at the 
age of 89 years, is conceded to have done more than any other artist 
to make known to the world the scenic resour'ces of the West. In 
the estimate of his contemporaries "the dean of American artists" 
and probably the greatest landscape interpreter our country has yet 
produced, he is likewise entitled to an important place among the 
early explorers of the Far West. No biography of Moran has j'et 
been written, but numerous accounts of his life and work ai'e avail- 
able. Unfortunately, most of these brief accounts abound with 


of the works which resulted from this first expedition was 
the great canvass depicting "The Grand Canyon of the 
Yellowstone," a painting which was recognized as pos- 
sessing such national significance that Congress approp- 
riated ten thousand dollars for its purchase (at the time 
considered a very large sum) and arranged for its per- 
manent exhibition in the Capitol at Washington. 

Late in the summer of 1872, Dr. Hay den wrote to his 
now famous young friend, under date of August 29, "There 
is no doubt that your reputation is made. Still you must 
do much to nurse it. The more you get, the greater care 
. . . The next picture you paint must be the Tetons. I 
have arranged for a small party to take you from Fort 
Hall up Snake River, thence to the Yellowstone, etc. . . . 
It will not be difficult for you to see all this country next 
year in a few weeks and make all the sketches you wish 
. . . Put on your best strokes this summer so as to be 
ready for a big campaign next summer. "^ 

However, possibly because of a change of plans on 
the part of Dr. Hayden, whose 1873 activities centered in 
Colorado and did not extend into northwestern Wyoming, 
the following summer found Thomas Moran 500 miles 
southwest of the Tetons, in company with the intrepid 
John W. Powell among the remote and little-known 

inaccuracies so far as his western travels are concerned. A few 
references may be listed : 

Benjamin, S. G. W., "A Pioneer of the Palette, Thomas Moran." 
The Magazine of Art, February, 1882, pages 89-93. 

Ladegast, Richard, "Thomas Moran, N. A." Truth, September, 
1900, pages 209-212. 

Buckley, Edmund, "Thomas Moran, A Splendid Example of 
American Achievement in Art." — Fine Arts Journal, January, 1909, 
pages 9-17. 

Simpson, William H., "Thomas Moran — The Man." — Fine Arts 
Journal, January, 1909, pages 18-25. 

Buek, G. H., "Thomas Moran." — A7nerican Magazine, January, 
1913, pages 30-32. 

Gillespie, Harriet Sisson, "Thomas Moran, Dean of our Paint- 
ers." — International Studio, August, 1924, pages 361-366. 

Buek, G. H., "Thomas Moran, N. A. The Grand Old Man of 
American Art." — The Mentor, August, 1924, pages 29-37. 

Moran, Ruth B., "Thomas Moran: An Appreciation." — The 
Mentor, August, 1924, pages 38-52. 

Butler, Howard Russell, "Thomas Moran, N. A. — An Apprecia- 
tion." — The American Magazine of Art, November, 1926, pages 559- 

Parker, R. A., "The Water-Colors of Thomas Moran." — Inter- 
national Studio, March, 1927, pages 65-72. 

2. Letters in possession of Miss Ruth B. Moran. 


plateaus of southern Utah and northern Arizona. ^ Sum- 
mer after summer shpped by, golden seasons in Moran's 
life, during which he traveled widely both in the West 
and abroad; and it was not until 1879, the year following 
the disbanding of the Territorial Surveys, that Thomas 
Moran finally found his way into the Teton country, whose 
grandeur he had for so long been urged to behold for him- 
self, and where, seven years before, a splendid peak had 
been named in his honor. ^ 

3. Moran's painting, "The Chasm of the Colorado," was one of 
the products of the 1873 expedition and was also purchasea by Con- 
gress as a companion piece to "The Grand Canyon of the Yellow- 
stone." It is most unfortunate that these great paintings, of such 
historical and artistic significance, have never been displayed to 
advantage in the Capitol. Their illumination in the niches which 
they at present occupy impresses one as being scarcely adequate, 
and it is impossible for the observer, in viewing them, to stand as far 
away as is desirable due to their size. 

4. Professor Frank H. Bradley, geologist with the Hayden party 
of 1872 in the Teton country, mentioned in connection with an at- 
tempted ascent of the Grand Teton that "To the north of the canon 
(probably Cascade Canyon) one peak of the range, which we have 
called Mount Leidy, has a long wedge-shaped summit, upon the top 
of which a long mound, like those erected so numerously by the 
mound-builders in the valleys of the Mississippi and its tributaries. 
This summit, however, was not visited." (P. 222 of the Sixth Annual 
Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories.) This 
name was proposed in honor of Joseph Leidy, the distinguished 
vertebrate paleontologist who served with the Hayden Surveys. 

The name "Mount Leidy" actually appears on one of the sketches 
accompanying Bradley's report (page 262). This must have been 
an oversight, however, for officially the name was not allowed to 
stand. On Bechler's "Map of the Sources of the Snake River" which 
accompanies Bradley's report (opposite page 255), as well as on all 
later maps, the name "Mount Moran" has been substituted for 
"Mount Leidy," the latter name being transferred to a much less 
imposing summit (altitude 10,317 feet) twenty miles to the south- 
east, in the highlands east of Jackson Hole. Possibly the change 
was made by Bechler, the topographer, but more likely by Hayden 

Bechler gives the altitude of Mount Moran as 12,800 feet; in 
the maps (by Bechler and Clark) accompanying the Twelfth Annual 
Report (covering the explorations of 1878) this figure has been re- 
vised to 12,441. Bannon's triangulations of 1898 and 1899 for the 
Grand Teton Quadrangle map reduced its altitude still further, placing 
it between 12,100 and 12,200 feet. According to this determination 
(the most reliable now available) Mount Moran is exceeded in alti- 
tude by at least four major Teton peaks (each of the Three Tetons 
and Mount Owen) and possibly by a fifth, Teewinot (which is also 
between 12,100 and 12.200 feet). 

Though by no means the highest peak in the range, as is ap- 
parent from the above. Mount Moran is by far the broadest and 
most massive of the Teton peaks, measuring as it does no less 
than three miles in diameter at its base. It is one of the most 


Little was known concerning Thomas Moran's journey 
to the Tetons in 1879, other than it was at this time that 
he secured all of the field sketches upon which are based 
his Teton landscape paintings, notably his famous studies 
of Mount Moran (there being several, differing principally 
in details) and "The Teton Range, Idaho" (the latter title 
and several others are in error in assigning the Teton 
peaks to Idaho, whereas all of them lie on the Wyoming 
side of the state line). Not a little interest, therefore, 
attaches to the recent discovery by Miss Ruth B. Moran 
of a little journal kept by her father on this expedition — 
one of the few documents from Moran's own hand relating 
to his early work and travels in the West. 

Moran's journal is a little notebook of vestpocket size 
containing a series of day-to-day pencil entries. The en- 
tries begin and end with equal abruptness; there is no 
introduction or conclusion. Most similar records start 
out bravely enough with detailed entries which, as the days 
pass, become increasingly perfunctory, but with Moran's 
the reverse is true, the jottings of the first days giving 
way to ampler and more carefully written accounts. In 
all liklihood at the conclusion of the expedition Moran 
laid his journal away^ and forgot it, for had he later re- 
turned to it he would very likely have caught an obvious 
calendar error which it contains, and he would probably 
not have left his notes in their present unfinished state 
(for the narrative ends with the party camped on the re- 
turn trip, at the junction of Willow Creek and Sand Creek, 
less than two days' journey north of their destination). 

From the journal it appears that Thomas Moran's 
journey to the Tetons was made in company with his 

beautiful of mountains, the more so because of its magnificent 
setting to tlie west of Jackson Lake in whose waters are mirrored 
its great buttressed figure and the several ice fields clinging to its 
upper slopes. The mountaineering history of Mount Moran is one 
of considerable interest and has been recorded elsewhere (in "Teton 
Peaks and Their Ascents" by the writer. Grand Teton National 
Park, Wyoming, 1932. Pages 88-104). 

5. Moran appears to have published only one account relating 
to his many western expeditions, that which in 1892 he made in 
company with the pioneer photographer, William H. Jackson, to 
Devil's Tower, Wyoming (The Century Illustrated Magazine, Janu- 
ary, 1894, pp. 450-455). 


younger brother, Peter, the noted animal painter, ^ the 
two young artists having evidently seized an opportunity 
to make the expedition under escort of a military detach- 
ment sent out from Fort Hall, Idaho, on a scout into Teton 
Basin (Pierre's Hole) under leadership of Captain Augustus 
Hudson Bainbridge (Company A, 14th U. S. Infantry), 
then in command of the post of Fort Hall. No special 
occasion for a scouting expedition at this time is apparent, 
the records of the War Department simply noting (Captain 
Bainbridge's absence from the post during the 12-day 
period from August 21 to September 1; it is probable that 
the trip was arranged purely as an accomodation to the 
distinguished Moran brothers. The apprehension of a 
hostile Bannock, Pam-pigemena, on August 29 is men- 
tioned in Moran's journal but this arrest appears to have 
been an incidental episode. 

In view of the fact that the entire journey consumed 
but twelve days time and was, moreover, made at a sea- 
son when the range was much obscured by smoke from 
forest fires, it is remarkable that Moran was able to secure 
material for so many important paintinngs — works which 
will forever link his name with the Tetons. From his 
journal it is clear that he actually spent only one day 
within the range itself, and did not have an opportunity 
to view the Tetons at all from the far more spectacular 
eastern side (that is, from any point within the area now 
included in the Grand Teton National Park). Though 
these mountains impressed Moran as constituting "per- 
haps the finest pictorial range in the United States or 
even in North America," it is quite certain that in all 
his subsequent travels he never found his way back among 
them again, nor beheld, save possibly from a distance. 

6. The Morans have been compared to those families "of 
Flanders three centuries ago or of Japan in this century who seem 
to have the tendency toward art in the name." While more than 
a dozen members of this remarkable family have achieved eminence 
in the field of art in America, three brothers from the original 
family which came to this country in 1844 from Lancashire, England, 
probably stand first: Edward Moran, N. A., (1829-1901), the painter 
of marines; Thomas Moran, N. A., (1837-1926), the subject of this 
article and noted principally for his landscape painting; and Peter 
Moran (1842-1914), an animal painter and etcher. A fourth brother, 
John Moran (1831-1903), was one of the first and best-known Amer- 
ican outdoor photographeis, and was also a landscape painter. Of 
the many Morans of later generations who became artists the two 
sons of Edward Moran, Percy (1862-) and Leon (1864-), are prob- 
ably the best known. 




Portrait taken in 1882. 

the beautiful mountain which bears his name. The httle 
journal which follows is, therefore, a record of Thomas 
Moran's first and only visit to the Tetons. 

August 21 (1879). 

Left Fort HalF with Cap. A. H. Bainbridge & 20 men. 
2 wagons. On way to Taylors Bridge^ very hot. Mirage. 
Dogs exhausted. Pete sick. Reached Taylors Bridge^ late 
in afternoon. 27 miles. Desolation. Abandoned town. 

7. Fort Hall, the old military post, was located about 15 miles 
northeast of the present Indian Agency of that name on the Fort 
Hall Indian Reservation. 

8. At approximately the site of the city of Idaho Falls. 


R. R. bridge over the Snake. Andersons Store. Dis- 
charged soldier in the morning came into camp & made 
disturbance. Hughes. Highway robber. Dismal camp. 
Furious wind al night driving sand everywhere. Almost 
blinding. Gray dismal morning. Black basalt. Abomin- 
ation. Rushing river like Niagara Rapids. 

Aug. 22 

Left Camp at Taylors Bridge at 7 o'clock. Cold & 
windy with dust following & blinding us all the way. At 
noon passed Black Jacks on Willow Creek. All sage plain 
proposed irrigation. Arrived at 12 at Buck from Con- 
necticut. 7 miles to south fork of Snake. Arrived there 
at y_2 past 3. Two hours to get across on the opposite 
side. Had terrible time to get the heavy wagons up the 
embankment & through" the willows. 40 feet. 12 mules. 
Soldiers yelling & beating the mules. Got up all right & 
went into camp in a beautiful spot on the north bank of 
the river. Soldiers bathing. Watering the stock near 
Taylors Bridge. Had our first sight of the great Teton 
some 70 miles away. Indian herders seldom speak & 
keep studiously apart from the other men. The Stagey 
sergeant. Amusing to see the mules inquisitively sur- 
rounding the teamster who was handling rations. Fires 
all over the country. 

Aug. 23 

An early breakfast & cool. Following foothills sur- 
mounted by basalt over a plain covered with fine bunch 
grass. Fine grazing & altogether a beautiful grazing & 
farming country with means of easy irrigation from the 
south fork of the Snake, which is a splendid current & 
clear as crystal. We are directly opposite Crater Buttes 
across the Snake 15 miles distant. The Salmon River 
Range close in the distance enveloped in a delicate blue 
haze. To the east lies the Snake River Range, a low line 
of mountains separating us from the Teton Basin. ^ - past 
seven, 5 miles, a halt on for 10 minutes. A good road for 
the wagons. At 11:20 reached a fine cold stream, prob- 
ably Moody Creek, where we rested % hour to water the 
animals. The Tetons are now plainly visible but not well 
defined ovdng to the mistiness of the atmosphere. They 
loom grandly above all the other mountains. An inter- 
vening ridge dividing us from the Teton Basin stretcher 
for miles to the north, of a beautiful pinkish yellow with 
delicate shades of pale cobalt, while the distant range is 
of an exquisite blue with but little definition of forms on 



— Courtesy Augtistana Historical Society 


Camped in Teton Basin, Idaho. From an early photograph. 

their surface. Our Indian, Jack, has just caught a fine 
trout of about 3 pounds weight and he says the stream is 
full of them. 

Aug. 24th 

Teton River Camp 

Trout this morning for B. & a wind blowing nearly 
as bad as at Taylors Bridge, driving the dust everywhere 
& covering our breakfast. Cold but bright overhead. 
The Tetons from this camp are very well defined in a 
directly easterly direction before the sun rose but soon 
disappeared when the atmosphere lighted up. Boguy^ 
whose ranch we stopped at for information yesterday 
drove over this morning before we left camp and partly 
under guidance (we) reached Canon Creek at 11 o'clock 
after a 15 mile ride over rolling country covered with ex- 
cellent grass & free from sage. We struck the canon at 
a point where it is about 800 feet in depth with very 

9. Spelled "Boqua" elsewhere in the journal. 


precipitous banks covered with the debris from the basaltic 
columns with which the upper edge is fringed. A large 
porcupine was killed by Cap. Bainbridge a mile or two 
from the canon. Following a, trail leading up the edge of 
the canon we found that it led down into the canon, which 
has a beautiful stream flowing through it fringed with 
water elms, pine, cottonwood, etc. The captain & two 
men have gone up the canon either to find a (ford or a 
camp sight). About a mile above we found a depression 
in the side of the canon down which we could make our 
way to a flat space containing a few acres covered with 
sage & grass. Here the wagons were unloaded & after 
packing the material on the pack mules the wagons with 
a portion of the mules & 6 or 8 men were sent back to 
Boqua's to there camp until our return from the Teton 
Basin. We made our camp on the flat in the canon. 
Caught a few mountain trout and ascended the canon again 
to get a glimpse of the Tetons but from this point only the 
top of Mt. Moran is visible owing to the slope of the hills 
beyond the canon. 

Aug. 25th 

We were out of bed this morning at 5:30. It was very 
cold and ice had formed on the tin cups. In another hour 
we were under way over what appeared to be a rolling but 
smooth country but as we advanced we found our mis- 
take. Every mile we found a gulch bordered with aspen 
in depth from 100 to 200 feet but we found no difficulty 
in crossing any of them. After passing the divide between 
the Teton Basin & our last camp we found a gently 
(rolling) country (descending) to the Basin. The Tetons 
here loomed up grandly against the sky & from this point 
it is perhaps the finest pictorial range in the United States 
or even in N. America. After descending the slope about 
3 miles we came upon a small ice cold stream & deter- 
mined to camp. Leaving the main body the Cap., Pete, 
myself & 1 man proceded a mile or two toward the Teton 
Valley but saw no signs of water within 5 miles. On our 
return to camp we saw a deer within a quarter of a mile 
but failed to get near enough to get a shot at it. After 
camp had been finally disposed of 3 men & the Indian 
were sent out to hunt. They had not been gone more than 
an hour before we heard seven shots and concluded thev 
had found something. Soon after they returned & the 
Indian, Jack, had shot 3 out of 5 deer they had come upon. 
One was lost in the packing as the mules objected strongly 
to carry dead animals so but two were brought into camp. 



— Courtesy Augustana Historical Society 


Camped in Teton Basin, Idaho. From an early photograph. 

their surface. Our Indian, Jack, has just caught a fine 
trout of about 3 pounds weight and he says the stream is 
full of them. 

Aug. 24th 

Teton River Camp 

Trout this morning for B. & a wind blowing nearly 
as bad as at Taylors Bridge, driving the dust everywhere 
& covering our breakfast. Cold but bright overhead. 
The Tetons from this camp are very well defined in a 
directly easterly direction before the sun rose but soon 
disappeared when the atmosphere lighted up. Boguy^ 
whose ranch we stopped at for information yesterday 
drove over this morning before we left camp and partly 
under guidance (we) reached Canon Creek at 11 o'clock 
after a 15 mile ride over rolling country covered with ex- 
cellent grass & free from sage. We struck the canon at 
a point where it is about 800 feet in depth with very 

9. Spelled "Boqua" elsewhere in the journal. 


precipitous banks covered with the debris from the basaltic 
columns with which the upper edge is fringed. A large 
porcupine was killed by Cap. Bainbridge a mile or two 
from the canon. Following a trail leading up the edge of 
the canon we found that it led down into the canon, which 
has a beautiful stream flowing through it fringed with 
water elms, pine, cottonwood, etc. The captain & two 
men have gone up the canon either to find a (ford or a 
camp sight). About a mile above we found a depression 
in the side of the canon down which we could make our 
way to a flat space containing a few acres covered with 
sage & grass. Here the wagons were unloaded & after 
packing the material on the pack mules the wagons with 
a portion of the mules & 6 or 8 men were sent back to 
Boqua's to there camp until our return from the Teton 
Basin. We made our camp on the flat in the canon. 
Caught a few mountain trout and ascended the canon again 
to get a glimpse of the Tetons but from this point only the 
top of Mt. Moran is visible owing to the slope of the hills 
beyond the canon. 

Aug. 25th 

We were out of bed this morning at 5:30. It was very 
cold and ice had formed on the tin cups. In another hour 
we were under way over what appeared to be a rolling but 
smooth country but as we advanced we found our mis- 
take. Every mile we found a gulch bordered with aspen 
in depth from 100 to 200 feet but we found no difficulty 
in crossing any of them. After passing the divide between 
the Teton Basin & our last camp we found a gently 
(rolling) country (descending) to the Basin. The Tetons 
here loomed up grandly against the sky & from this point 
it is perhaps the finest pictorial range in the United States 
or even in N. America. After descending the slope about 
3 miles we came upon a small ice cold stream & deter- 
mined to camp. Leaving the main body the Cap., Pete, 
myself & 1 man proceded a mile or two toward the Teton 
Valley but saw no signs of water within 5 miles. On our 
return to camp we saw a deer within a quarter of a mile 
but failed to get near enough to get a shot at it. After 
camp had been finally disposed of 3 men & the Indian 
were sent out to hunt. They had not been gone more than 
an hour before we heard seven shots and concluded they 
had found something. Soon after they returned & the 
Indian, Jack, had shot 3 out of 5 deer they had come upon. 
One was lost in the packing as the mules objected strongly 
to carry dead animals so but two were brought into camp. 




1. w 

— Courtesy Augiistana Historical tsociety 

They were the mule deer which may have had something 
to do with the objections of the mules to carrying them. 
Later in the afternoon 4 men were sent to search for the 
lost deer and they soon after brought it into camp. Of 
course we enjoyed our venison heartily at dinner. This 
afternoon vje made sketches of the Teton Range but the 
distance, 20 miles, is rather too far to distinguish the 
details, especially as it is very smoky from fires in the 
mountains on each side of the peaks. This evening it is 
quite cold but we have a fine camp fire and the Cap. & 
Peter are broiling some venison ribs on willow sticks. 


From camp this morning our way lay over a smooth 
rolling country descending gently to the bottom of the 
Teton Basin or Valley through which the Teton River 
flows, its banks deeply fringed with the willow common to 
this region, with here & there cottonwoods in small 
groves. The Teton River can be forded at almost any 
point. Soon after crossing the stream we saw a teepee 


in the willows a short distance away and some horses 
grazing. Going over there we found it to be Beaver Dick,'° 
his Indian squaw, & a companion whom he called Tom. 
He was evidently trapping beaver as he had several skins 
stretched with pins on the ground. Leaving Beaver Dick's 
camp we headed directly for the canon of Teton River ' ^ 
which heads at the base of the Tetons. Dick said it was 
17 miles to the camping ground but we found that it was 
not more than 10 or 12. At the mouth of the canon we 
found a pretty good camping spot^^ q^ the edge of the 
banks of the river which are here about 14 feet high. A 
fine growth of pine fills the river bottom & good grazing 
for animals covers the space between ourselves and the 
hills. It is very hot this afternoon & so very smoky 
that the Teton peaks can scarcely be seen & at times are 
entirely obscured so that sketching is out of the question 
& we spend our time working up some of our sketches 
made previously. As the sun goes down it gets quite 
cold but a roaring camp fire gives warmth & cheer- 
fulness to our camp & we all feel in the best of spirits. 
After a good night's rest we get up on the morning of the 
27th; & after a substantial breakfast of venison we are 
about to start out on a trip up the canon when one of the 
men discovered a black bear coming down the hills toward 
camp & not more than 250 yards distant. The bear 
showed much curiosity in regard to our camp & was de- 
liberating whether to come nearer when the Cap. sent 
Indian Jack and several men out to interview him. Jack 
got the first shot and hit him in the right foot which seemed 
to surprise him very much as he threw up his foot & stood 
still a few seconds but he was not long in making up his 
mind to retreat. The men fired a number of shots after 

10. "Beaver Dick," whose proper name was Richard Leigh, was 
the most picturesque figure in the Teton region during the decades 
immediately preceding settlement. He was called Beaver Dick "on 
account of the striking resemblance of two abnormally large front 
teeth in his upper jaw to the teeth of a beaver. The Indians called 
him 'The Beaver'" (Chittenden). Beaver Dick figures prominently 
in the early history of the Teton region, where for most of his life ( it 
is said that he was 16 when he came into the region) he trapped, 
hunted, and acted in the capacity of guide. He is buried on a hilltop 
at the mouth of Teton Canyon. In the Grand Teton National Park 
the names of two beautiful lakes, Beaver Dick Lake and Leigh Lake, 
perpetuate his memory, and an adjoining body of water, Jenny Lake, 
is named after his first Indian wife. 

11. That is, Teton Canyon, through which Teton Creek mot 
Teton River) flows. 

12. Near Alta, about S^o miles northeast of the present village 
of Driggs. 


him as he ran into the aspen grove at the foot of the hill 
but failed to hit him & in a few minutes he had disap- 
peared over the top of the hill, much to the disgust of the 
hunters. After this little event the Cap., Pete, myself & 
two men started on a trip up the canon. We proceeded 
over a not difficult way about 6 miles and ascended to the 
top of a granite cliff about 500 feet to get a good view of 
the canon 13 that leads up to the right of the Tetons. The 
peaks of the Tetons'^ are from this point entirely hidden 
from view but a number of other fine peaks present them- 
selves in view. The view is very magnificent. The op- 
posite mountain rises 5,000 feet above the river with a 
granite base surmounted by sandstone & capped with 
tremendous precipices of limestone. The slopes are covered 
in places with a growth of large pines but the summit is 
nearly bare of vegetation. We remained on the cliff some 
3 hours sketching and afterwards amused ourselves by roll- 
ing down great granite boulders over the precipice upon 
which we stood & watching their descent as they went 
rebounding from rock to rock & crashing through the 
brush & dead timber at the base with a noise like the re- 
port of musketry & echoing through the canon. De- 
scending to the valley we found Red Raspberry & B. Cur- 
rants plentiful with which we regaled ourselves. A large 
beaver dam stretches across the canon at this point & the 
animals' industry is here exhibited on a large scale, the 
trees having been cut by them hundreds of feet above the 
river and brought down to the dam. Game of all sorts is 
very abundant in the canon. Elk & deer tracks are seen 
everywhere. We returned to camp early in the afternoon. 
The fires in the surrounding mountains had become so 
dense as almost to obscure the peaks of the Tetons & the 
sun went down in fiery redness. A strong & cold wind 
began to blow soon after & during the night a violent 
thunder storm continued until nearly day break, accom- 
panied by rain in the canon and snow on the peaks. Heavy 
storm clouds hung over the range dropping snow or rain 
occasionally & a cold wind blew from the S. W. 

Aug. 28 

We broke camp and left the canon at 6:30, after an 
uncomfortable breakfast prepared under difficulties of 

13. One of the north forks of Teton Canyon, probably the one 
marked "Roaring Creek" on the map of Targhee National Forest. 

14. Probably a reference to the group of principal peaks known 
as the "Three Tetons." 


rain & a cold wind. As we left the canon & came into 
the open plain the sun broke through the dense clouds that 
overhung the mountains for a time and showed his face 
fitfully all day. On our way back we called at the wickiup 
of Beaver Dick & after a little talk we proceeded to the 
Teton River near its junction with Bear Creek where we 
intended to camp, but after a rest of a couple of hours 
during which a number of fine salmon trout were taken we 
concluded to go on some 8 miles to our old camp on the 
other side of the Teton Valley where we arrived about 4 
o'clock, Beaver Dick & his companion Tom joining us 
part of the way. It was cold & windy during the evening 
& considerable snow fell on the mountain during the day. 
Indian Jack as usual was the luck hunter & and brought in 
a young Antelope many of which we saw between Beaver 
Dick's & our camping ground. A roaring camp fire dis- 
pelled the cold & our camp being in a sheltered spot we 
slept comfortably & next morning, Aug. 29, '^ we followed 
our trail toward Canon Creek for some time when we were 
again joined by Beaver Dick who guided over a new route 
to Boqua's but not an improvement over our own as we 
came over to the Basin. The Cap. was very desirous of 
bringing into Ft. Hall a hostile Bannock Indian named 
Pam-pigemena who by the way was father-in-law to Beaver 
Dick & Dick said he knew where he was & would bring 
him to our camp in the morning. We journey along & 
reached Boqua's ranch early in the afternoon & found 
that the party we had left in charge of the wagons was 
camped on Moody Creek near its junction with the south 
fork of the Teton River some four miles further on. We 
proceeded on our way & reached there about 3 o'clock. 
After dinner Beaver Dick started out for the Indian prom- 
ising to bring h^'m in the morning. It was very cold during 
the night, heavy ice forming on the water in our buckets. 
On the morning of the 29th '^ as we were at breakfast 
Beaver Dick came into camp with the information that his 
father-in-law & his mother-in-law also would be in very 
soon. The Cap. ordered the start but left 3 men at the 
camp to wait for the Indian & his wife. We proceeded 
on our way toward the s. fork of the Snake River & when 
about 8 miles on our wav we descried the men with the 
Indians coming along. We halted for half an hour until 
they came up. They had all their worldly goods with 

15. Error: should read Aug. 29. 

16. Ditto: should read the 30th. 


them packed on 3 horses, consisting of beaver, otter, deer, 
bear, & other skins. They were about 60 & 50 years of 
age & seemed entirely indifferent to their position as 
prisoners. We bought some otter skins from them but a 
coveted gray bear skin the squaw would not part with as 
she said Beaver Dick gave it to her. We recrossed the 
Snake River without accident & arrived at Willow Creek 
at its junction with Sand Creek at 3 o'clock & went into 
camp. Cedars, cottonwood in the bottoms & a beautiful 
day. The ever present Crater Buttes on our right all day 
backed by the Salmon River Range. Poor camp with no 
grass for our animals. 


A dramatic performance was given in Wyoming as 
early as 1864? On August second of that year a "troupe of 
play folk from Chicago" en route to the gold fields of 
California by wagon train entertained their fellow travelers 
while camped in what is now Snyder Basin in Sublette 
County. A stage was made from the floor of the old Lan- 
der (General) blacksmith shop floor and wagon sheets 
were used for curtains. Logs were cut and dragged into 
the corral of wagons for pit seats. The orchestra consisted 
of violin, flute and guitars, the music of which echoed 
from the hills. The audience numbered over two hundred 
and were very appreciative. The show consisted of a 
short drama of a young girl forced into a repugnant mar- 
riage by her mercenary parents, but, aided by her sweet- 
heart, she disclosed the past of her elderly suitor that sent 
him on his way defeated in his aims. The play was fol- 
lowed by a vaudeville of popular songs, instrumental num- 
bers, acrobatic performances, ventriloquist's entertainment 
and jig dancing. The next day the trains pulled westward 
over the Lander Trail. — (Mr. Perry W. Jenkins, Cora, Wy- 
oming. Taken from the book Covered Wagon Days by Arthur 
Jerome Dickinson, pp. 149-156.) 

The first county library law in the United States was 
enacted February 16, 1886, by the Wyoming Territorial 

Legislature? — (The Carnegie Public Library, Memorial Volume, 
1902, p. 56.) 

IdJifaifiintf, place Na4fte6. 

At the beginning of publication of the Wyoming Place 
Names series in the April 1942 ANNALS OF WYOMING, 
readers were invited to send in corrections and additional 
material supplementing that contained in the files of the 
State Historical Department. While some responded, 
in order to insur.e complete satisfaction on the part of the 
Staff as to the authenticity of that presented and the re- 
mainder of the material to be published, it was felt arrange- 
ments should be made for further verification of it. There- 
fore, the names of towns were separated by county and a 
member of the State Historical Advisory Board in each 
county, or a historically-minded citizen in counties where no 
Board member resided, was asked to verify the data sub- 
mitted. While all lists have not been returned to date, the 
additions and corrections presented by the following per- 
sons have been arranged and are presented here : Struthers 
Burt (S. B.), Moran; Charles Oviatt (C. O.), Sheridan; Fen- 
imore Chatterton (F. C), Arvada, Colorado; Dr. Herbert O. 
Brayer (H. O. B.), Denver; Mae Cross (M. C), Piedmont; 
Hans Gautschi (H. G.), Lusk; Perry W. Jenkins (P. W. J.), 
Big Piney; Mrs. Dora McGrath (D. McG.), Thermopolis; 
Alfred J. Mokler (A. J. M.), Casper; Mrs. Minnie Reitz 
(M. R.), Wheatland; Russell Thorp (R. T.), Cheyenne; P. 
W. Spaulding (P. W. S.). Evanston. 

Previous lists of Wyoming- Place Names have ap- 
peared in the April and July 1942 ANNALS. 

BAIROIL, Sweetwater County. Named for Charles 
Bair, a prominent sheep man of Billings. Montana, v/ho 
financed and Dromoted the first oil development in that 
district. R. T.' 

BESSEMER. Natrona County. Established in 1888. 
At the first election in Natrona County in 1889. Bessemer 
was a candidate for the county seat. Six hundred sixtv- 
seven votes were cast, but the countv commissioners de- 
clared that more than three hundred of them were illegal 
and the vote of the entire precinct was throvm out. It is 

1. Persons who checked the lists of place names are given 
credit by placing their initials after each name explanation. Refer 
to names given in introduction above. — Ed. 


now one of Natrona County's "ghost towns." (Origin of 
name not known.) — A. J. M. 

BIG PINEY, Sublette County. The names given to 
the three streams that empty into Green River within a 
few rods of each other were North Piney, Middle Piney 
and South Piney. North Piney, being the largest, was 
called Big Piney. The first post office was at the Mule 
Shoe Ranch near Green River but later was moved to the 
home of Daniel B. Budd on the bank of North Piney and 
was called Big Piney Post Office. This was followed by 
the town. The first settler was Ed Swan and Otto Leifer 
in 1878, followed by A. W. Smith and Daniel B. Budd in 
1879. The post office dates from 1882.— P. W. J. 

BISHOP, Natrona County. Named for Marvin L. 
Bishop, an early-day postmaster of Casper, who had his 
sheep-shearing pens at this point. — A. J. M. 

BUCKNUM, Natrona County. Named for Charles K. 
Bucknum, an early-day mayor of Casper and owner of a 
sheep ranch near the railroad station where the town was 
established in 1905. — A. J. M. 

CAMBRIA, Weston County. Named by Kilpatrick 
Bros., railroad contractors, who constructed the Burling- 
ton Railroad through Wyoming and developed the first 
coal mine at Cambria on the Burlington in Wyoming. 
Named after Welch coal mines. — R. T. 

CASPER, Natrona County. The town was established 
in the early summer of 1888, and was named after Fort 
Caspar, a military post first established in 1858. The 
site of Fort Caspar was called Camp Platte from 1840 to 
1847. When the Mormons passed through here in June 
1847, they built and operated a ferry across the river, 
and then the name was changed to Mormon Ferry or 
Mormon Crossing. Louis Guinard built a bridge across 
the river at this point in the winter of 1858-59, and the 
name was then changed to Platte Bridge Station. Lieu- 
tenant Caspar W. Collins was killed by Indians near the 
fort on July 26, 1865, and in October of that year Major 
General Pope ordered the name changed to Fort Caspar. 
When the town of Casper was platted by the land depart- 
ment of the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Rail- 
road Company, the engineer, in the original plat, used an 
"e" in the last syllable instead of an "a". After many 
deeds for town lots and other important documents had 
been issued, all spelled with an "e", a request was made 
to have the spelling changed, but it was considered that 
the change would be too expensive. — A. J. M. 


DANIEL, Sublette County. Named for and by T. P. 
Daniel when the post office was located at his store on 
the present site in 1904. — P. W. J. 

DICKIE, Hot Springs County. Named for and estab- 
lished by David Dickie who was born in Scotland and came 
to Wyoming via New Zealand and San Francisco in 1884. 
He engaged in the sheep business along the Union Pacific 
Railroad until 1896 when the range became crowded and 
he started to British Columbia, driving his sheep to that 
region. He transferred his sheep across the ferry at the 
old town of Thermopolis and planned to next cross the 
bridge at Meeteetse. Instead, however, he purchased from 
Harry Gunther the L.U. Ranch, which had formerly been 
owned by Governor Baxter, and later added to his hold- 
ings. — D. McG. 

DIETZ, Sheridan County. Named for the Dietz 
brothers, Charles, Frank and Gould, who developed the 
Dietz coal mines on the Burlington Railroad in Sheridan 
County.— R. T. 

ELK MOUNTAIN, Carbon County. Named after Elk 
Mountain, the peak at the north end of the Medicine Bow 
Range and a few miles southwest of the town. — F. C. 

ENCAMPMENT, Carbon County. U. S. Troops, un- 
der the command of General Johnston, on their way to 
Salt Lake City were snowed in near this point and encamped 
there for a considerable time. The place was named Grand 
Encampment. — F. C. 

FORT BONNEVILLE, Sublette County. Fort Bonne- 
ville was built in 1832 by Captain B. L. E. Bonneville but 
was abandoned within a month when he moved to Salmon 
River for the winter. It was here that the Rendezvous 
of 1833 was held and the fort definitely described by W. A. 
Ferris in his .iournal. — P. W. J. 

HAT CREEK, Niobrara County. Named when a de- 
tachment of soldiers was sent to establish a fort on War- 
bonnet Creek in 1875. Thinking that they were on the 
right location when they got to Sage Creek, they built 
their dugout fort on the site of what became old Hat 
Creek Stage Station and Post Office and called it Hat 
Creek, short for Warbonnet. Warbonnet Creek is in Ne- 
braska near the Wyoming line and the error appears ob- 
vious. — H. G. 

JACKSON, Teton County. Named for Jackson Lake 
which had been named for Captain David E. Jackson who 
was in the region with William L. Sublette in the early 
1800's.— S. B. 


KNIGHT, Uinta County. Named by the Union Pacific 
Railroad in honor of Judge Jesse Knight, Judge of the 
Third Judicial District of Wyoming, who showed the rail- 
road engineers how to change the line to avoid the very 
steep grade on Aspen Hill and the feasibility of the present 
Aspen Tunnel.— F. C. and P. W. S.j 

NATRONA, Natrona County. ' So named because of 
the soda (natron) deposits near there. — A. J. M. 

OIL CITY, Natrona County. So named because of 
the drilling for oil in that vicinity in 1880 by S. A. Aggers 
who hailed from Oil City, Pennsylvania. — A. J. M. 

PIEDMONT, Uinta County. Means "foot of the 
mountains" and was taken from the Italian language. 
—P. W. S. and M. C. 

PINEDALE, Sublette County. Named by Charles 
Peterson in 1899, when the first post office was opened at 
this place, for the pines along the stream, Pine Creek. The 
town was incorporated in 1912 and was made the county 
seat in June 1921.— P. W. J. 

POWDER RIVER, Natrona County. Named for a 
branch of the Powder River which in turn was named for 
the dark powder-like quick sand that is found along its 
banks and in the channel. — A. J. M. 

RESHAW, Natrona County. Named for John Re- 
shaw, a Frenchman, who built the first bridge across the 
North Platte River in central Wyoming on the Old Oregon 
Trail. English pronunciation is Richards. — A. J. M. 

RIVERTON, Fremont County. In 1905 Mr. Fenimore 
Chatterton found that Montana was about to secure the 
right to divert all the water of the Big Horn River which 
would leave no water for reclamation of the 300,000 acres 
in the ceded portion of the Shoshone Indian Reservation. 
He immediately went to Washington and applied to the 
Secretary of the Interior Department for a permit to 
construct the necessary canals and reservoirs and to lay 
out a town site on the one hundred sixty acres where the 
town of Riverton is now located, all work to be done prior 
to opening the lands for settlement. He met with refusal, 
but when the lands were opened, the one hundred sixty 
acres designated by Mr. Chatterton were set aside as a 
town site. On August 14, 1906, the land was opened and 
persons who had previously located at Shoshone to await 
the day moved in and proceeded to survey and stake the 
blocks and lots. A group of Lander citizens opposed to 
the establishment of the town tried to stop the survey; 
not succeeding they induced the Indian Agent at Ft. 


Washakie, Mr. Wadsworth, to use U. S. Troops to run 
people off the town site. After ten days Mr. Chatterton 
had the matter straightened out through telegrams to 
Wyoming Senators, and the citizens returned. Meanwhile 
the Lander group asked that the town be called Central 
City and the Northwestern Railroad named its station 
Wadsworth. Authorities in Washington settled the ques- 
tion by naming the post office Riverton, as being significant 
of its location on the bank of the Wind River. — F. C. 

SARATOGA, Carbon County. Here are located the 
medicinal hot springs once used by the Indians. In the 
early 1870's William Caldwell homesteaded the land on 
which the springs are located, built a two room log cabin 
and a two tub bath house and became the postmaster of 
"Warm Springs." In 1883 Fenimore Chatterton, post 
trader at Fort Steele, established a general store at this 
point and a little later a town site was laid out on both 
sides of the North Platte River and named Saratoga after 
Saratoga Hot Springs, New York, to which the springs 
bore a similarity and because of the great popularity 
of the latter. 2— F. C. and H. O. B. 

SEMINOLE, Natrona County. Should be Seminoe. 
The name "Seminoe" became attached to the Lajeunesse 
family from the fact that Basil Lajeunesse, father of 
Mitchell and Noel, married a Snake Indian woman, "Cim- 
inau" by name. The whites pronounced it Seminoe, and 
the Seminoe mountain derived its name from Ciminau- 
Basil Lajeunesse. (See Mokler's Hi.stori/ of Fort Caspar, 1939, 
p. 16).— A. J. M. 

SHANNON, Natrona County. Named for P. M. Shan- 
non, president of the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Company, 
the first company to develop the Salt Creek oil field. 
—A. J. M. 

SHERIDAN, Sheridan County. Named after General 
Philip A. Sheridan.— C. O. 

SNYDER, Natrona County. Named for Ora Snyder, 
first postmaster at that place. — A. J. M. 

SODIUM, Natrona County. Located at the Soda 
Lakes from which it derives its name. — A. J. M. 

STORY, Sheridan County. Named after C. P. Story, 
former real estate man in Sheridan who several times was 
elected mayor of his city and died in office in 1931. — C. O. 

2. An item in the Cheyenne Daily Leader of June 23, 1882, 
states, "Mr. Caldwell of Wai'm Springs is in town . . . He says before 
long he intends to have the Warm Springs of Wyoming the Sara- 
toga of the West." 


STROUDS, Natrona County. Named for Joshua 
Stroud who homesteaded on the land four miles east of 
Casper before the C. & W. R. R. was built into central 
Wyoming. — A. J. M. 

SUN, Natrona County. Located sixty miles south- 
west of Casper and named for Tom Sun who was among 
the first of the pioneers to homestead in the Sweetwater 
country. — A. J. M. 

SUNRISE, Platte County. Named by Lieutenant 
Eaton of Fort Laramie who, while inspecting copper de- 
posits with John London and H. T. Miller, remarked that 
a rise over which they walked afforded a good view of the 
sunrise. — M. R. 

SWAN, Carbon County. Located just north of Sara- 
toga and named for Will Swan, cattleman. Now a "ghost 
town."— H. O. B. 

TENSLEEP, Washakie County. The name "Tensleep" 
means ten sleeps from either the Platte or Yellowstone 
and refers to ten days' travel by the Indians.— C. O. 

THERMOPOLIS, Hot Springs County. Named by Dr. 
Julious Shulke and Joe McGill, the latter a student of 
languages, for its proximity to the hot springs and taken 
from the Greek words therme and poZis meaning "heat 
and city."— D. McG. 

UVA, Platte County. Named for an early brand. 
— M. R. 

WALTMAN, Natrona County. Named for W. D. 
Waltman. — A. J. M. 

WAMSUTTER, Carbon County. Formerly called Wash- 
akie Station on the Union Pacific Railway, the name was 
changed in 1885 to Wamsutter in honor of an old Indian 
chief. The change was made because of the errors arising 
in the delivery of freight destined for Ft. Washakie. — 
Taken from the Carbon County Journal, September 5, 1885.3 

WOLTON, Natrona County. Named from the fact 
that it was the center of sheep shearing for this part of 
the state. — A. J. M. 

3. Received from Mrs. Agnes Wright Spring. 

9nde^ ^a AH.itaU. a^ Qi/i^afnlHCf. 

The editorial staff is pleased to announce that the 
"Index to the ANNALS OF WYOMING and Miscellaneous 
Historical Publications" is now on the press and will be 
ready for delivery in February. 

This volume is a complete and detailed general Index 
to the Quarterly Bulletin, Volumes 1-2, the ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, Volumes 3-14, and includes the Wyoming His- 
torical Collections of 1897, Volume 1, by Robert Morris, 
the Miscellanies of 1919 and the Wyoming Historical Col- 
lections of 1920 and 1922. It is a comprehensive work 
including author, title, subject headings and subject mod- 
ifications. A consistent and simple method of abbreviation 
has been employed throughout. 

The cost of the Index is $3.00, postage paid. A check 
or money order should accompany each order and be made 
payable to the Wyoming Historical Department. 

If you lack any issues of the ANNALS, it is suggested 
that you try to secure them at once, if you wish to com- 
plete your files, as some of the numbers are already out 
of print and the supply of others will soon be exhausted. 
Write to the Historical Department for particulars if 
you are interested. 


The first Wyoming Territorial conventions of the Re- 
publican and Democratic parties were held in August 1869 ? 
The Republican Convention met at Point of Rocks on 
August 12th when Laramie County sent seven delegates, 
Albany County six. Carbon County three and Carter 
County six. W. W. Corlett was nominated as delegate to 
Congress. The Democratic Convention met the same week 
at Rawlins when twenty-six delegates assembled. S. F. 
Nuckolls was nominated as Congressional delegate. — {The 
Cheyenne Leader, August 7 and 16, 1869.) 

Callectlojt and P^iei^en4Mitla4t 
0^ Wifam.iH(j, Wga (leca^di 

The Wyoming War Records Committee, with the State 
Librarian and Historian as chairman, sponsored by the 
Wyoming State Council of Defense has been organized for 
the purpose of collecting and preserving all records con- 
cerning Wyoming's contributions to the Nation's war ef- 
fort, so that when World War II is over the State will 
have a complete file for future reference, and also that 
some day the story of Wyoming's part in this world con- 
flict may be written. It was found that as soon as World 
War I was over and the boys returned home, interest in 
those valuable records diminished and complete informa- 
tion on the part Wyoming had played was never obtained, 
consequently, much of that portion of her history is lost 
to posterity. 

Since the County Libraries have been designated by 
the Office of War Information, Washington, D. C, as 
"War Information Centers" for their individual communi- 
ties, the County Librarians in most instances have been 
appointed to serve on the Wyoming War Records Com- 
mittee as County Directors, the State Librarian being the 
State Director. 

Instructions and report blanks have been sent out 
from the State Headquarters and many of the County Di- 
rectors report that their organizations are completed and 
the work started. With this splendid assistance and co- 
operation, the conclusion of World War II should find 
Wyoming with a complete file covering its activities. 

LOCATION OF FILES: Material collected in the var- 
ious counties is to be retained in the County as long as 
there is need for it, or for the duration, with a definite 
understanding that after this time it is to be transferred 
to the "State File" which will be maintained in the State 
Historical Department at the State Library. 


to the 

October 1, 1942 to December 31, 1942 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Bernfeld, Seymour S., Cheyenne, Wyoming — First official map of 
the United States issued by the U. S. General Land Office, 1868, 
which showed the segragation of Wyoming Territory from that 
of Dakota, and the segment of Dakota to the northwest of the 
new territory, which later became part of Idaho. Six news- 
papers: Vincennes Weekly Courant and Patriot, published at 
Vincennes, Indiana, February 2, 9, 16 and 23, 1856; St. Croix 
Union, published at Stillwater, Minnesota Territory, July 7, 
1855; The Prairie State, published at Danville, Illinois, June 
25, 1856. 

Henderson, Harry B., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Five programs: Dedica- 
tion Service First Piesbyterian Church, March 22-25, 1925; In- 
auguration Ball, Gov. Wm. A. Richards, January 7, 1895; In- 
auguration Ball, Gov. DeForest Richards, January 5, 1903; In- 
auguration Reception and Ball, Gov. B. B. Brooks, January 1905; 
Dollar Dinner, Industrial Club of Cheyenne, May 14, 1907. 
Pamphlets: Officers and Members of Cheyenne Lodge No. 1, 
A. F. & A. M., July 1, 1907; Abstract of Reports of the condi- 
tion of National, State and Private Banks in the State of Wyo- 
ming, January 1, 1908. Wyoming Bankers Association Pro- 
ceedings of Conventions for the years 1910, 1912, 1914, 1915. 
1916, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925. 

Child, Doris, Cheyenne, Wyoming — German coin, 10 pfenning, 1917. 

Roddes, Mrs. Charles, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Copy of the Youth's 
Companion, World's Fair Number, 1893; Duluth Sunday News 
Tribune, September 21, 1919, containing the story of General 
John J. Pershing. 


Richardson, Warren, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Thirty-four pictures of 
historical landmarks in Wyoming and dedication of by the Land- 
marks Commission. 

Keith, Dr. M. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Three pictures: two of the 
S.S. "Chief Washakie" going down the ways at Portland, Oregon. 
December 24, 1942; one of the Sponsor's party at the launching. 

Book — Purchased 

Dale, Edward Everett — Cow Country. 1942. 

Vol. 15 April, 1943 No. 2 



By John H. Raftery. 


Trade and Intercourse, 1820 133 

Governor Francis E. Warren, a Champion of 

Woman Suffrage 143 

By W. Turrentine Jackson. 
Letters 1862 Reveal Indian Trouble Along 

The Overland Mail-Route 150 


Buildings in Cheyenne, Dakota Territory, 1867 153 

For the First Time the Buildings of Cheyenne 

Are Numbered, 1867 154 

The Cheyenne Opera House, 1882 156 

A Rare Publication 159 

The "Magic City" Cheyenne, Dakota Territory, 1867 160 


By Dee Linford. 


Albany, Johnson, Natrona, Laramie and Sheridan Counties. 





COURT HOUSE, 1868 Front Cover 

MUSEUM, 1943 100 


THE OPERA HOUSE, 1882 156 



Printed by The Douglas Enterprise 
Douglas, "Wyoming 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any 
statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributor? to the 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presenta- 
tion of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manu- 
scripts of Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observa- 
tions of those familiar with important and significant events in the 
State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of 
Wyoming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical 
magazine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which 
the Department seeks to gain this objective. All communications 
concerning the ANNALS should be addressed to Mary A. McGrath, 
Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Historical Board 
members, the State Historical Advisory Board, Wyoming County 
Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, $1.50 per year; single copies, 45c. 

Entered as .second-class matter September 10, 1941, at the Post Office in Cheyenne, 
Wyominpr, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Copyritrht, 1943, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Lester C. Hunt, President Governor 

Mart T. Christensen Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Earl Wright State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Mary A. McGrath, Secy. . State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 

Prank Barrett, Lusk Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 

George Bible, Rawlins Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green 
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin River 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee E. V. Knight, Laramie 
Struthers Burt, Moran W. C. Laurence, Moran 
Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
J. L. Cook, Sundance R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
William C. Deming, Cheyenne A. J. Mokler, Casper 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 

Paul Prison, Ten Sleep L. L. Newton, Lander 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River R. I. dinger, Newcastle 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 

G. R. Hagens, Casper E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 

R. H. Hall, Lander Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 

, and 

State Museum 

Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 
Marie E. Erwin, Co-Editor Assis*"2nt Historian 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Build- 
ing in Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, 
the Museum provides for the preservation and display of 
the prized possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they 
may be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thou- 
sands of visitors. 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is num- 
bered, labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring 
permanent identification. 

The U. S. Congressional Documents constitute a vast source of 
information which touch every phase of human efforts. The his- 
torical and political development of every state and territory will 
be found in these publications; they constitute the most, and very 
often the only, authentic source material, and it is our purpose to 
use material from this source for some of the anecdotes in the 
Annals of Wyoming. 

This report of the Yellowstone Park includes the early explora- 
tions, history and a beautiful description of the Park. 

It does not treat the legal, political or annexation history. It 
wa,s compiled by John H. Raftery under the supervision of Gen. 
S. B. M. Young, Superintendent of the Park, 1907. 

For a complete understanding and appreciation of the 
Yellowstone National Park, whether as a pleasure ground, 
a health resort, or a place for scientific investigation, per- 
sonal and repeated visits to it are necessary. The accounts 
of its discovery, exploration, and establishment as a na- 
tional park have been written with varying degrees of ac- 
curacy, and writers of vivid fancy and contrasted literary 
qualifications have vied with one another in enthusiastic 
word pictures of the phenomena, beautiful, sinister, or 
scientific, of this premier wonderland of all the world. From 
every corner of the civilized world students and savants, 
poets, painters, and practicians have come to witness, study, 
and describe the alternating manifestations of nature in 
spectacles magnificent or monstrous; and while each has 
contributed somewhat to the public's knowledge of this 
incomparable region, the aggregate mass of their descrip- 
tive work yet falls far short of a complete and convincing 
exploitation of its wonders. Indeed, the scope of spoken 
or written language, the range of human imagination, and 
the power of pigments spread upon the artist's canvas be- 
come feeble, narrow, and almost impotent in the presence 
of the majestic and outlandish marvels of Yellowstone Park. 

Out of the vague, unwritten lore of Indian tradition 
come the remote rumors of an enchanted land among the 
mountains where the rivers boiled, the earth burned and 
haunted lakes tossed spectral plumes of scalding steam 
into the zenith. Here in cauldrons of gypsum or jasper 


or jade the evil spirits mixed their war paint, and from 
peak and promontory, in the valleys, and on the hills could 
be seen the spiral smoke of their bale fires. The nomads 
of the Northwest shunned it as a land of evil haunt or 
prowled about its margins in awesome fear and reverence. 
Sioux, Blackfoot, Crow, and Bannock ventured to the verge 
of these demon-haunted fastnesses, and in timorous truce 
made stores of arrowheads from the mountain of black 
obsidian which looms above the river near its golden gate. 
Beyond that portal was a realm of mysterious and infernal 
portent. Looking back a full century we find that the 
story of the Yellowstone Park is a sequential link in the 
chain of epochal events which commenced with the pur- 
chase by the United States of the then uncharted wilder- 
ness called the "Louisiana Territory," the subsequent ex- 
pedition of Lewis and Clark, the discovery of gold, the con- 
quest of the savages, and all the epic deeds which achieved 
at last the winning of the West. 

Nearly a century ago (1810) there returned from the 
wilds of the northwest one John Colter, a scout, trapper, 
and hunter, who had been with Lewis and Clark in their 
historic expedition. It was upon the return trip of the 
party that Colter, at his own request, was discharged near 
the confluence of the Yellowstone River with the Missouri. 
He had won the confidence and respect of his commanders, 
who supplied him with food and ammunition for his new 
venture. With two companions Colter then set out for the 
headwaters of the Missouri, trapping, hunting, and trading 
in friendly commerce with the Indians. Colter seems to 
have been a man of almost infinite endurance, courage, and 
perseverance. The record of his doings from August, 1806, 
when he parted with Lewis and Clark, until the spring of 
1807, is not extant, but early in the latter year he arrived 
at the mouth of the Platte River in a canoe. There he met 
Manuel Lisa, the famous fur trader, who was organizing 
a trapping and hunting expedition into the very regions 
from which Colter had come. So timely a prize as the 
services of Colter was not to be overlooked, and he was 
induced to return into the wilderness with the Lisa party. 
Maj. Hiram M. Chittenden's book, "The Yellowstone," in 
many respects the best that has been v/ritten about this 
national park, devotes considerable space to the activities 
of Colter, who was unquestionably the first white discoverer 
of the region. For it was in 1807 that he passed through 
the Yellowstone wonderland, viewing for the first time the 
boiling springs about the lake, the tar springs at the fork 


of the Shoshone, and skirting the Yellowstone River from 
its source past the upper and lower falls to the ford above 
Tower Falls and thence to Lisa's fort. Wounded in battle 
between Crows and Blackfeet, alone, ill-provided with am- 
munition or food, the intrepid Colter traversed on this 
journey afoot hundreds of miles of the wildest and most 
rugged country on earth. He had hardly recovered from 
the effects of his hardships when Lisa sent him back to 
the hostile Blackfeet for the nurpose of opening up trading 
negotiations with them. Nothing daunted b'^'' the fact that 
he had appeared with the Crows in battle against them, 
knowing that Lewis had slain one of their number, Colter, 
in company with a single conirade named Potts, adven- 
tured back into the hunting ground of the Indians on the 
upper Missouri. Paddling up the river one morning the 
two trappers were suddenly surrounded by a swarm of more 
than 500 Blackfeet warriors, who lined either shore and 
bade the white men land. 

As they did so an Indian seized Pott's rifle, but Colter, 
who was a mighty man, wrenched the weapon from the 
red man and handed it to Potts. The latter in panic leaped 
into the canoe and pushed it out into the stream. An arrow 
struck him, and crying out: "Colter, I'm wounded," Potts 
seized his rifle and shot his assailant dead. A shower of 
arrows from the enraged savages ended the life of Potts 
right there. Whether he used his rifle to invite a sudden 
death in preference to the prolonged torture which he an- 
ticipated at the hands of his captors will never be known, 
but his comrade was quickly disarmed and stripped naked 
as for torture. After the Indians had conferred they asked 
Colter if he was a good runner. The chance of running 
the gantlet or being chased by 500 fleet-footed savages 
bent upon his murder gave him a pale gleam of hope, and 
although he was reputed one of the speediest and most 
enduring runners of the West, he told the chief that he 
was both weary and slow. They led him three or four 
hundred yards out upon the prairie and bade him run for 
his life. Barefooted, nude, with half a thousand screaming 
demons at his back, but with the indomitable courage of 
a man who loves life, he ran as no white man ever ran be- 
fore. His feet and legs were pierced with hundreds of the 
thorns of the prickly pear, blood spurted from his nose 
and mouth, and his breath came only in stentorious gasps 
before he ventured to look back. 

He had gained on all of his pursuers except one, an 


agile young warrior, who, with brandished spear, was 
swiftly closing down upon him. With sudden desperation 
Colter stood stock still. The Indian, in trying to do like- 
wise, stumbled and fell. The badly-launched spear stuck 
in the ground and was broken off. The hunted white man 
seized the barbed half, impaled his fallen foe to the earth, 
and set off with renewed vigor for the Jefferson Fork of 
the Missouri, which he now saw gleaming through the 
trees. He had run more than 6 miles. He was covered 
with blood, his feet were torturing him, but he gained the 
fringe of willows by the river, and saw his enemies yelling 
and screaming about their dead brother. A raft of drift- 
wood, snags, and branches accumulated at the head of 
a sandbar downstream from where he stood caught Colter's 
eye. He dived into the river, and, swimming under water, 
came up within the shelter of the drift. Search as they 
would, the Indians could not find him, and concluded he 
was drowned. He kept his hiding place till night had fallen, 
and then, chilled by the icy water, footsore, hungry, weak- 
ened from loss of blood, and stark naked, he struck bravely 
into the forest for a seven days' struggle back to Lisa's 
camp. He reached it after a week of the most exquisite 
agony, toil, and exposure. Such was the man and such 
the trials which give to John Colter an enviable and en- 
during place amongst the really great explorers of this 
country. John Bradbury, in his "Travels in North Amer- 
ica," is authority for most of the details here mentioned, 
and so ably and accurately written was the book of the 
English naturalist that Washington Irving in his "Astoria" 
uses the Bradbury text with but few alterations. 

Coming back to St. Louis in 1810, John Colter's tales 
of almost incredible ventures, discoveries, and hardships 
were scouted by most of his hearers, but he won the re- 
spectful attention of Gen. William Clark, who knew him, 
and of Henry M. Breckenridge, the author, and John Brad- 
bury, whose writings have been subsequently authenticated 
by the explorations and researches of scores of dependable 
authorities. Colter's Journey through what is now the 
Yellowstone wonderland took him in a generally northeast 
direction from the southeasterly corner of the park, and, 
although he saw the hot springs about the Yellowstone 
Lake and River, and must have passed close to both the 
upper and lower falls, he makes no mention of the latter, 
nor did he catch a glimpse of the great geysers of the upper 
and lower basin, nor the mammoth hot springs, nor any of 
the other marvels except the tar springs. 


In 1880 Col. p. W. Norris, then superintendent of the 
park, discovered what is believed to be, after Colter's, the 
oldest record of the presence of the white man in that 
region. In a ravine about half a mile above the upper falls 
Colonel Norris found an ancient tree upon the bark of 
which, partly over grown but yet decipherable, was the in- 
scription "J. O. R. Aug. 19, 1819." Careful investigation 
of the names and exploits of all the early trappers, hunters, 
and scouts had failed to even remotely indicate the identity 
of J. O. R. Although the date of the inscription was veri- 
fied by counting the annual rings upon an adjacent tree, 
and though now nearly obliterated, it remains a proof that 
white men visited the park after Colter and fully fifty 
years before its final discovery. In 1878, in caches by 
Beaver Lake and the Obsidian Cliff, Colonel Norris found 
marten traps of a pattern used by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany a half century previous; and at the foot of Mount 
Washburn, near the rim of the Grand Canyon, Frederick 
Bottler found the ruins of a block house in incalculable 
antiquity. The Washburn-Langford expedition of 1870 
found near Mud Geyser, on the east bank of the Yellowstone 
River, an old dismantled pit or trench which might have 
been used as a place of concealment for hunters or water- 

In 1871 Mrs. Frances Fuller Victor published a book, 
"The River of The West," which is a sort of biography of 
a pioneer trapper named Joseph Meek. In 1829, when the 
Rocky Mountain Fur Company withdrew from the field 
then dominated by the Hudson Bay Company, Meek, who 
had been in the employ of the former under Capt. William 
Sublette, was lost from his comrades and wandered for 
several days until he was found starving and half crazed by 
two of his party. There is no doubt that he was at one 
time in the hot springs district of the park, for he de- 
scribes in his diary a "whole country smoking with vapor 
from boiling springs, and burning with gases issuing from 
small craters each of which was emitting a sharp, whistling 
sound. * * * Interspersed among these on the level plain 
were larger craters, some of them from 4 to 6 miles across. 
Out of these craters issued blue flames and molten brim- 

Allowing for possible exaggeration, Meek's assertion 
that fire and brimstone issued from these craters is not 
wholly unsubstantiated. Writing in 1811, Henry M. Breck- 
enridge says: "Mr. Lisa informs me that about 60 miles 


from his fort (at the mouth of the Bighorn) there is a 
volcano that actually emits flames." Major Chittenden 
and others of like sincerity and diligence have have con- 
cluded from this and other earh' writings and traditions 
that there was volcanic activity in the Rocky Mountains 
as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century. To 
Warren Angus Farris, a clerk for the American Fur Com- 
pany from 1830 to 1840, Chittenden gives the honor of hav- 
ing written the first actual description of the Firehole Gey- 
ser Basin. Returning from his station in the Flathead coun- 
try in the spring of 1834, Ferris, yet incredulous of the 
marvelous tales he had heard of the boiling fountains of 
the Yellowstone region, took two Pend d' Oreille Indians 
with him and followed up the Firehole River. On May 20, 
1834, he woke in full view of the outlandish phenomena of 
the Upper Geyser Basin, convinced at last and explaining, 
"The half has not been told me." Ferris' journal of this 
adventure was published in 1842 and proves conclusively 
that the great geysers had been seen and appreciated long 
before 1870, when the Washburn-Langford expedition made 
the first and ultimately adequate exploration of the park, 
an achievement which culminated in the erection and pres- 
ervation of the most magnificent, the largest, and the most 
eventful national pleasure park the world has yet known. 
Father De Smet, the famous Jesuit missionary, writing in 
1852, was the first to give an accurate geographical defini- 
tion of the geyser district, locating it then with precision 
both as to latitude and longitude. Gunnison, in his "His- 
tory of the Mormons," published in 1852, like Father De 
Smet, drew much of his information about the Yellowstone 
country from Capt. James Bridger, the famous frontiers- 
man whose strange yarns of the marvels he had there be- 
held remained discredited or tabooed by such writers as 
Hayden, Warren, Raynolds, and others as late as 1860. 
The first governmental expedition sent expressly to explore 
and chart what is now the Yellowstone National Park set 
out in the early spring of 1859 under command of Capt. 
W. F. Raynolds, of the corps of topographical engineers 
of the United States Army. He did not reach the actual 
locality of the park until the summer of 1860, nor did he 
ever penetrate the valley of the upper Yellowstone, so that 
except for a map in which, as he himself admits, the most 
interesting portion of the region remains a "terra incog- 
nita," Captain Raynold's expedition yielded little of accur- 
ate information about the central glories of the Yellow- 
stone Park. Immediately upon his return the national 


election brought the country face to face with armed re- 
beUion; disruption threatened the Union, peaceful pursuits 
were abandoned, the military establishment was mustering 
for war, and the western wonderland was left to slumber 
in the memories of the few who had seen it or heard 
about it. 

From 1863 to 1869 the northwestern hegira was made 
up of gold seekers, hardy adventurers, and prospectors, 
drawn thither by the discovery of the great placer mines 
of Montana. Sometimes in pairs, but oftener in groups, 
they wandered into the confines of what is now the na- 
tional park; but with their hearts set only upon mining 
and their minds feverish with the thirst for gold, they 
gave but a cursory glance at the stupendous wonders which 
then first came within their ken. In August and September 
of 1863 we find Walter W. De Lacy leading a band of pros- 
pectors into some theretofore unknown sections of the re- 
gion. They traversed the hot springs locality east of Yel- 
lowstone Lake, camped at the junction of the Snake and 
Lewis rivers, explored the Pitchstone Plateau, descended 
Moose Creek Valley, discovered the true drainage of Sho- 
shone Lake, passed through the Lower Geyser Basin, 
casually witnessed the play of the Great Fountain Geyser, 
and went out via the junction of the Gibbon and Firehole 
rivers. Finding but scant indications of gold, these, like 
other prospectors who passed through the park between 
1863 and 1869, gave slight heed to the scenic splendors 
through which they passed; and yet their unavoidable ref- 
erence to the geysers, springs, canyons, and rivers served 
in a cumulative way to whet the interest and focus the 
attention of men in whom science, sentiment, and the pas- 
sion for adventure were already making for the ultimate 
exploitation of the world's wonderland. De Lacy in 1863, 
James Stuart in 1864, George Huston in 1866, and two 
prospecting parties in 1867 contributed much to the waxing 
fame of the paradise that had until then been regarded 
as remote, if not as imaginary as the mountains of the 
moon and the valleys of the shadows. 

As early as in 1867 prominent and practical men of 
Montana had been earnestly considering an extensive, 
thorough, and scientific exploration of the region from 
which so many strange tales had come. Party after party 
was organized for the venture, but the uprising of the 
hostile Blackfeet and the sporadic forays of other savage 
tribes discouraged and dismayed them all until 1869. In 


that year David E. Folsom, a qualified surveyor of Mon- 
tana, and C. W. Cook, both men of excellent education and 
alert intelligence, determined to wait no longer upon the 
doubts and fears of their neighbors of Montana, and on 
September 9, with provisions for six weeks, and only one 
man, William Peterson, accompanying them, they set forth 
from Diamond City, 40 miles from Helena, Mont., for an 
expedition that first won and commanded popular interest 
in the new Eldorado of mystical beauty. Reaching the 
Yellowstone River near the confines of the park they 
followed its eastern shore line and reached the falls on 
September 21. They crossed the river above the now 
famous cataracts, examined Sulphur Mountain and the ad- 
jacent hot springs, followed the western margin of the 
river past Mud Geyser and the Emerald Grotto, recrossed 
the river at the outlet of the lake and skirted the eastern 
and southern shores of the extreme western arm. Thence 
they headed for Shoshone Lake, viewing in turn the beau- 
ties of the Firehole River and the awesome spectacle of 
the Fountain and Excelsior geysers in full eruption. For 
the first time also they saw and recited the weird and 
wraith-like manifestations of Prismatic Lake and the 
scarcely less wonderful cones, craters, pools, and springs 
which are scattered about that formation in bewildering 
variety and profusion. Awed by the majestic sights which 
they had witnessed and dazed by the portentous demon- 
strations of the subterranean inferno over which they had 
passed in trembling safety, they went out of the country 
through the valley of the Madison River, bringing to the 
outside world the first sequential and convincing account of 
the facts which up to that time had been considered as 
preposterous and visionary. 

Returning to Helena, where their reputation for ver- 
acity was as high as their known courage amongst the 
leading men of the Territory, both Folsom and Cook re- 
fused to risk their reputations by telling their experiences 
to a promiscuous crowd. Gen. Henry D. Washburn, -the 
surveyor-general of Montana; Gov. Samuel T. Hauser; 
Truman C. Everts, ex-United States assessor for Montana; 
Nathaniel P. Langford, who afterwards became first super- 
intendent of the national park, all gave wondering heed 
and credence to the statements of the homecomers. New 
plans for a larger and more exhaustive exploration of the 
wonderful region were now made. General Sheridan, who 
visited Helena at that time, became vastly interested and 
gave assurances of military aid to the proposed expedition. 


Mr. Folsom, who was rarely gifted as a writer as well 
as an observant explorer, then wrote a concise, logical, and 
sequential account of the marvels which he and Mr. Cook 
had witnessed in the Yellowstone country, and sent it to 
Harper's Magazine. The editor of that publication, as- 
tounded by the audacious "imaginings" of the author and 
wholly incredulous as to the statements made in it, de- 
clined the article and returned it to its chagrined author. 
It finally gained publication in the Western Monthly, of 
Chicago, but not until the copy reader had eliminated many 
of the most interesting passages because they were con- 
sidered "Ultramontane" in both a literal and a figurative 
sense. With the exception of the publishers' proof, which 
passed into the hands of Mr. Langford, the whole issue of 
the magazine containing Mr. Folsom's story of the Park 
was destroyed by fire. In later years Mr. Langford, at 
his own expense, printed and distributed 500 copies of the 
narrative and donated the original to the Montana His- 
torical Society, which yet retains it among the treasured 
archives of the State. 

The plans of the Washburn-Langford party took 
tangible form in the spring of 1870, when Mr. Langford 
visited Major-General Hancock at St. Paul, outlined the 
proposed expedition, and secured from him a promise of 
a military escort. Samuel T. Hauser also visited General 
Hancock about that time, so that on August 17, 1879, 
when the party, equipped for a journey of four weeks set 
out from Bozeman, Mont., it was known that orders had 
already been forwarded to Fort Ellis providing a military 
escort of one lieutenant, one sergeant, and four enlisted 
men. Fourteen civilians, with a train of pack and saddle 
horses, adequately armed and equipped with the essential 
scientific instruments and commanded by General Wash- 
burn, was reinforced at Fort Ellis by Lieut. Gustavus C. 
Doane, a sergeant and four troopers of the Second United 
States Cavalry, and constituted the none too formidable 
cavalcade which then rode into a wild region infested with 
hostile Indians for the first and most consequential ex- 
ploration of the Yellowstone wonderland. The party, 
though shadowed by roving bands of prowling savages, ar- 
rived without mishap at the mouth of the Gardiner River 
on August 26, entering the present domain of the park 
not far from the northern gateway, the present site of the 
stately and magnificent lava arch. Holding to the trail, 
which led along the left bank of the Yellowstone, the party 
missed the Mammoth Hot Springs altogether, encountering, 


first, the fascinatingly beautiful wonders of the cascades 
and spires of Tower Falls, and coming upon the initial 
apparition of the Grand Canyon itself on the eastern flank 
of what was a mountain, soon named Mount Washburn. 
The eager spirit of their leader prompted General Wash- 
burn then to adventure from tne camp alone in search of 
signs that he was leading his party aright. He scaled the 
rugged sides of the precipitous mountain, and, from its bald 
and rusted summit far above timber and snow, his eye for 
the first time swept over that panorama which in its mag- 
nificent extent, variety, and Titanic majesty has not been 
equalled in the known world. Perched upon the pinnacle 
rock, a central atom within an incredible amphitheatre, he 
looked in all directions across the overmastering silence 
to where the ragged peaks of the Grand Tetons, the Ab- 
sarokas, and countless unnamed mountains rose up against 
the cloudless blue like the encincturing and crenelated bat- 
tlements of an unknown kingdom. He saw, too, far to the 
southeast, the far-spread, shining waters of Yellowstone 
Lake, the focal point of the expedition and, nearer yet, but 
only as a dark gash across the green tunic of the valley 
below, the winding outline of the Grand Canyon. Across 
through the pale haze that hung above the valleys more 
remote he could descry the flaunting jets of steam uprising 
from the geysers, and all about, on grassy upland, by the 
lush brink of brook or pool, and upon the rock-strewn inac- 
cessible promontories, he could see elk, deer, and mountain 
sheep like tiny specks of brown and white upon the green. 

The account of that day's adventure heartened his 
tired company to new and zealous effort. They pushed on 
next day, following the brink of the deepening canyon of 
the river to camp within sound of the mighty falls of the 
Yellowstone. Only the hundreds of thousands of tourists 
who have witnessed the astounding combination of majesty 
and beauty accomplished here by nature can realize the 
rapt astonishment with which these men of the Washburn- 
Langford expedition first gazed upon the falls and canyon 
of the Yellowstone. Some of them, men who, for all their 
early nature had been hardened by years of adventure, war- 
fare, hardships, and disappointment, sat for hours upon the 
dizzy rim of the canyon gazing into its unearthly abysses, 
bound by the spell of its indescribable beauty, and choking 
the sobs forced from their startled hearts by the unspeak- 
able and portentous wonders which their eyes saw but 
their minds could not encompass. 


Nor can the extraordinary emotions of these adven- 
turing men be ascribed in any degree to their lack of 
previous descriptions; Folsom's word picture of the won- 
ders he had witnessed in 1869 remains even now one of the 
most graphic, convincing, and detailed accounts of his ex- 
perience, and the men of the Washburn expedition had read 
it or heard it from his own eloquent lips. Since then the 
world has been widely and well advised of what the traveler 
may expect when he shall gaze upon the strange sights of 
the Yellowstone National Park; the fancies of descriptive 
writers have been wrought into fine frenzies in attempts 
to realize its phenomena for readers of all tongues and 
tribes ; year after year the painters come to limn its baffling 
outlines and to catch and fasten down forever the radiant 
glories of its coloring; travelers from every corner of the 
world have come to contrast it with the wonder places of 
their wanderings. And all of them have come to know and 
admit that the language which can tell its story is unwrit- 
ten and unspoken of man; that there is no palette wide 
enough to carry the colors, shades and tones which nature 
brought to its creation; that comparison becomes futile 
and is forgotten in the presence of marvels without their 
counterparts on the globe. 

The party had now followed the rim of the canyon 
for almost 30 miles. Commencing its swift descent just 
above the upper falls, the descending chasm gains 200 feet 
in depth where the first waterfall plunges to the new level 
of the river ; thence for a half a mile, foaming over gigantic 
boulders and lashing the precipitous walls of the deepening 
gorge, it adds over 600 feet to its swift descent, seeming 
to pause for a breathless instant upon the out-thrust lip 
of a level floor of rock, the river plunges its mighty cur- 
rent sheer into the silent depths 320 feet below. Out of 
the rainbow-streaked mist of the lower falls the Yellow- 
stone River begins its tortuous journey between the walls 
of that incredible canyon which towers more than half a 
vertical mile above the river, unfolding in sequence sudden, 
gradual, and indescribable, a panorama that stands alone 
in its mingled marvels of color and magnitude, of beauty 
and wildness, of tenderness and power. 

From the falls of the Yellowstone the Washburn ex- 
pedition pushed on past Sulphur Mountain with its sur- 
rounding wonders of boiling pools and springs, the stifling 
fumes, the crusts of lava, and the volcanic deposits all giv- 
ing token of the furious upheavals of some ancient time 


when the splendors of the p^rand canyon and the sinister 
monstrosities of the geyser regions of the park sprang 
simultaneous from the tortured womb of the world. Here 
for the first time the explorers realized the almost unthink- 
able disparity of contrast in the phenomena which the Yel- 
lowstone wonderland presents, and with the inspiration 
awakened by the incomparable beauty of the falls and can- 
yon yet upon them, they came presently into the presence 
of the mud volcano, from whose hideous crater 30 feet in 
depth and almost as wide, uprose an unclean fountain of 
boiling, living, paste-like mud. The earth about it trembled 
and from its vile caverns uttered muffled groans like the 
stifled cadences of some infernal engine. 

Within the wide circle of its sickening influence the 
side of the mountain was all defiled, the trees coated with 
livid mud, and the air noxious with the pungent fumes of 
sulphur. And yet the fascinated and horrified visitor 
will find but a few rods away from this monstrous mani- 
festation, an orifice in the same acclivity which is groined 
and arched like the entrance to some miniature temple, its 
outer surface stained with a beautiful green, its rocky walls 
changing to olive, brown and yellow as they recede and 
converge within. And always from out of this little cavern 
comes a pulsating gush of water, hot, but limpid as any 
mountain brook, projected out of the darkness within as 
by the stroke of an unseen steamer and accentuated by 
the measured, rythmic escapement from its hidden vent. 
Nearby there is a spring of tartaric acid, a half mile away 
one of alum, about which the crystals are piled in lavish 

Having crossed the river below the outlet, the Wash- 
burn party camped September 3 on the shore of Yellow- 
stone Lake, 7,788 feet above sea level, the largest body of 
water in North America at so great an altitude. Aross 
the smooth surface of its shining waters, 150 square miles 
in area, they could see the towering Teton range standing 
upon the boundary line between Idaho and Wyoming, and 
lifting their snow-covered peaks 14,000 feet above the level 
of tide water. Around the forest girdled margin of this 
great mountain lake they pushed their way on the opposite 
shore from where the Lake Hotel is now. On September 
9 Mr. Everts was lost from his comrades and commenced 
those thirty-seven days of peril which is part of the his- 
tory of the park, and which so nearly brought an awful 
death to one of its earliest and most ardent champions. 


After days of hopeless toil and incessant search, the party 
gave him up and, running short of provisions, struck out 
across the mountains toward the valley of the Madsion. 

The following succinct account of Evert's experience 
is from the pen of Lieutenant Doane, and is in the main 
correct; for Evert's own account see Scribner's Monthly, 
Volume III, page 1: 

On the first day of his absence he had left his horse 
standing unfastened, with all his arms and equipments 
strapped upon his saddle; the animal became frightened, 
ran away into the woods, and he was left without even a 
pocketknife as a means of defense. Being very nearsighted, 
and totally unused to traveling in a wild country without 
guides, he became completely bewildered. He wandered 
down to the Snake River Lake (Heart Lake), where he 
remained twelve days, sleeping near the hot springs to 
keep from freezing at night, and climbing to the summits 
each day in the endeavor to trace out his proper course. 
Here he subsisted on thistle roots boiled in the springs, 
and was kept up a tree the greater part of one night by a 
California lion. After gathering and cooking a supply of 
thistle roots, he managed to strike the southwest point of 
the (Yellowstone) Lake, and followed around the north 
side to the (Yellowstone) River, finally reaching our (old) 
camp opposite the Grand Canyon. He was twelve days 
out before he thought to kindle a fire by using the lenses 
of his field glass, but afterwards carried a burning brand 
with him in all his wonderings. Herds of game passed 
by him during the night, on many occasions when he was 
on the verge of starvation. In addition to a tolerable sup- 
ply of thistle roots, he had nothing for over thirty days 
but a handful of minnows and a couple of snowbirds. Twice 
he went five days without food, and three days without 
water, in that country which is a network of streams and 
springs. He was found on the verge of the great plateau, 
above the mouth of Gardiners River. A heavy snowstorm 
had extinguished his fire; his supply of thistle roots was 
exhausted; he was partially deranged, and perishing with 
cold. A large lion was killed near him. on the trail, which 
he said had followed him at a short distance for several 
days previously. It was a miraculous escape, considering 
the utter helplessness of the man, lost in a forest wilder- 
ness, and with the storms of winter at hand. 

On the thirty-seventh day of his wanderings (Sep- 
tember 9 to October 16) he was discovered by Jack Bar- 


onett and George A. Pritchett near the great trail on a 
high mountain a few miles west of Yancey's. Baronett 
threw up a mound of stones to mark the spot. He car- 
ried Everts in his arms the rest of that day, and passed 
the night on a small tributary of Blacktail Deer Creek. The 
next day he was taken on a saddle to near the mouth of 
the Gardiner. 

Passing into the now famous Firehole Valley, the ex- 
plorers emerged suddenly upon that strange plateau of 
which Charles T. Whitmell, addressing the Cardiff (Wales) 
Naturalists' Society, said: 

Nowhere else, I believe, can be seen on so grand a 
scale such clear evidence of dying volcanic action. We 
seem to witness the death throes of some great American 
Enceladus. Could Dante have seen this region he might 
have added another terror to his Inferno. 

Here, within that narrow radius of a mile which is 
now known as the "Upper Geyser Basin," 26 geysers and 
more than 400 hot springs were discovered within a few 
hours' search. It was a bright September day when the 
Washburn party first emerged upon this treeless tract 
and saw, scarcely 200 yards away, that great jet of steam 
and water tossing its roaring head 150 feet into the air 
which has since become known throughout the civilized 
world as "Old Faithful Geyser." The sunlight transfigured 
its clear water to crystal showers and the breeze flaunting 
its spray and vapor to diaphanous banners colored with 
all the rainbow tints and floating away against the far 
background of green, combined with the quivering of the 
encrusted earth and the rumbling tumult of subterranean 
forces to produce upon the speechless adventurers a sense 
of glorified and yet timorous astonishment. For centuries 
incalculable, every hour, with hardly the variation of five 
minutes, in snow and rain, by day and night, in winter 
and in summer, with none but the wild men of the primeval 
days or the wilder beasts of the wilderness, or with the 
modern multitudes of tourists to witness its eruptions, as 
though regulated by some superhuman horologe and 
energized by infinite power, Old Faithful has gone on with 
its strange work. 

Scattered about upon the surface of this miraculous 
formation are geysers of every size and craters of a myriad 
form; fountains of varying degrees of heat, tossing up- 
ward at unmeasurable intervals and varying in height from 


20 to 250 feet. Some of these pools and craters from which 
the geysers rise have periods of strange and ominous 
quiesence, some are turbulent and vocal with the angry 
fires below, the craters of some are cup-shaped, some 
oval, some fantastically irregular ; some are fringed, fretted, 
and beaded about with petrified incrustations of the most 
exquisite and fragile beauty; the bottoms of the pools and 
subsided geysers disclose in turn the most delicate tints 
of the rose and of the sky, varying through the scale of 
the spectrum in red, blue, green, brown, gray, ocher and 

Silent now, all scepticism vanished, yet scarcely grasp- 
ing the scope and significance of the bewildering wonders 
which they had witnessed, they sat about their campfires 
pondering the seemingly omnipotent versatility of nature 
in producing such inconceivable manifestations of awful 
power as the Giant Geyser, with its towering fountain 
hurtled 250 feet into the air, and yet placing but a few 
rods away the Morning Glory spring with its cone-like 
calix of opalescent crystal, its unruffled surface, and its 
waters limpid and blue as the eye of a girl. They passed 
through the middle and lower geyser basins and saw the 
ever-varying wonders there unfolded: Turquoise Spring, 
Prismatic Lake, the Paint Pots, the contrasted beauties of 
the sylvan valley of the Firehole and the murmuring cat- 
aracts of the Gibbon River. On September 19, after leav- 
ing the geyser region, camped near the Junction of the 
Gibbon and the Firehole rivers, the talk of the explorers 
turned upon the material opportunities offered by the in- 
comparable and outlandish wonders of the country they 
had visited. There were thoughts and suggestions of ac- 
quiring sections about the chief est places so that they might 
be held in profitable control as show spots for travelers, 
and it was in the silence which followed these selfish sug- 
gestions that Cornelius Hedges gave utterance to the 
lofty thought that under no circumstances should private 
ownership of the region be countenanced, much less en- 
couraged. It should, he said, be set apart by the National 
Government as a place of perpetual instruction and pleas- 
ure for all the Deople; it should be made at once a park 
and a wonderland for the unrestricted delectation of the 
people and never a field for private speculation or mercen- 
ary greed. This lofty view of Mr. Hedges found instant 
response and approval with all the party; and when the 
explorers broke their final camp in the park and headed 
for home it was with the unanimous determination to fur- 


ther and accomplish the plan for the erection of the Yel- 
lowstone wonderland into a national park, preserving by 
one federal act the beauties, the marvels, the native wild- 
ness, the unharassed freedom of nature, living or inanimate, 
and all the pristine glories and portents lavished upon this 
region by the unaccountable hand of the Divinity. 

Filled with this high idea, the men of the Washburn- 
Langford expedition, many of whom were endowed with 
gifted minds, lofty ideals, and much learning, soon gave 
to their countrymen the first adequate and comprehensive 
idea of the priceless possession which lay so long hidden in 
the heart of the Rocky Mountains. 

Lieutenant Doane's splendid report made in December, 
1870, was the first official statement made to the United 
States Government comprising accurate descriptions, 
maps, and data of the phenomena of the Yellowstone coun- 
try, and, supplemented as it was by the writings, lectures, 
and incessant activity of General Washburn, Langford, 
Hauser, Hedges, and other enthusiastic and patriotic mem- 
bers of that expedition, the project took definite form, 
and in 1871 was scientifically advanced by the explorations 
and reports of Doctor Hayden, of the United States Greo- 
logical Survey. In the autumn of 1871 William H. Clagett, 
who had just been elected Delegate from Montana to Con- 
gress, undertook the task of introducing and advocating 
a measure in accordance with the desires and plans of its 
originators. He was already independently interested in 
it and worked hard for its success at home and by corres- 
pondence. Mr. Langford went to Washington with him, 
and together they drew the park bill, the description of 
boundaries being supplied by Doctor Hayden. The bill 
was introduced in both Houses during that session. Sena- 
tor Pomeroy, of Kansas, bringing it before the Senate and 
Delegate Clagett before the House. The camera had been 
brought to aid in the work, and perhaps no measure ever 
offered to the attention of Congress was better illustrated 
by photographs, maps, and argument than the park bill 
which created the national park out of that prodigious won- 
derland about the lake and headwaters of the Yellowstone. 


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress assem- 
bled, That the tract of land in the Territories of Montana 


and Wyoming lying near the headwaters of the Yellow- 
stone River and described as follows to wit, commencing 
at the junction of Gardiners River, with the Yellowstone 
River, and running east to the meridian passing 10 miles 
to the eastward of the most eastern point of Yellowstone 
Lake; thence south along said meridian to the parallel of 
latitude passing 10 miles south of the most southern point 
of Yellowstone Lake; thence west along said parallel to 
the meridian passing 15 miles west of most western 
point of Madison Lake; thence north along said meridian 
to the latitude of the junction of the Yellowstone and 
Gardiners rivers; thence east to the place of beginning, is 
hereby reserved and withdrawn from settlement, occu- 
pancy, or sale under the laws of the United States, and 
dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring 
ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people; and 
all persons who shall locate, or settle upon, or occupy any 
part of the land thus set apart as a public park, except as 
provided in the following section, shall be considered tress- 
passers and removed therefrom. 

SEC. 2. The said public park shall be under the ex- 
clusive control of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty 
it shall be, as soon as practicable, to make and publish such 
rules and regulations as he may deem necessary and proper 
for the care and management of the same. Such regula- 
tions shall provide for the preservation from injury or 
spoilation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, 
or wonders within said park and their retention in their 
natural condition. 

The Secretary may, in his discretion, grant leases for 
building purposes, for terms not exceeding ten years, or 
small parcels of ground, at such places in said park as 
shall require the erection of buildings for the accommoda- 
tion of visitors; all the proceeds of said leases, and all 
other revenues that may be derived from any source con- 
nected with said park, to be expended under his direction, 
in the management of the same, and the construction of 
roads and bridle paths therein. He shall provide against 
the wanton destruction of the fish and game found within 
said park, and against their capture or destruction for the 
purpose of merchandise or profit. He shall also cause all 
persons trespassing upon the same after the passage of 
this act to be removed therefrom, and generally shall be 
authorized to take all such measures as shall be necessary 
or proper to fully carry out the objects and purposes of 
this act. 


Approved March 1, 1872. 

For more than twenty years after the act of dedica- 
tion became a law the Yellowstone National Park became 
a mecca for explorers, and not a year has passed without 
witnessing the presence of scientific parties, large and 
small, seeking newer and more minute data of the strange 
things to be found there. In 1872 Gen. John Gibbon, U. S. 
Army, with a considerable body of men made a tour of 
inspection. He tried to ascend the North Fork of the 
Madison, but abandoned the effort after a few days. His 
name was given to that stream. The following year Capt. 
William A. Jones, of the Corps of Engineers, made a more 
extended and effective reconnaissance. He succeeded in 
crossing the thitherto impassable Absaroka Range, verified 
the tradition of Two Ocean Lake, and discovered Two-Gwo- 
Tee Pass over the Continental Divide. Prof. Theodore B. 
Comstock, the geologist who accompanied this expedition, 
added much to the value of the report, which appeared in 
1875. In 1875 Capt. William Ludlow, of the Corps of En- 
gineers, accompanied by Mr. George Bird Grinnell, a civil- 
ian who was then and afterwards one of the ablest cham- 
pions of the park, made an investigation and report of 
the country which yielded one of the best brief descrip- 
tions of the park extant. In that year Secretary of War 
Belknap, guided by Lieut. G. C. Doane and a large party, 
made an enlarged tour of the national pleasure grounds, 
and the story of the trip was ably written by Gen. W. E. 
Strong, who participated. In 1877 G«n. W. T. Sherman 
and his staff visited the principal scenes, and the report 
of Gen. O. M. Poe added materially to the interest in and 
public appreciation of the place. That same year, at war 
with the Nez Perce, Gen. O. O. Howard traversed the reser- 
vation in pursuit of the hostile Indians. Secretary of the 
Interior Carl Schurz, accompanied by General Crook, made 
an extensive exploration, visiting many unknokn portions. 

Capt. W. S. Stanton, of the Corps of Engineers, sur- 
veyed the park in 1881, and Governor John W. Hoyt, of 
Wyoming, with a large military escort commanded by Maj. 
J. W. Mason, U. S. Army, established a practical wagon 
road entering from the southwest. General Sheridan, in 
1881 and 1882, made visits to the reservation and was the 
first to give to the public an idea of the then demoralized 
state of its civil administration. P. W. Norris and many 
less known explorers made frequent, desultory, and unim- 
portant tours of the now famous park, each adding some- 


thing to the Hterature and celebrity of the place, so that 
the region which is between the forty-fourth and forty- 
fifth parallels of latitude and the one hundred and tenth 
and one hundred and eleventh meridians of longitude be- 
came the most thoroughly and scientifically explored sec- 
tion of the United States. The great travelers and famous 
men of many countries of Europe as well as of the United 
States began to visit it, so that in 1883 a splendid expedi- 
tion, including the President of the United States, the Sec- 
retary of War, a lieutenant-general of the United States 
Army, a United States Senator, and an imposing cavalcade 
of soldiers and civilians made an extensive tour; the same 
year there came a justice and associate justice of the Su- 
preme Court, the general and many other distinguished 
officers of the army, six United States Senators, one ter- 
ritorial governor, the ministers from Great Britain and 
Germany, the president of admiralty division of the high 
court of justice of England, three members of Parliament, 
and scores of men of eminence from Europe and America. 

These facts are recounted to show how suddenly and 
how effectively came the public attention which followed 
the dedication of the national park. The act itself con- 
tributed to the quick fame of the park, for it was at that 
time an unheard-of step among national governments, set- 
ting, as it did, a precedent which has since been, and will 
hereafter be, followed by other states and nations. Already 
this country has added the Yosemite, Sequoia, Chicka- 
mauga, and many national battlefields and cemeteries to 
the growing list of governmental reservations. New York 
and Canada have each preserved a park about Niagara 
Falls. Minnesota has segregated the headwaters of the 
Mississippi in Itasca Park. New Zealand has made a na- 
tional park of its geyser and hot springs regions. There 
is a plan afoot to create a great game preserve in Africa, 
and at this writing there is pending, and unopposed, a bill 
in Congress of the United States for the creation of a vast 
and beautiful scenic park in northern Montana, to be called 
Glacier Park. And yet it is a fact that no region of like 
size in the known world can compare with the Yellowstone 
National Park in point of natural beauty, or magnificence 
of scenery, or the marvels of its natural and yet outland- 
ish phenomena. 

The act of dedication was so framed as to prevent the 
destruction of the curiosities, forests, and game of the park; 
it was calculated to prevent private occupancy and to grant 


only such privileges as were necessary to the comfort and 
pleasure of the public. But it provided no specific laws 
for the government of the region, it neither specified of- 
fenses nor provided punishment or legal equipment for the 
enforcement of such rules and regulations as the Secretary 
of the Interior might see fit to establish. For more than 
twenty years after the enactment of the dedication the 
park was frequently the scenes of wanton vandalism, the 
wild creatures were hunted by hundreds of poachers and 
trapped indiscriminately by fur-hunting bands from the ad- 
jacent territories. The confines of the park consisted 
then, as now, only of imaginary lines. Its waters teemed 
with fish ; its caves and canyons were the homes of myriads 
of bear. Buffalo, elk, deer, and antelope thronged its re- 
mote meadows and fattened upon the rich pastures of its 
forests and valleys. Moose, bighorn or mountain sheep, 
panthers, and other species of fur and meat bearing ani- 
mals, though not as numerous, were to be found in plenty. 
Mink, beaver, otter, ermine, marten, sable, fox (red, gray, 
and black) abounded and were made the easy and profit- 
able prey of hunters and trappers. The awe and terror with 
which the Indians regarded the place, its natural remote- 
ness from the haunts of the first white plainsmen and ar- 
gonauts, the impenetrable wildness of its hills and valleys, 
its forests and tablelands, its wealth of water, of foliage, 
of nutritious grasses and natural shelters, made of it from 
the beginning a natural sanctuary and home for the mil- 
lions of wild animals which frequented it. When these 
facts became bruited among the market hunters and fur 
seekers, they swarmed into the park at all seasons. What 
havoc they have wrought will never be fully known. 

Thus for twenty-two years the original hope and pur- 
pose of the promoters of the national park were defeated 
and the only everlasting and signal victory they had gained 
was in the disbarment of private encroachment by land 
speculators and selfish squatters. It should be understood 
also that the first and most unselfish advocates of the park 
dedication act had conceived extravagant ideas as to the 
income that it would derive from the leases and privileges 
that were to be let to hotels, coach lines, and other conven- 
iences and comforts for the travelers and tourists. They 
thought that this revenue would fully cover the expense of 
policing the park, opening the driveways, and guarding the 
natural treasures of the place. They overlooked the fact 
that the average tourist would not or could not tour the 
park as its discoverers and explorers had done; that there 


must be highways, good hotels, safety, and even luxuries 
provided before the anticipated stream of travel would set 
toward the park. They forgot that the nearest railroad 
station was 500 miles away and that to the outside world 
of pleasure seekers and sight-seers the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park yet remained a primeval and almost impene- 
trable wilderness. 

There can be no doubt that the long delay between its 
first discovery as a place of unthinkable beauty and won- 
der and the final exploitation and fame of the park was a 
fortuitous circumstance. For if it had been disclosed to 
the world earlier than the civil war, or at any time during 
the progress of that conflict, the Federal Government would 
not have set it aside from settlement, and greedy specula- 
tors would certainly have intrenched themselves within its 
boundaries. So, too, the mistaken hopes of its enthusiastic 
promoters in anticipating adequate resources from the 
leases operated had a fortunate consequence ; for it is prob- 
able that the Congress would not have passed the act of 
dedication if it had not believed that the park would be 
self-sustaining, or that it would become a financial "bur- 
den" to the public. Even when the devastation and wanton 
license of its desecrators became known. Congress for sev- 
eral years failed to make any appropriation either for the 
improvement or protection of the national park. 

The first act of the Secretary of the Interior after the 
enactment of the dedication act was to appoint a park 
superintendent. Nathaniel P. Langford, from the day of 
his return home from the famous Washburn-Langford ex- 
pedition the chiefest advocate of the measure, was ap- 
pointed first superintendent of the park. The work was 
to be a labor of love with him. Eager, courageous, brilliant 
of mind, and prompt of action, passionately proud and fond 
of the wonderland which he had been so largely instru- 
mental in winning for his countrymen, Mr. Langford was 
the making of an ideal manager and guardian of the park. 
But from the beginning he was left without aid, encourage- 
ment, or financial support. He never asked nor expected 
a salary. The region over which he held single sway is 
larger than the States of Delaware and Rhode Island with 
part of Massachusetts added. Alone, without men or 
money, it is not strange that his task became not only im- 
possible of accomplishment, but that its unreasonable re- 
quirements became a source of endless vexation and grief 
to Mr. Langford. Meanwhile the press and the public 


abused him roundly for conditions of which he could know 
but little and which he was powerless to circumvent. 

Mr. Langford was succeeded by Philetus W. Norris, of 
Michigan, himself an enthusiast and an explorer who had 
already accomplished much in the exploitation of the park. 
He was fortunate to have been in charge when Congress 
appropriated its first item in support of the national park 
and with his administration began the first effective im- 
provement in its affairs. Norris was an indefatigable ex- 
plorer, an enthusiastic lover of the wondrous region in his 
charge, an untiring worker, and a man of absolute integrity 
and patriotism. His ceaseless wanderings into every nook 
and corner of the park disclosed a thousand marvels and 
beauties that had escaped preceding explorers, and his in- 
domitable hardihood and everlasting vigilance put the first 
check upon the outlawry of the place. 

After five years of effective service, Norris was suc- 
ceeded by Patrick A. Conger, of Iowa, a man without inter- 
est in the work, with no conception of the great respon- 
sibility placed upon him. The weakness of his adminis- 
tration brought the park to the lowest depths of misfor- 
tune, but the very extent of its retrogression excited pub- 
lic indignation and made for permanent reform in the man- 
agement of the famous pleasure ground. It was also dur- 
ing the Conger regime of neglect and mismanagement that 
even a greater menace arose. Thus far no special leases 
had been granted. Permits of occupancy had been granted 
to a few, and small and scattered houses of public comfort 
had been erected. The dedication act specified that "only 
small parcels" of land be let to private parties. But now 
a company bearing the name "Yellowstone Park Improve- 
ment Company" was formed for the ostensible purpose of 
improving and safeguarding the park in a manner which 
had not been accomplished by the Government. The Assist- 
ant Secretary of the Interior gave countenance to this 
scheme and a lease of 4,400 acres, including the principal 
points of interest in the park, was actually granted to the 
schemers. The uproar which followed this announcement 
came from every section of the United States. General 
Sheridan, who had visited the park in 1881, 1882, and 1883, 
made the country aware of the deplorable conditions exist- 
ing and called upon the sentiment of the people of every 
State to insist upon some definite action. The governor of 
Montana appealed to Congress and the powerful voice of 
the press was raised against the meditated stultification 


of the dedication act as a swindle and an outrage. The ef- 
fect was prompt and salutary. In 1883 the sundry civil 
bill containing the annual appropriation for the park pro- 
hibited the leasing of more than 10 acres to any single 
party, authorized the use of troops in the reservation, and 
provided 10 assistant superintendents to police the park. 
That made an end to the "improvement" company and gave 
to the Government and to the whole world a new and last- 
ing idea of how highly the American people prized their 
unique and precious park. 

Up to this time hunting and fishing had been allowed 
without stint for the "needs" of camping parties. The 
privilege had been shamefully abused, and the wild crea- 
tures had been for years slaughtered and captured without 
let or hindrance. Now the catching of fish except with 
hook and line, was absolutely prohibited and the killing 
of birds or animals even for food was rigorously forbidden. 
But these stringent regulations were either ignored or de- 
spised by the irrepressible poachers. The funds approp- 
riated by Congress were still inadequate, and at last it 
was suggested that the Territory of Wyoming, in which 
the largest part of the park is contained, should take over 
the responsibility and expense of protecting the timber, 
game, fish, and natural curiosities of the national reserva- 
tion. The folly of this plan was quickly followed by its 
failure, but in 1884 the Wyoming legislature passed an act 
which ran its desultory course, increased the prevalent 
evils, created new difficulties and was repealed after two 
years of utter failure. The withdrawal of Wyoming auth- 
ority proclaimed the unguarded state of the region. The 
assistant superintendents were worse than useless. They 
were all inexperienced at the work required and considered 
their appointments as sinecures, the rewards of some po- 
litical activities. They peddled privileges, and as Chitten- 
den wrote, "made merchandise of the treasures they were 
appointed to preserve." He says that "Under their sur- 
veillance, vandalism was practically unchecked, and the 
slaughter of game was carried on for private profit almost 
in sight of the superintendent's office." 

Conger resigned and was succeeded by Robert E. 
Carpenter, of Iowa. This superintendent from the first 
looked upon his office as an opportunity for profit to him- 
self and friends. He gave no thought to the protection 
or improvement of the park, spent most of his time in 
Washington and there, in concert with a member of the 


notorious improvement company, almost succeeded in get- 
ting Congress to pass a measure granting vast tracts 
within the park to private parties for commercial purposes. 
Carpenter and his confederates were so certain of success 
that they had themselves posted their names on claim no- 
tices and located for themselves the most desirable tracts. 
The scandal which followed the expose of this plot caused 
the dismissal of Superintendent Carpenter. 

Col. David W. Wear, of Missouri, then assumed con- 
trol. He was a man of rare ability and immediately set 
out to remedy the wrong wrought by some of his predeces- 
sors. Energy and intelligence marked his first acts of 
administration, but his sincerity and zeal could not offset 
the bad impressions left by the maladministration of 
others. Congress declined to appropriate further funds 
for the maintenance of the civil management of the park, 
and the Secretary of the Interior was compelled to call 
upon the War Department for military assistance. In 
August, 1886, Capt. Moses Harris, of the First United 
States Cavalry, took charge of affairs in the national park. 
He had the ability and the disposition as well as the men 
and the means to estop many abuses at once. Trespassers 
soon learned that he meant what he said and that he was 
ready and able to enforce it. 

The dilapidated physical equipment of the park, the 
demoralization of its management, and the consequent con- 
tempt with which poachers, campers, and travelers alike 
regarded its lax restrictions combined at this time to en- 
force an immediate though tardy action from Congress. 
That body was at last aware of the deplorable state of 
affairs in the park, not realizing that its own failure to 
appropriate adequate funds was really as much the cause 
of the bad conditions as the incapacity, greed, indifference, 
or occasional obliquity of some of the early superintend- 
ents. There can be no doubt that Langford would have 
made an ideal official if he had had the material and moral 
support of the Government. Norris did excellent work un- 
der similar difficulties, and Wear demonstrated his desire 
and ability to reform abuses and administer his office 
well. It was the refusal of Congress to appropriate suf- 
ficient money for the work that forced the induction of 
the military and the appointment of an officer of the army 
as "acting superintendent." At the time and under the 
peculiar conditions it was the only alternative that could 
be thought of. 


Captain Harris took immediate steps to curtail or 
estop all encroachments. He posted the rules and regula- 
tions, dealt summarily with offenders, and gave the visitors 
to understand that he meant what he said. Meanwhile 
the question of road construction had begun to be solved. 
Capt. D. C. Kingman, of the Corps of Engineers, had al- 
ready laid the foundation of the present system, and the 
excellent results obtained prompted Congress in 1900 to 
place the work definitely in the hands of the Engineer 
Department. The code of laws for the regulation of the 
park enacted in 1894 put a check on abuses of leases and 
privileges. Tourist traffic increased with the erection and 
maintenance of better transportation facilities, more and 
larger accommodations, greater safety, and convenience in 
and about all the important places of interest. The annual 
summer incursion of visitors grew from hundreds to thou- 
sands, and every witness of the marvels and the beauties 
of the place became thenceforth an enthusiastic herald 
of its strange glories. The theory of the founders of the 
park commenced to be better understood and appreciated. 
The world came to realize the fact that the Government 
was in earnest in its desire to maintain, so far as possible, 
the wild and natural character of the great reservation. 
The place and its possibilities came to be held sacred in 
the eyes of lawmakers and administrators of its laws and 
regulations. Such attempts as have been made to circum- 
vent them, although continued even to this day, became 
more secret and less bold — adroit schemes cunningly plan- 
ned for the aggrandizement of private interests. At var- 
ious times movements have been quietly but cunningly be- 
gun for the inbuilding of -trolly lines and even steam rail- 
roads, for the harnessing of water power and its conversion 
into the business of transportation, lighting, and even man- 

In unfailing opposition to these selfish enterprises the 
Government continues to adhere to its original policy of 
maintaining forever so far as possible the virgin splendor 
of the people's great playground. In this it must now and 
always will have the support and approval of enlightened 
and patriotic people of every nation. To this end it is not 
now and will never be necessary to gridiron the park with 
carriage roads and highways, but only to improve and 
sustain safe and smooth thoroughfares to the principal 
points of attraction. The vast wildernesses which surround 
these can never be improved beyond the magic handiwork 
which nature has already lavished upon them. Indeed 


they constitute and so should be held the natural sanctuary, 
home, and refuge of the myriads of wild creatures that 
contribute almost as much as the inanimate prodigies to 
the primeval and noble attributes of this matchless park. 

To-day the tourist in the Yellowstone National Park, 
viewing the fringes of these almost impenetrable fast- 
nesses, will not fail to see almost by the roadside of the 
traveled route bands of antelope and deer, an occasional 
elk or bear or Rocky Mountain sheep. They gaze with 
placid interest at the passing coach and go on feeding with 
the calm security of confidence. But they are only the 
outposts, the skirmishers of vast armies of their kind that 
swarm in the silent fastnesses of the forests that must be 
trailed in the remote places to be seen in all the glory of 
their safeguarded freedom. 

The creation of national forest reserves in Montana, 
Wyoming, and Idaho, around the outside boundaries of 
the park, has operated favorably for the peace and pro- 
tection of its fauna, and the game laws of those States, 
improved as they are though still open to betterment, have 
gone far to enhance the wise provisions for the permanent 
safety and multiplication of the myriads of beasts, birds, 
and fishes which now make their home within the invisible 
boundaries of the great domain. With that inexplicable 
instinct with which nature has endowed them, the wild 
animals of the region seem to know exactly the imagined 
line which bounds the four parallel margins of the reser- 
vation. Their hegira from the outside sets toward it with 
the advent of the hunting season and they seem to know 
that it is their home. The profusion and richness of its 
pastures, the accessibility of its natural shelters and the 
isolation of its trackless hills and forests must have al- 
ways appealed to them, but since the enforcement of laws 
for their protection, since the elimination of the hunter 
and the trapper, these beautiful creatures appear to have 
realized a new assurance of contentment so that thousands 
of them never cross the boundaries of their paradise. 

The prodigality of the natural resources of the park 
has been wisely reinforced by the planting and curing of 
considerable quantities of tame forage plants for winter 
feeding. Deer, antelope, and mountain sheep come down 
in herds to the feeding grounds during winter, there to feed 
and thrive upon the alfalfa hay which has been provided 
for them. Thus more than 1,000 antelope and half as 
many deer now winter annually in the valley of the Gard- 


iner and about the slopes of Mount Everts quite in 
view of Fort Yellowstone and the Mammoth Hot Springs 
Hotel. Occassionally some of them wander into the 
streets of Gardiner, which is adjacent to the confines of 
the park, but they are so tame and inoffensive that the 
sportsmen is ashamed to shoot and even the dogs respect 

The number of elk in the park has been variously 
estimated. These splendid animals have proved them- 
selves the most prolific and hardy of their contemporaries, 
and the most conservative estimates give their numbers 
as more than 25,000. Easy victims to the gun and guile 
of the hunter, for years the native herds of buffalo were 
decimated and disturbed. Only since they have been seg- 
regated within inclosures, and fed during rigorous seasons, 
have these noblest of typically American creatures gained 
in physical and numerical conditions. A few of the original 
wild herd are yet at large in the Madison and Mirror 
plateau and the Pelican and Hayden valleys, but the larg- 
est number is now confined to the 900 acres of splendid 
pasture lands fenced for them in the Lamar Valley. The 
moose, too, are increasing in numbers, frequenting the 
marshes and thickets of the upper Yellowstone, the Bech- 
ler, and the Gallatin Basin in the northwest corner of the 

The bear, if not the most numerous, is the most fa- 
miliar habitant of this wonderland. Grizzly, silvertip, 
black, and brown, he may be seen at almost any time, 
singly or in groups, prowling contentedly through the 
brush or about the garbage refuse of the hotels. Tourists 
have counted scores of them feeding at one time in familiar 
proximity at the park hostelries, and thousands of snap- 
shots are circulating around the world an ocular proof 
of the tameness and amiability of bruin. At long intervals 
some old or invalid bear will betray signs of returning 
ferocity. Death is the penalty of these seldom returns to 
savagery. Although the official killing of mountain lions 
has been discontinued, there are a few yet in the park, 
but their ravages are inconsequential and they are never 
a menace to mankind. 

Geese, ducks, cranes, pelicans, gulls, and more than 
70 varieties of small birds come yearly to rear their young 
about the lakes and rivers of the reservation. Most of 
the song birds choose their habitats near the places of 
human habitation, and they were from the first so molested 


and diminished by the forays of dogs and house cats that 
both of these domestic animals have been banished from 
the park. It has been by the preservation of the Uving as 
well as the inanimate wonders of the park that naturalists 
as well as geologists, scientists as well as sight-seers, have 
come to know it as the world's largest, most varied and 
most perfect wonderland. It is the only place in the world 
where civilization has seized upon only to safeguard the 
prodigious manifestations of nature's secrets. It is an 
illustration of the only incident in history in which the 
advent of man has not operated at variance with the native 
magnificence of primeval beauty. Its phenomena ante- 
date history. Its monuments were old when the traditions 
of the troglodyte were new in the caves of prehistoric man. 
Centuries count as but moments in the variant con- 
ditions and activities of nature in this wonderland. The 
energy which made its marvels may have caprices, whims, 
vagaries, but it is yet dynamic and resistless as with an 
infinity of power. Great geysers have subsided for a time 
only to burst forth unexpectedly with new vigor and in- 
describable beauty; pellucid pools, for centures unruffled 
in their adamantine beds have leaped without warning 
into boiling fountains. Yawning craters, vacant for years, 
have come to utter groans as of the labor of some unseen 
and unclean monster, giving birth at last to hideous, living 
jets of mud that dance and wheeze as in some filthy frenzy. 
For every subsidence of fountain or geyser there is some 
new recruit to the bewildering display. Only lately a 
hitherto inactive hot pool broke into sudden activity. 
Above it had been reared a tent. Its surface was covered 
with a floor through a trapdoor in which its hot water 
was raised into washtubs. It was surmounted by the 
laundry of Old Faithful Inn. During the winter when 
none was there to witness the eruption except the winter 
people, the explosion came. He was entering his green- 
house nearby when, with a sudden roar, the hiss of steam, 
and the trembling of the earth the laundry and all its 
contents, floor, tubs, boxes, and benches, were tossed sky- 
ward at the sport of a mighty fountain which had spurted 
into life. The pool had become a geyser, and with a thought 
of popular celebrity the single witness promptly named 
it the Merry Widow. During the season of 1908 a small 
but curious eruption became evident a few yards away 
from the Merry Widow. It is neither a pool, a geyser, 
nor a spring. Yet from a small central orifice in the 
crust of the formation there exudes a constant upheaval 


of tiny hot crystals. Glittering like diamonds, insoluble 
in water, soon cooled and dried in a circular pile, they can 
be lifted in the hand, a beautiful evidence of one of the 
latest and least-known of the unclassed wonders of the 
park. The most inveterate and observant habitues of the 
reservation came in sight and touch with the changes and 
new developments constantly taking place. The names 
bestowed at random soon become part of the unwritten 
nomenclature of the place. Boiling springs cool or become 
quiescent only to give place to new and turbulent springs. 
Small geysers break forth in remote places, there to spout 
or subside unknown to the thousands of visitors who cling 
to the main lines of travel and are more than gratified 
with the multitude of wonders which they encounter in 
their brief sojourn. Nor are the hidden and undescribed 
attractions of this vast preserve confined to the weird 
and protentous wonders and the wild beasts there to be 
encountered. Hundreds of matchless sylvan scenes, val- 
leys voiceless but for the murmur of their brooks, cascades 
that stripe with silver streaks the green-walled fortresses 
of the mountains, caverns that are lair to the fox, the 
bear, arid the wolf, things tender and terrible, unseen by 
the eye and untouched by the hand of man, can be found 
on every side in the still wilderness of the Yellowstone 
National Park. 

Who, then, but must hope for the preservation of 
every foot of the 3,500 square miles of this incomparable 
possession, that its beauties may be unmarred, that its 
wonders may be undefiled, that its myriads of living, 
happy, wild creatures may be kept unmolested in its hos- 
pitable solitudes? The whole world has come to know and 
value the priceless worth of this pleasure ground and to 
look to the people of the United States for its fullest pro- 
tection, peace, and prosperity. Its welfare has become 
something more than the hope and dream of its fore- 
sighted and unselfish explorers and projectors. It has 
become a matter of national pride and prudence, a sub- 
ject of admiring interest to all the students and travelers 
of the world. 

The pleasure-seeking traveler and the official inspec- 
tor who pass through or loiter in the Yellowstone National 
Park in the summer time cannot realize the transformation 
which occurs at the end of September, intensifies as win- 
ter advances, and is maintained in almost arctic rigor for 
nearly nine months of the year. The physical inequalities 


and imperfections which are evident in varying degrees 
during the tourist season, both as to the accommodations 
and as to the transportation facihties, are directly trace- 
able to the difficulties and disasters that occur during the 
stressful months of winter. Then the roads are piled high 
and wide with incessant snowdrifts. The grand tour be- 
comes utterly impassable except by snowshoes. The low- 
lands are piled with undulous drifts, and the very trails 
are obliterated. The havoc wrought by these incredible 
masses of snow begins late in the spring, when with a 
suddenness almost as unheralded as the descent of winter 
the sun blazes with summer energy, the warm winds blow, 
and the melting snow comes down in resistless cataracts, 
sweeping away roadways, undermining viaducts and 
bridges, and undoing much of the work of previous months. 

During subsequent weeks what with mud, pools, 
washouts, and debris from the melted snowslides miles 
of the main roads are impassable for wagons and repair 
machines. The work of reconstruction with the existing 
forces of men and teams, tools and wagons, is necessarily 
slow, imperfect, and temporary in many cases. Hardly 
one hundred full days of work time are at the command 
of those in charge of mending the damaged thoroughfares, 
extending the road-building plans, and improving the gen- 
eral conditions of the park. The fidelity and zeal of those 
in charge of these great works can not successfully offset 
the lack of adequate means in money and men or cope 
with the destructive elements that have warred against 
them. The ultimate solution of this, one of the gravest 
and most apparent obstacles to the perfect conduct of the 
park's affairs, will come with speed and certainty when 
Congress shall supply appropriations commensurate with 
the great and growing needs of the admirable road system 
planned by the engineer department. 

Nor is the isolation of the scattered hotel plants or 
the annual devastation of roads the only problem raised 
by the long reign of ice and snow and frigid weather. 
With the cessation of travel and the advent of the hunt- 
ing season the hardships of the wild animals necessarily 
commerce, and the irrepressible poacher and hunter gets 
busy around the unsentineled edges of the greatest game 
preserve in the world. 

The small existing force of civilian scouts is an ad- 
mirable nucleus about which to upbuild an organized and 
trained body that could and would solve and administer 


the few remaining Droblems which hinder the ultimate 
advancements of the best interests of the wonderland 
which they know like a book and love like a home. At 
many scattered points of vantage throughout the park log 
huts, called snowshoe cabins, have been erected for the 
shelter of the scouts. In these secret quarters fuel, food, 
and bedding are cached at the close of each summer. 
Quickly they become inaccessible except by snowshoes. 
All winter long the scouts in groups of two or three, 
guided by the most experienced of the number, track across 
the unmarked snow from cabin to cabin watching for 
skulking poachers, spying for the smoke of intruding 
trappers, and investigating the characters and designs 
of the many furtive hunters who camp conveniently out- 
side the confines of the park ready to cross the lines and 
slaughter the unsuspecting game. These running scouts 
travel lightly and rapidly, skimming the snow on skis, 
carrying only enough food for a midday lunch, depending 
for warmth only upon the violent exertions which must 
be sustained between shelters to prevent them from freez- 
ing. There is no camping for them until they have reached 
the far-away cabin which marks the end of their day's 

Indistinguishable from private horsemen, familiar with 
the country, devoted to the work, passionately fond of the 
great wonderland which is their home, properly paid and 
provided with quarters and subsistence for themselves 
and their horses, it is apparent that the work of these 
men in the summer as well as in the winter will be found 
unequaled in efficiency and constancy by any other method 
of policing the park. What with patrolling the park, ap- 
prehending thoughtless or criminal malefactors, fighting 
forest fires and regulating scattered camps, feeding the 
game in winter and preventing the ravages of carnivorous 
beasts, their duties and dangers are constant and im- 

The police work of the park has been focused and 
made effective by the establishment of a trial court pre- 
sided over by a United States commissioner with head- 
quarters at Mammoth Hot Springs. 

The enormous area of the national park, its unspeak- 
able and awesome phenomena, its indescribable beauties, 
its perennial disclosures of new and astonishing things, 
the amazing variety of its countless attractions, the alter- 


nating contrasts of marvels winsome and prodigious, can 
be indicated but not appraised in these brief notes. 

For the great public of this and other countries re- 
peated personal visits and sustained and intimate study of 
its lavish splendors and inconceivable curiosities are neces- 
sary to even an approximate appreciation, either of the 
Yellowstone wonderland itself or of the broad and patriotic 
spirit which has made it one of the proudest possessions 
of the whole people of the United States, as it is also the 
open and hospitable pleasuring ground of the travelers of 
every country on the globe J 


" — We are informed that a few days since a party of 
Indians placed sods upon the track of the U. P. R. R. at a 
point between Pine Bluffs and Antelope Station. Some 
men with a hand car, coming up, chose to take the chances 
of encountering the sods rather than the red devils, who 
were near at hand, awaiting results. The car passed the 
obstructions without harm, and the red devils were foiled." 
—The Cheyenne Leader, October 22, 1867. 

1. 60th Cong. 2nd Sess. S. Doc. 672; [Serial 5409.] 

The interpretation of historical anecdotes often present diffi- 
culties as to their historical value. The following Documents with- 
out doubt establish a value which assists in proving that the Black- 
foot Indians were friends of the white man. Due to unavoidable 
circumstances, John Coulter who was found by the Blackfoot with 
the Crows during an engagement between the two tribes, helped to 
undermine the confidence established by Lewis and Clarke between 
the Blackfoot and the whiteman. This and other similar encounters 
brought about serious Indian troubles, which without doubt retarded 
the settlement of this part of the country, a part of which later 
became northern Wyoming, fully forty to fifty years. 

16th Congress No. 163 1st Session 

Communicated to the Senate, February 16, 1820 

Mr. Leake, from the Committee on Indian Affairs, to 
whom was referred the resolution of the Senate respecting 
the trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, made the 
following report: 

The committee have had that subject under considera- 
tion, and have discovered that the trade, as it is at present 
conducted with the Indian tribes, has been productive of 
serious injuries, as well to the interests of the Indians as 
to the interests of the United States in their intercourse 
with them; that, instead of being calculated to aid in the 
civilization, and add to the comfort and happiness of that 
unfortunate portion of the human family, and to promote 
the beneficial influence of the United States over them, 
the course pursued by those who carry on the Indian trade 
has in most instances produced the contrary effect, as will 
be seen by referring to the documents herewith presented, 
and marked A and B, which have been received in a com- 
munication from the Secretary of War, made to the com- 
mittee at their request, which they beg leave to make a 
part of this report, and which are as follows: 


Camp Missouri, Missouri River, October 29, 1819. 

Agreeably to your request, I lay before you my views 
on the subject of Indian trade on this river, the result of 


personal observation among the Osage, Kanzas, Ottoe, 
Missouria, loway, Pawnee, and Maha nations, and what I 
have collected from persons acquainted with the more re- 
mote tribes. 

The history of this trade under the Spanish and 
French colonial governments would be the recital of the 
expeditions of vagrant hunters and traders, who never 
ventured up the river beyond a few miles of this place. 
The return of Captains Lewis and Clarke, and the favorable 
account they brought with them of the rich furs to be ob- 
tained on the upper branches of the Missouri, and the re- 
spectful reception which their admirable deportment to- 
wards the natives had gained for them, encouraged Manual 
Lisa, one of the most enterprising of these traders, to 
venture up the Missouri with a small trading equipment 
as far as the Yellow Stone river. 

He passed the winter of 1807-'08 at the mouth of the 
Yellow Stone and Big Horn rivers. It is an act of justice 
due to the memory of the late Captain Lewis, to state 
that the Blackfeet Indians (in whose vicinity Lisa now 
lives) were so convinced of the propriety of his conduct 
in the rencounter which took place betv/een him and a 
party of their people, in which two of them were killed, 
that they did not consider it as cause of war or hostility 
on their part: this is proved, inasmuch as the first party 
of Lisa's men that were met by the Blackfeet were treated 
civilly. This circumstance induced Lisa to despatch one 
of his men (Coulter) to the forks of the Missouri, to en- 
deavor to find the Blackfeet nation, and bring them to his 
establishment to trade. This messenger unfortunately fell 
in with a party of the Crow nation, with v/hom he staid 
several days. While with them, they were attacked by 
their enemies the Blackfeet. Coulter, in self-defence, took 
part with the Crows. He distinguished himself very much 
in the combat; and the Blackfeet were defeated, having 
plainly observed a white man fighting in the ranks of their 
enemy. Coulter returned to the trading-house. In travers- 
ing the same country, a short time after, in company with 
another man, a party of the Blackfeet attempted to stop 
them, without, however, evincing any hostile intentions; a 
rencounter ensued, in which the comnanion of Coulter and 
two Indians were killed, and Coulter made his escape. The 
next time whites were ^)\ei by the Blackfeet, the latter at- 
tacked without any parley. Thus originated the hostility 
which has prevented American traders from penetrating 


the fur country of the Missouri. Lisa returned in 1808 
to St. Louis, and in 1809 the Missouri Fur Company was 
formed. The objects of this company appear to have been 
to monopoHze the trade among the lower tribes of the 
Missouri, who understand the art of trapping, and to send 
a large party to the head waters of the Missouri river 
capable of defending and trapping beaver themselves. To 
the latter object, however, the attention of the company 
was more particularly directed. In the spring of 1809, 
the principal partners of this company ascended the Mis- 
souri at the head of about 150 men. They left small trad- 
ing establishments at the Arickara, Mandan, and Gros 
Ventres villages, and the main body of the party wintered 
in 1809-'10 at the old trading position of Manuel Lisa, at 
the junction of the Yellow Stone and Big Horn rivers. In 
the spring of 1810, they proceeded to the Three Forks of 
the Missouri, where they erected a fort, and commenced 
trapping. They had every prospect of being successful, 
until their operations were interrupted by the hostility of 
the Blackfeet Indians. With these people they had several 
very severe conflicts, in which upwards of 30 of their 
men were killed; and the whole party were finally com- 
pelled to leave that part of the country. They proceeded 
in a southwardly direction, crossed the mountains near 
the source of the Yellow Stone river, and wintered in 
1810-'ll on the waters of the Columbia. At this position 
they suffered much for provisions, and were compelled 
to live for some months entirely upon their horses. The 
party by this time had become dispirited, and began to 
separate: some returned into the United States by the way 
of the Missouri, and others made their way south, into the 
Spanish settlements, by the way of the Rio del Norte. The 
company languished through 1812, 1813, and 1814, and 
finally expired. Equally unfortunate, in a commercial 
point of view, was another company, which embarked the 
year preceding the one I have described, having in view 
the same objects. It left St. Louis in 1808, headed by 
two traders, Messrs. McClinnon and Crooks, and consisted 
of near eighty men. They met returning, near this place, 
the boat sent by the United States to carry back the 
Mandan chief brought into this country by Captains Lewis 
and Clarke. You undoubtedly recollect that this boat was 
attacked by the Arickaras, and compelled to make a pre- 
cipitate retreat. This act of hostility discouraged Messrs. 
McClinnon and Crooks, and they thought it prudent to 
decline going on. Encouraged, however, by the attempt 


of the Missouri Fur Company, they followed their boats in 
the spring of 1809. They were met, however, by the Sconi 
band of the Sioux, who refused to permit them to pass, 
and compelled them to remain among them. By affecting 
to submit, and commencing to erect houses, the Indians 
were thrown off their guard; and the party, taking ad- 
vantage of their absence on a hunting excursion, embarked 
with their goods, and descended the river to the Ottoe 
village, where they passed the winter of 1809-'10. They 
have always attributed their detention by the Sioux to 
the Missouri Fur Company, or some of its members, who, 
to procure themselves a passage, informed the Sioux that 
the boat coming up was intended to trade, and that they 
must not permit her to pass. Considering the character 
of Indian traders, when in competition, the fact is very 
far from being improbable. In 1811, the views of these 
traders appear to have changed: they added to their as- 
sociation Mr. Wilson P. Hunt, and appear to have acted 
under the direction of Mr. Astor, of New York. They 
ascended the river again in 1811, and reached the mouth 
of the Columbia; but they carried no goods, nor made any 
attempts to trade or trap on the Missouri: whatever might 
have been their intentions, they were probably frustrated 
by the war of 1812. The dissolution of the Missouri Fur 
Company, the disaster that befel the United States' boat, 
and the difficulties encountered by Messrs. McClinnon and 
Crooks, extinguished the spirit of enterprise that had 
promised to carry our trade into the valuable fur country 
of the Missouri. Since that period, two companies have 
been formed, both of which dissolved unsuccessfully; and 
a third is now in operation, independent of several indivi- 
dual traders; but no attempts have since been made to 
carry on trade beyond the Arickaras; nor, in fact, do 
traders often venture beyond the upper band of the Sioux. 

The following statement exhibits the trade of this 
river, viz: 

The company consists of Messrs. Lisa, Pilcher, Per- 
kins, Wood, Carson, Williams, and Tenonee. They bought 
out the company of 1817 and 1818 for $10,000, and bought 
about $7,000 worth of goods. They trade with the Ottoes, 
Missourias, loways, the Mahas, Pawnee, Piankeshaws, and 
Sioux: their principal trading establishment is near this 
place; capital $17,000 

Seres and Francis Chouteau trade with the Kanzas 
and Osage nations. They have a trading-house not far 


from the mouth of the river Kanzas, and their capital is 
about $4,000 

Legarc, Chouteau, and Brothers, trade with the Osage 
and Kanzas nations, near their village on the Osage river; 
their capital $6,000 

The United States factory also trade with the Osages 
and Kanzas. This factory is at Fort Osage. 

Roberdeau and Pepin, in partnership with Chouteau 
and Butholl, of St. Louis, trade with the Ottoes, loways, 
Missourias, Pawnees, Mahas, Piankeshaws, and Sioux. 
Their principal establishment is at Nashanotollona ; 
capital $12,000 

Pratt and Vasquer trade with the same nations. Their 
principal establishment is near the Mahas village; cap- 
ital $7,000 

Broseau and De Lorion trade occasionally with the 
Sioux and Arickaras: they do not trade this year; cap- 
ital $7,000 

It is evident, from this statement, that the trade is 
of little importance in a pecuniary point of view, and that 
various individuals having opposite interests trade with 
the same Indians. These traders are continually endeavor- 
ing to lessen each other in the eyes of the Indians, not 
only by abusive words, but by all sorts of low tricks and 
maneuvers. If a trader trusts an Indian, his opponent 
uses all his endeavors to purchase the furs he may take, 
or prevent in any way his being paid. Each trader sup- 
ports his favorite chief, which produces not only intestine 
commotions and divisions in the tribe, but destroys the 
the influence of the principal chief, who should always be 
under the control of the Government. The introduction 
of ardent spirits is one of the unhappy consequences of 
this opposition among traders. So violent is the attach- 
ment of Indians for it, that he who gives most is sure to 
obtain furs; while, should any one attempt to trade with- 
out it, he is sure of losing ground with his antogonist; 
no bargain is ever concluded without it, and the law on 
that subject is evaded by their saying they give, not sell it. 
The traders being afraid to trust the Indians, they cannot 
make distant hunts : this, and their attachment to whiskey, 
induce them to hang about in the vicinities of trading es- 
tablishments. As they take furs, they sell them for 
whiskey; the consequence is, that but few furs are taken, 
as much of the hunting season is lost in intoxication and 


indolence. The Indians witnessing the efforts of these 
people to cheat and injure each other, and knowing no 
other or no more important white men, they readily im- 
bibe the idea that all white men are alike bad. The im- 
posing appearance of arms and equipments of white men, 
and the novelty and convenience of their merchandise, 
had impr^essed the Indians with a high idea of their power 
and importance; but the avidity with which beaver skins 
are sought after, the tricks and wrangling made use of, 
and the degradation submitted to in obtaining them, have 
induced a belief that the whites cannot exist without them, 
and made a great change in their opinion of our import- 
ance, our justice, and our power. 

Under the plea of trading with the Indians, white 
trappers and hunters obtain a footing in their country. 
The old man and his son whipped and robbed this sum- 
mer by the Pawnees, and the three men killed about the 
same time by the Sioux, were persons of this description; 
the trouble these sorts of transactions may occasion the 
Government cannot be readily calculated. It will illustrate 
what I have said to narrate what happened on my visit 
to the Maha nation, from which I yesterday returned. The 
nation were preparing to start on their winter hunt, and 
endeavoring to obtain guns, powder, and lead, to subsist 
themselves while trapping: they complained bitterly that 
they could not procure enough of these articles ; the traders 
were afraid to trust them; there were two traders in the 
camp, both jealous and apprehensive of each other; (in 
conversation with the Indians, they invariably abused the 
traders, and the traders abused each other.) The tribe 
separated into small hunting bands, very much dissatified, 
and the traders would send round occasionally to their 
bands to purchase their furs. A keg of whiskey was con- 
sidered an indispensable equipment for such an under- 
taking. I had found, on my arrival, most of the principal 
men drunk. The Big Elk, who is so much our friend, 
and who formerly possessed unlimited power in his na- 
tion, was so drunk for two days that I could not deliver 
your letter to him; when I gave it, I requested the inter- 
preter to inform him that I had been two days waiting to 
deliver a letter from you, but that, very much to my sur- 
prise, I had found him too drunk to transact business. 
He appeared affected at what I said, acknowledged how 
unworthy it was in him to be in that situation, and ad- 
mitted he had lost much power by it. He blamed the 
whites for bringing liquor into the country; said that when 


he knew it was not to be had, he felt no inclination for it; 
but that when it was near and attainable, his attachment 
for it was irresistable. Besides, said he, your traders come 
among my nation, give metals, and make chiefs of every 
man who can obtain a party to trap beaver. It is the 
ambition of these chiefs that opposes me and makes me 
powerless. I know there are Mahas now alive as brave 
and as wise as I am. It was fortune or chance that 
placed me at the head of the nation, and I cannot control 
my tribe while the whites assist those who oppose me. Thus 
is the influence of this valuable and sensible Indian lost 
to his tribe and the Government, and thus is a man who 
possesses some traits that do honor to human nature de- 
based and made a beast of; he had not influence enough 
to lead a hunting band. By the establishment of military 
posts, the Government expect to secure the trade to Amer- 
ican citizens, to obtain such an ascendency over them as 
will secure their assistance or pr-event their being em- 
ployed against us, and thereby to civilize them. The facil- 
ity with which any man may become nominally a citizen 
of the United States gives but little advantage to those 
who have really claims to that character; and I appeal 
to your personal knowledge of the present traders to say 
if they are likely to instil among the Indians favorable 
opinions of the Government, or if the establishment of 
an isolated military post among the Indians is likely to 
obtain such an ascendency over them as will secure their 
assistance, or prevent their being employed against us, 
while the real influence is in the hands of the description 
of men who now trade on the Missouri. Those traders 
who reside near the military posts, or who are willing to 
lend their influence to the Government, will be the objects 
of jealousy to their rivals, whose establishments may be 
farther off. The readiest way of destroying the trade of 
their rival will be to create such disturbances between the 
tribe and the troops as will prevent the Indians frequent- 
ing the post. This is not an imaginary apprehension. 
Recollect that our difficulty last year with the Kanzas 
nation arose from the intrigues of a trader, who, finding 
that the Kanzas were trading at an establishment near the 
cantonment, induced some of their young men to commit 
such outrages, (stopping our men, whipping them, etc.) 
as had nearly produced a war, and which ended in whipping 
the Indians, and expelling them from camp. The fact can- 
not be legally proved, but I sincerely believe it. 


The impossibility of civilizing the Indians, when ex- 
posed to the temptations and delusions of interested trad- 
ers, needs no comment. 

The establishment of a company capable of monopoliz- 
ing the trade would be attended in this country with in- 
numerable difficulties. I will not detail them, but submit 
with great deference to your better judgment my own 
opinion. Let the Government take the trade into their 
own hands ; let their agents be honest, capable, and zealous ; 
let their factories be established, not only where the troops 
may be stationed, but at all points convenient for trading 
with the Indians; let certain prices be fixed, and let the 
compensation of the factors depend upon the value of the 
furs they obtain ; and let their accounts be rigidly inspected. 

The Indians would then be completely within the in- 
fluence of the Government; there would then be no dif- 
ficulty in giving credit; because, if the Indian did not pay, 
he would find no one else to trust him; neither would it 
be necessary to debauch the Indians with whiskey. With 
credits to obtain the means of subsistence, and without 
the incitement of whiskey to indolence, they would make 
more furs than when surrounded by a host of traders. 

In short, sir, to my humble judgment, it appears 
that in the present state of affairs, at an enormous ex- 
pense, we obtain nothing. By placing the trade in the 
hands of the Government, we can, without the expense 
of one cent, obtain every thing they appear to desire. 

With sentiments of the greatest respect and esteem, 
your obedient servant, 

Thomas Biddle. 

To Col. H. Atkinson, Commanding 9th Military Department. 


St. Louis, November 23, 1819. 

I have no doubt, however, but all the posts can be 
established, and the objects of Government attained, with- 
out hostility with the Indians, should the Indian trade be 
properly regulated by law. But, under the present system, 
which is miserably defective, and most shamefully abused 


by the traders, much trouble and difficulty may be ap- 

St. Louis, November 26, 1819. 


I take the liberty of submitting to you a report made 
by Major Biddle, of whom I required a particular atten- 
tion to Indian affairs whilst prosecuting the expedition 
up the Missouri in the summer and autumn. His oppor- 
tunities were such as to enable him to form a very correct 
idea of the manner the Indian trade has been carried on, 
and of the character of those engaged in it. Much has 
fallen under my own observation, and agrees with his 

The conduct of the traders, generally, tends more 
to distract and corrupt the Indians than to effect the ob- 
jects contemplated by the laws establishing the inter- 
course. Instead of carrying on a liberal, open, and fair 
trade with the Indians, and impressing them with a proper 
sense and respect for the character and views of Govern- 
ment, every thing is made to bend to an underhand, back- 
biting policy. Each trader endeavors to impress the In- 
dians with the belief that all other traders have no ob- 
ject but to cheat and deceive them, and that Government 
intend taking away their lands by sending troops into 
their country. Hence the jealousy and distrust of the 
Indians towards Government, and the bad opinion they 
have of the whites for truth and honesty. So illiberal 
are the traders in their conduct towards each other, that, 
when one of them gives a credit to a tribe to enable it 
to send out hunting and trapping parties, another des- 
patches an agent, or agents, with a supply of goods and 
whiskey to dog the parties on their excursions, and, by 
the lure of a little whiskey and some trifling articles, rob 
them of their peltries and furs as soon as they are taken 
from the animal's back, and the just creditor of his pay. 
This sort of conduct has very injurious consequences; for, 
as it is so generally practised, every trader is afraid to 
give such credits as are necessary to enable the Indians 
to provide such articles as their women and children 
stand in need of; and the dogging gentry leave little or 
nothing in their hands at the end of their hunts to pur- 
chase with. However, notwithstanding the arts and wiles 
practised by the traders on the Indians, they have un- 


bounded influence over them; for trade is the strong cord 
by which they are all bound. Withhold their trade, and 
you bring them to any terms; afford it, and you make 
them do any thing. If this be the fact, (and I assure you 
it is,) is it just or proper that the influence over the 
Indians should be left in such corrupt hands? Their 
friendship, at no time, while this state of things exists, 
can be calculated on. It appears to be an easy matter for 
Congress to remedy the evil; and it would seem that they 
will, if they can believe those who are personally ac- 
quainted with the facts. To do it, all intercourse by in- 
dividual traders with the Indians should be prohibited; 
and let Government take the whole trade into their own 
hands, or confide it to a single company with a sufficient 
capital. The first, in my opinion, would be preferable, as 
all the influence desirable might be acquired by Govern- 
ment over the Indians. Besides, if the factories were 
well managed, the profits arising from them would, prob- 
ably, defray all the expenses of the military that might 
be necessary to establish the posts and protect the trade 
in the Indian country. If the latter should be thought 
preferable, the individuals of a single company, having 
but one interest, would find their account in impressing 
the Indians with a proper regard and respect for the 
character and views of Government. 

The foregoing subject being so intimately connected 
with your views relative to the Missouri expedition, and 
deeming a change in the system so essential to the inter- 
ests and views of Government in that quarter, I have 
thought proper to order Major Biddle to report in per- 
son to you, for the purpose of giving any further infor- 
mation on the subject that might be thought necessary. 

With the greatest respect, I have the honor to be your 
most obedient servant, 


Col. 6th Inf. com'g 9th Mil. Dep. 

Hon. John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War. 

Note: The term of United States Factory meant Government 
trading posts. 

Exact copy of the document: American State Papers, Vol. VI, 
pp. 201-204. 


Letters in The National Archives 
By W. Turrentine Jackson* 

The first legislature of the Wyoming Territory, meet- 
ing in Cheyenne during December, 1869, conferred upon 
the women of the territory the right to vote in all elec- 
tions.' Two years later members of the second legisla- 
tive assembly unsuccessfully endeavored to repeal the law, 
and this was the last significant attempt to deny to the 
women of Wyoming political equality with men. The ter- 
ritory had thus launched at its very beginning a pioneer 
experiment in the field of politics. Although the national 
leaders of the movement for equal suffrage were encourag- 
ed by the Wyoming enactment, they undoubtedly con- 
sidered it a temporary experiment in a frontier commun- 
ity. Nevertheless, the women of Wyoming enjoyed the 
privileges of political equality for a half century before 
woman suffrage was sanctioned by the federal constitution. 

In the two decades of territorial existence constant 
inquiries were received by the territorial governors rela- 
tive to the success of woman suffrage. A few indivi- 
duals wrote to criticize, but the majority were interested 
in the results of the experiment. Letters were often re- 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH: — W. Turrentine Jackson, born 
April 5, 1915, at Ruston, Louisiana, is the son of Brice H. Jackson 
and Luther Turrentine Jackson. He is an Ensign, USNE. is now 
on active duty in the office of the Chief of Naval Operations in 
Washington, D. C. He was formerly employed as a research analyst 
by the United States Navy, and has been a member of the history 
faculty at the University of California, Montana State University, 
and at Iowa State College. 

Mr. Jackson received the Ph. D. degree from the University of 
Texas in 1940, his doctoral dissertation being written on "The Early 
Exploration and Founding of Yellowstone National Park." Jack- 
son's research interest has continued to be the trans-Mississippi 
west, and he has published several studies in the Pacific Historical 
Review, the Pacific Northwest Quarterly, and the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Review. 

Mr. Jackson was married in 1942, to Barbara Kone of Austin, 
Texas. Is affiliated with the Methodist church. 

1. Compiled Laws of Wyoming, (Cheyenne, 1876), 343. 


ceived inquiring as to the percentage of women voting in 
elections, the method by which they quahfied to vote, 
and the offices in the territory to which they might be 
elected. Men outside the territory were concerned about 
the refining influence that the presence of women would 
have at the polls, and feared that they would ignore po- 
litical groups and vote for candidates on the basis of their 
personal morals. A large percentage of the letters among 
the Executive Proceedings of the territory came from 
nearby Colorado and from Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois. 
These evidence an unusual interest throughout those 
states in the success of the institution. ^ 

The official correspondence of the governors of Wy- 
oming show that Francis E. Warren was the greatest 
champion of woman suffrage among the territorial gov- 
ernors. In his first annual report to the Secretary of the 
Interior he commended the measure giving women the 
vote by saying, "without argument, the facts show that 
the men of Wyoming are favorable to woman suffrage, 
as the women surely are ... it can be asserted without 
fear of contradiction that Wyoming appreciates, believes 
in, and indorses woman suffrage. "^ Warren wrote many 
letters relative to the suffrage question during his first 
administration of 1885-86. The files of his correspondence 
in the National Archives contain answers to several ques- 
tionnaires on the success of woman suffrage. His re- 
sponses, although terse and factual, display his approval 
and enthusiasm for equal political rights. At the close of 
his term he wrote to the Secretary of the Interior, "Woman 
suffrage continues as popular as when first permitted, 
fifteen years ago. The women nearly all vote, and neither 
political party objects."'* 

In 1889 during his second term as territorial gov- 
ernor, Wyoming was making formal preparation to be- 
come a state in the Union. When the constitutional con- 
vention endorsed the equal suffrage experiment by pro- 

2. Correspondence of Governors John M. Thayer, John W. Hoyt, 
Wilham Hale, Francis E. Warren, and Thomas Moonhght, Executive 
Proceedings of the Territory of Wyoming, 1878-1889, Records of the 
Department of the Interior, The National Archives. 

3. Francis E. Warren, "Annal Report of the Governor of Wyo- 
ming," Report of the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year 
Ending June 30, 1885, II, 1202. 

4. Warren, "Annual Report of the Governor of Wyoming," Re- 
port of the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 
30, 1886, II, 1034. 


viding for its continuance in the proposed state constitu- 
tion, Warren wrote the Secretary, "No one will deny that 
woman's influence in voting has always been on the side 
of good government. The people favor its continuance, 
. . . The constitutional convention, composed of men from 
both parties, adopted almost unanimously the following 
provision : 

The right of citizens of the State of Wyoming 
to vote and hold office shall not be denied or abridged 
on account of sex. Both male and female citizens 
shall enjoy all civil, political, and religious rights and 
privileges. 5 

When it appeared likely that Wyoming would be- 
come the first state in the Union constitutionally approv- 
ing equal rights for women, several organized groups of 
feminists became interested in the trend of events in 
Wyoming. The president of the Equal Suffrage Associa- 
tion of Illinois and the president of the Equal Suffrage 
Convention meeting in Wichita, Kansas, were among those 
sending congratulations to Wyoming. Governor War- 
ren's telegrams of acknowledgment display his pride over 
the provisions in the constitution granting civil and re- 
ligious equality to women as well as political rights.^ In 
November, 1889, the people of Wyoming approved this con- 
stitution endorsing equality. 

The following letters, culled from the voluminous cor- 
respondence of Francis E. Warren in The National Arch- 
ives, contain statements which perhaps explain more 
clearly the historical development of woman suffrage in 
Wyoming. The questions which prompted these replies 
point out the complete lack of information on the subject 
and the extent to which Wyoming was pioneering by grant- 
ing political equality to women. 

Washington, D. C. 

Francis E. Warren to G. A. Hege of Halstead, Kansas, 
February 3, 1886. 

I have your communication of the 29th ult. and will 

5. Warren, "Annual Report of the Governor of Wyoming." Re- 
port of the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 
30, 1889, III, 597-98. 

6. Warren to Mary E. Holmes, November 8. 1889; Warren to 
Laura M. Johns, October 5, 1889. Warren Correspondence, Executive 
Proceedings of Territory of Wyoming, Records of the Department 
of the Interior, The National Archives. 


reply to the questions in the order given. 

Q. (1) Do the majority of the women of Wyoming 
exercise their right at the polls ? 
A. Yes. 

Q. (2) Does the fact that women vote in opposi- 
tion to their husbands frequently cause family troubles 
and destroy harmony? 

A. No. 

Q. (3) Are the women treated respectfully at the 

A. Yes. 

Q. (4) Does the presence of women exercise a re- 
fining influence on the public? 
A. Yes. 

Q. (5) Does your law require women to pay a poll 
tax? If so, do they work on the roads if they choose? 

A, Pay poll tax of $2 each which goes to school fund. 
Our road tax in Wyoming is payable in money not work. 

Q. (6) Is it not a fact that women generally sup- 
port the most moral candidate regardless of party? 
A. Yes. 

Q. (7) Is it not a fact that most women support 
all questions of moral advancement? 
A. Yes. 

Q. (8) Please name a few offices in which women 
have served satisfactorily. 

A. School Superintendents often. In one case Justice 
of the Peace. Formerly on Jury but not now. 

Francis E. Warren to M. L. Pussell of St. Louis, Missouri, 
August 6, 1886. 

Replying to your letter of 24th ult. I take up your 
questions in detail. 

1st. How long has the privilege to vote existed for 
women ? 

A. Since December 10th, 1869. 

2nd. What class of women avail themselves of it? 

A. All classes. 

3rd. What influence have they if any upon the poli- 
tics of your territory? 

A. Their influence is to purify. Voting for men and 
morals rather than politics. 


4th. Does their presence at the polls affect the con- 
duct of the male voters — as regards drinking and the var- 
ious means of obtaining votes, I mean? 

A. Their presence affects favorably the conduct of 
men at the polls. The polls where women vote resembling 
the entrance to some public entertainment where gentle- 
men and ladies go together, alone, or in parties. 

5th. Has there ever a case been publicly known of 
a woman receiving a bribe for her influence in any measure ? 

A. No. Although it must be expected that base 
women may be as corrupt as base men though not so 
numerous in numbers. 

6th. Do your Judges compel women to jury service, 
and if so is that done regardless of the character of the 

A. No. Women have served on juries and very sat- 
isfactorily, but they have not been summoned to do jury 
duty for some years past on account of the hardships of 
such service. 

7th. What provision is made in case a mixed jury is 
retained under the sheriff's guard all night? 

A. When women served on jury, connecting rooms 
were given in order that ladies could occupy one in a sort 
of semi-privacy. 

8th. What offices are at present held by women in 
your Ter.? 

A. I believe County School Superintendencies and 
other educational offices are about the only positions at 
present held by ladies. 

9th. Your Territory has given the movement a fair 
trial: do your best male citizens recognize it as advisable, 
or is there still a marked prejudice against it? 

A. Our best people and in fact all classes are almost 
universally in favor of women suffrage. A few women 
and a few men still entertain prejudice against it but I 
know of no argument having been offered to show its ill 
effects in Wyoming. 

10th. Do the women of the greatest intelligence and 
best social standing make a practice of voting at all elec- 
tions ? 

A. Yes. But their strong effort and best vote is 
brought out at school elections, elections for legislature, 


Having answered all your questions I also forward 
you in this mail, under another cover, copy of my Report 
to the Secretary of the Interior of 1885. 

I also enclose herewith, copy of the law Granting the 
right of suffrage to women. 

Francis E. Warren to B. O. Hanby, Publisher, of Kankakee, 
Illinois, September 22, 1886. 

Your letter of late date asking my opinion of woman 
suffrage is received. 

I send you in this mail copy of my report for 1885 
to the Secretary of the Interior with page turned down 
to an article on this subject. Replying to your specific 
questions: — Yes, I think women are benefited [sic] by 
voting and that they benefit others by so doing. The 
vote of women in the territory is not large because in 
Wyoming as in other far western points the proportion 
of women to the number of men is small. 

We have no laws in Wyoming restricting the sale 
of intoxicating liquors except license laws. High licenses 
are exacted in cities and towns and in addition thereto 
a county license of $300. is also assessed. The women 
therefore have no opportunity to vote directly for or 
against whiskey. Their influence and votes are almost 
invariably cast on the side of sobriety and morality. Of 
course there are bad women as well as bad men, but the 
proportion is very much smaller. 

Francis E. Warren to Laura M. Johns, President, Kansas 
Equal Suffrage Convention, Wichita, Kansas, 
October 5, 1889. 

Your very kind telegram of October 3rd congratulat- 
ing Wyoming because its proposed Constitution gives 
equal suffrage to all its citizens is received. 

Permit me for myself and in behalf of Wyoming 
Territory, to thank you for the consideration and 
thoughtfulness that prompts your valued communication. 

Enclosed herein I forward you a copy of the Con- 


Francis E. Warren to Mary E. Holmes, President, Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association, Joliet, Illinois, No- 
vember 8, 1889. 

Thanks for kind sentiments from Illinois Equal 
Suffrage Association. Wyoming adopted Constitution 
Tuesday, containing equal rights for men and women. We 
trust Congress will generously approve our work by grant- 
ing enabling act and admission. 

Francis E. Warren to Kathrina Parsons of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, April 10, 1890. 

Your esteemed favor of the 3rd inst. is received. I 
think you are laboring under a mistake regarding the 
status of women's suffrage in Wyoming. The Matter is 
not before the legislature of this Territory. The legisla- 
ture in 1869 extended the right of suffrage to women and 
it has since prevailed — women enjoying the same privileges 
as men. Wyoming Territory now asks admission as a 
State and has adopted a constitution which provides for 
women's suffrage as it now exists in the Territory. The 
bill for admission is before Congress, having passed the 
House of Representatives it is now in the U. S. Senate, 
where it will doubtless pass. We have experienced no 
evil effects in Wyoming from women's suffrage and it is 
not as you fear "a source of disturbance in the marital 
relations and has in some cases broken up marriages." 
After a trial of more than 20 years a majority of the men 
and women of Wyoming believe in women's suffrage. 

U. P. R. K. TRACK: 

The track of the U. P. R. R. is finished to within about 
fifty-five miles of Cheyenne, and it is expected that it will 
be completed to this point about the middle of October. 
—The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sept. 19, 1867. 


On April 16, 1862, during those early trying days of 
the Civil War, Brigadier-General S. D. Sturgis, in Com- 
mand of the District of Kansas, issued the following Gen- 
eral Orders No. 6, from headquarters. Fort Leavenworth: 
General Orders,) Headquarters District of Kansas 

No, 6 ) Fort Leavenworth, Kans., 

April 16, 1862. 

I. Brig. Gen. James Craig, having reported to these 
headquarters for duty, is assigned to the command of all 
troops in the vicinity of the overland Mail-Route from its 
eastern termination to the western boundary of this dis- 

II. As it is of the utmost importance that the over- 
land mail should be uninterrupted, General Craig will enter 
at once upon his duties, and will take such measures as 
will insure ample protection to said mail company and 
their property against Indians or other depredators. He 
will establish his headquarters at Fort Kearny or Fort 
Laramie, as he may hereafter judge most expedient for 
carrying out the requirements of this order. 

By order of Brig. Gen. S. D. Sturgis: 

Captain, Light Artillery, Kans. Vols., and A.A.A.G. 

Major-General James J. Blunt on May 5, 1862, assumed 
command of the District of Kansas, Brigadier-General S. 
D. Sturgis relinquished command of the District. 

From the following letter it is evident Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Craig selected Fort Laramie for his headquarters and 
not Fort Kearny, 

Fort Laramie, July 11, 1862. 
General James G. Blunt, Fort Leavenworth: 

GENERAL: I am in receipt to-day of a dispatch in- 
forming me that the Postmaster-General has ordered the 
Overland Mail Company to abandon the North Platte and 
Sweet Water portion of the route and remove their stages 
and stock to a route south of this running through Bridger 
Pass. As I feel uncertain as to my duty, and as the stages 
and stock are now being concentrated preparatory to re- 
moval, I have thought proper to send Lieutenant Wilcox, 


Fourth U. S. Cavalry, to you with this letter. My in- 
structions require me to protect the overland mail along 
the telegraph line, and the emigration not being men- 
tioned, I have up to this time directed my attention to the 
safety of all these. My recollection of the act of Con- 
gress is that the mail company are not confined to any 
particular pass or route, but are to run from the Missouri 
River to a point in California daily, supplying Denver City 
and Salt Lake City twice a week. On the application of 
agents I have to-day ordered two small escorts, one of 
25, the other of 30, men, to accompany the stages and 
protect them to the new route, and until I receive your 
orders I will retain upon the present route the larger 
portion of the troops to protect the telegraph line and 
the emigration, at least until the emigration, which con- 
sists principally of family trains, has passed through my 
district. I do this because the Indians evince a disposi- 
tion to rob the trains and destroy the wires. Indeed I 
am satisfied that unless the Government is ready to aban- 
don this route both for mails and emigrants an Indian 
war is inevitable. All the tribes in these mountains, except 
perhaps one of the Lenox bands, are in bad humor ; charge 
the Government with bad faith and breaches of promise 
in failing to send them an agent and presents. They have 
come in by hundreds from the Upper Missouri, attacked 
and robbed emigrant trains and mail stations and in one 
instant last week they robbed a mail station within two 
hours after a detachment of Colonel Collins' troops had 
passed, and carried the herdsman away with them to pre- 
vent him from notifying the troops for successful pur- 
suit. That renegade white men are with them I have no 
doubt. I have a white man in the guard-house, who was 
found in possession of pocket-book, money, and papers 
of an emigrant, who is missing and believed to have been 
murdered. I am satisfied that the mail company and the 
Government would both be benefited by the change of 
routes at a proper time, and so wrote the Postmaster- 
General some weeks since. Then everything was quiet. 
Since that time the Indians have made hostile demonstra- 
tions, and I fear if the mail and all the troops leave this 
route the Indians will suppose they were frightened away, 
and will destroy the telegraph line and probably rob and 
murder such small parties as are not able to defend them- 
selves. I have directed all the officers on the line to 
urge upon the emigrants the necessity of forming strong 
companies and exercising vigilance. In obedience to your 


order and the urgent calls of the mail company I sent 
the Utah troops to Bridger to guard the line from that 
post to Salt Lake, which leaves me only Colonel Collins' 
Sixth Ohio Cavalry, about 300 strong, and two skeleton 
companies of Fourth Regiment Cavalry, about 60 men, 
mounted upon horses purchased seven years ago, to pro- 
tect the 400 miles intervening between this post and Fort 
Bridger. I need not say that this force cannot protect 
a line of such length unless the Indians are willing to be- 
have well. I think I am doing all that can be done with 
so small a force mounted as they are and without any 
grain forage. My scouts inform me that a portion of the 
stolen property is now in an Indian village on Beaver 
Creek but little more than 100 miles south of this post. 
It consists of 1,000 lodges, say 3,000 fighting men. I 
suppose I could whip these Indians if I could concentrate 
my command and go against them; but in the first place 
my troops are distributed along a line of 500 miles, and 
in the second place if I take the troops all away from the 
line the mail stock, telegraph line, and emigrants would 
be almost certain to suffer. I am therefore compelled to 
await re-enforcements, or at least until the emigration is 
out of danger. If a regiment of mounted troops could 
be sent by boat to Fort Pierre, which is only 300 miles 
north of this post, a joint campaign could be made against 
those tribes, which I think would result in giving peace 
to this region for years to come. Presuming it to be the 
intention of the Government to keep the troops somewhere 
in this region during the coming winter, I beg to urge 
the necessity of sending authority to procure hay for the 
animals, and also to send grain, or authority to purchase 
it, in Colorado. Unless the hay contract is let soon it 
will be difficult to procure it within reasonable distance. 
Parties here are anxious to furnish it at less figures than 
it cost last year. I omitted to say above that under your 
telegraphic order I have kept at this post the escort fur- 
nished by you to the Governor of Utah. I also sent to 
Denver City to inquire the number and description of 
troops in that vicinity, and received for answer that there 
were 4 officers and 6 privates all told. The troops ordered 
from California on this line have probably not started. 
They have not got as far east as Carson Valley. 

This letter is already too long. I leave Lieutenant 
Wilcox to explain anything I have omitted. 

I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant, 


^4f04nifUj, Sc^apM-QjoJz 


The buildings included in the sketch above, built in 
1867, were the first to be built on the northeast corner of 
Seventeenth street and Carey avenue (Carey ave. was 
then Ferguson street) ; today Garlett's Drug Store and 
Newberry's occupy these locations. 


Manning and Post, Commission Merchants, were the own- 
ers of this 22x60 two story building which cost $6,000. 
They occupied the first floor. 

The Daily Rocky Mountain Star which occupied a part of 
the second story was first published in Cheyenne, Decem- 
ber 7, 1867. It was Republican in politics, published by 
O. T. B. Freeman. The Star lasted about one year. 

The Argus made its debut in Cheyenne October 24, 1867, 
occupying part of the second story; it was Democratic in 
politics; published by L. L. Redell for about two years, 
later for a few weeks, by Stanton and Richardson. 



George Tritch and Co., was the owner of this two story 
building 22x60 which cost about $6,000. The first floor 
was occupied by Cooper and Preshaw, a storage and com- 
mission house. 

The Masonic Hall occupied the second floor. On Feb- 
ruary 29, 1868, the Cheyenne Lodge No. 1 A. F. & A. M. 
met for the first time in this building. 


Gallatin c& Gallup, saddlers, were the owners and occu- 
pants of this one and a half story frame building, 20x40, 
which cost $1,700. 


Jones and Gray, grocers, were the owners and occupants 
of this 20x40, one and a half story frame building, which 
cost $4,000.' 

1. The Cheyenne Leader, December 24, 1867. 



An Ordinance, October 15, 1867. 

Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of 
Cheyenne : 

Sec. 1 — That the houses and buildings in the city of 
Cheyenne shall be numbered, as soon as may be conven- 
ient, and there shall be one hundred numbers allowed be- 
tween each of the principal streets — fifty on each side. 

Sec. 2 — That on the streets running north and south 
the numbers shall commence at First street, and from 
First to Second streets shall run from one hundred to 
two hundred, and from Second to Third streets from two 
hundred to three hundred, and so on to the northern limits 
of the city. 

Sec. 3 — That on the streets running east and west 
the numbers shall commence at Eddy street, and extend 
in both directions, to the eastern and western limits of the 
one hundred numbers being allowed to each square, as 
before, the numbers on the east side of Eddy street being 
designated by the word "east" as "No. — East Seventeenth 


street;" and those on the west side of Eddy street by the 
word "west" as "No. — West Seventeenth street." 

Sec. 4 — That the buildings on the east side of the 
streets running north and south, and on the north side of 
those running east and west, shall be numbered with odd 
numbers, and the buildings on the west side of the streets 
running north and south, and on the south side of those 
running east and west, shall be numbered with even 

Sec. 5 — That whenever it becomes necessary to make 
any change in the numbering of the block, such change 
shall be confined to the block in which it is made, and shall 
not extend to nor effect other numbers beyond said block. 

Sec. 6 — This ordinance shall take effect from and 
after its passage. 

Attest : 

Thos. E. McLeland, H. M. Hook, 

City Clerk. Mayor 

Oct. 15-lt. 

The Cheyenne Leader, October 15, 1867. 


The postoffice is now located in friend Robinson's 
frame building, on O'Neill street. Conspicuous letters, 
"Paint Shop," apprise one of the locality. — The Cheyenne 
Leader, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sept. 19, 1867. 





The Cheyenne Opera House opened its doors for the 
first time to a happy enthusiastic audience composed of 
people from all over the Territory, Denver, and neighbor- 
ing Colorado towns, and Cheyenne, on May 25, 1882. 

After the audience had assembled and the orchestra 
had completed its overture, the curtain was lowered 
"amidst the patting of hands and murmers of admiration."' 

Joseph M. Carey was called upon for an address, in 
which he gave the history of the City as marked by the 
public buildings; he named the new opera house as the 
"third step in an era of progress, a building in which all 
the stone used was quarried in our own County (Laramie) 
the brick made in our own City (Cheyenne) and the wood- 
work carvings and all from the shops of our fellow towns- 
man, Mr. Weybrecht."2 Mr. Carey then mentioned what 
was to be the fourth step in Cheyenne's progress, stat- 

1. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, May 26, 1882. 

2. Ibid. 

Words in parenthesis are inserts. 



ing that in his office safe he had the contract for all the 
material for a thorough water works system. This news 
was received with great applause. 

The formal dedication of the opera house was re- 
served for the celebrated Comley-Barton Opera Company 
which was enjoyed for three nights and one matinee. 

Their opening performance was the charming French 
comic opera "Olivette"; the programs were of perfumed 
white satin with bright blue print. 

V!"\\ i U'^ p \ 111)1 


V.^ I — » 1 \ 

There was great display of taste and elegance in 
dress of the audience; silks and satins appeared in every 
fashionable shade and color; large hats and bonnets were 
substituted for small bonnets, for it was a gala event. 

The Opera House was situated on the northwest 
corner of Hill (Capitol Ave.) and 17th street. The build- 
ing was, as it is today, three stories high. The Opera 


House occupied the entire height of the three floors. No 
particular style of architecture was followed, several 
types being combined, which included Queen Anne, Gothic, 
Norman and French roof. 

The entrance to the front of the building was on 17th 
street; to the right of this entrance were two large rooms, 
which were used for the Territorial Library. The main en- 
trance to the Opera House and the second floor was on 
Hill street (Capitol Ave.). Inside the Hill street entrance 
was the ticket office. A large open stairway built of ash 
and black walnut, lead to the balcony on the second floor. 

The third floor was divided into 12 rooms, which were 
occupied by the telephone exchange and different lodges. 

The theatre proper, consisted of the parquette, dress 
circle, gallery or family circle, "proscenium boxes," in- 
clined stage, orchestra pit, etc. Four fine boxes adorned 
either side of the stage; the parquette, with an inclined 
floor, was in the form of a half circle; the dress circle 
was in the rear of the parquette; above this was the gal- 
lery or family circle. The seats were of the latest pat- 
tern of opera folding chairs. The Theatre seated 860 per- 
sons and 1,000 could be comfortably handled. It was 
heated by two large furnaces and lighted with gas. An 
immense 52 light chandelier hung from the ceiling with 
a large glass mirror reflector; single lights with glass 
globe shades were placed about the walls; there were two 
large lights outside of the two entrances. "By using gas 
the stage can be darkened at pleasure, something new, 
by the way in the history of Cheyenne."^ 

The Architects were Messrs. Cooper and Anderson of 
Cheyenne and Pueblo (Colorado). J. S. Matthews, their 
chief draftsman, supervised the construction. 

The interior of the Opera House was one of magnifi- 
cence and splendor, the plain white walls were relieved 
on the east side by three large ornamental windows set 
with cathedral glass, 600 panes being used in the work. 
All through the theatre the woodwork was of maple finish. 
The parquette and dress circle were separated by a rail 
upholstered with red siik phish, the front of the balcony 
was protected by a wire screen, a guard rail, also orna- 
mented with red silk plush. On either side of the stage were 
four boxes, each guarded by a heavy bronze rail, which 
in keeping with the other upholstering was of heavy 

3. Ibid. 


red silk piiish; the archs of these boxes were draped with 
dark red curtains ornamented with deep fringe and in 
the rear hung long heavy white lace curtains. 

The drop curtain was a scene from the celebrated 
Chariot Races by Gerome. 

The Cheyenne Opera House and Library Company was 
incorporated April 18th, 1881. The company was com- 
posed of the prominent men of Cheyenne and vicinity. 
Officers being J. M. Carey, President; Thomas Sturgis, 
Vice President; Isaac Bergman, Secretary and Henry G. 
Hay, Treasurer. The management of the opera house was 
under the control of D. C. Rhodes, Lessee and Manager, 
and G. A. Guertin, Assistant Manager. There were eleven 
sets of scenery and numerous extras. Charles S. King, 
stage carpenter, installed the stage machinery and scenes. 

It is interesting to note the number of famous actors 
and actresses who performed in the Cheyenne Opera 
House in those early days. A few of the most noted ones, 
were Edwin Booth, in "Hamlet," April 18, 1887; Sarah 
Bernhardt in "Fedora," June 2, 1887; Lily Langtry in "A 
Wife's Peril," June 11, 1887; Madame Modjeska in "Much 
Ado About Nothing," July 6, 1889; Richard Mansfield in 
"Beau Brummel," June 22, 1893, and many others equally 
famous, too numerous to mention. 

The doors of the Cheyenne Opera House were open 
for twenty years. May 25, 1882 to December 7, 1902, when 
the interior of the Opera House was destroyed by fire. 


The History of Cheyenne, Business and General Direc- 
tory by Saltiel & Barnett, published April 27, 1868, was 
greatly advertised for several months in the Cheyenne 
Leader, prior to its publication. In the January 27, 1868. 
issue and other issues of above mentioned paper, appeared 
such advertisements as: ^ 

"History of Cheyenne, Business and General 
Directory will be used on or before the 15th of Feb- 
ruary, 1868. Sent by mail to any address on receipt 
of $1.25. Delivered in the City of Cheyenne, D. T. 
at $1.00. Saltiel & Barnett, Publishers, corner of 


Twentieth and O'Neil streets, Cheyenne, Dakota Ter- 

However it was not until April 27, 1868, that we find 
in the Cheyenne Leader the following: 

"The long expected and anxiously looked for 
Cheyenne Directory compiled by Messrs. Saltiel & 
Barnett, of this city, has at length arrived. The typo- 
graphical execution of the book is handsome indeed 
and reflects much credit upon the skill of the printer, 
St. A. D. Balcombe, of the Omaha Republican office. 
The compendium of useful information relative to this 
city and county is complete indeed, and the book is 
bound to meet with a large sale. It will be the means 
of benefiting the city very much and is of more real 
value in that particular than any similar enterprise 
that has been orginated here. All businessmen should 
purchase several copies each, for sending to various 
points in the east." 

The only copy, which the Wyoming Historical De- 
partment knows of is in the collection of Mr. William R. 
Coe,' of Cody, Wyoming and of Oyster Bay, New York. 

1. McMurtrie, D. C. letter, May 4, 1943. 


The Cheyenne Leader, December 1867 and January 
1868, published a series of articles, Business and Financial 
Statistics of the "Magic City" Cheyenne which we plan 
to include in the new section Wyoming scrapbook in the 
ANNALS OF WYOMING. These articles give the size, cost, 
owner and use of building along the main streets of Chey- 
enne. It is to be regretted this work was not completed, 
as it gives us a vivid description of the newly born City 
which was destined to be the Capitol of our State. 

Seventeenth street, south side, from O'Neil east to 
Ferguson street (now Carey) three blocks or squares as 
they were then called. 


Between O'Neil and Eddy streets. 

One story frame, 30x100 — addition, 10x60, Harper, 
Steel & Co., Hardware dealers, owners and occupants — 
entire cost, $4,000. 

One story concrete, 25x60, P. Fales, owner — Elinger 
& Co., Clothiers, and W. H. Parpe, Watchmaker and 
Jeweller, Occupants — cost, $2,800. 

Two story, Fire-proof Stone building, 22x94; walls 
36 inches; windows to be furnished with Iron Shutters — 
Wholesale & Retail Dry Goods & Grocery Establishment, 
S. F. Nuckolls, owner and occupant — cost, $8,000. 

One story brick, 22x50, Dr. Scott owner — Sheffer & 
Co., Wholesale and retail grocers, occupants — cost, — 

One story frame, 16x24, Saloon, D. Cunningham, 
owner and occupant — cost, $175. 

One story frame, 24x80, Keg House and Restaurant, 
S. L. Lord, owner and occupant — cost, $2,500. 

One story frame, 6x16, Wm. Downard, owner — H. B. 
Forbes, Boot and Shoemaker, occupant — cost, $50. 

One story frame, 22x44, Restaurant, Wm. Downard, 
owner and occupant — cost, $2,000. 

One story frame, 20x75, Bowling Alley, Crowley & 
Medcalf, owner and occupants — cost, $1,600. 

One story frame, 8x18, Cash & Cook, Tailors, owners 
and occupants — cost $300. 

One story frame, 16x20, unfinished, J. Thomas, owner 
—cost, $500. 

One story frame, 13x16, canvass roof. Soda Water 
depot, J. Molsen, owner and occupant — cost, $150. 

Two story and a half frame, 26x66 — addition, 20x60, 
Wyoming House, Holliday & Thompson, owners and oc- 
cupants — one of the most imposing and popular hotels in 
Cheyenne — cost, $10,000. 

One story frame, 22x41, Keg House, Champion & 
Fetter, owners and occupants — cost, $3,500. 

One story frame, 14x40, Andrews & Brown, Grocers, 
owners and occupants — cost, $1,400. 

One story frame, 8x20, Stationery & Variety store, 
Scudder & Beyer, owners and occupants — cost, $200. 


One story frame, 22x40, Cheyenne Meat Market, Iliff 
& Co., owners and occupants — cost, $2,000. 

One story frame, 22x39, California Restaurant, Cowell 
& Tracy, owners and occupants — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 22x86, Wholesale & Retail Grocery, 
Gallagher & Megeath, owners and occupants — cost, $3,000. 

One story frame, 24x72, Cornforth Bro's., Wholesale 
& Retail Grocers and Commission Merchants, owners and 
occupants — also occupied by Parks & Co., Jewellers — 
cost, $5,000. 

Between Eddy and Ferguson streets. 

Two story frame, 18x40 — unoccupied — further partic- 
ulars unknown. 

One story frame, 12x20, J. Bennester, owner — H. Ditt- 
mar, Barber, and D. Winfield, Tailor, occupants — cost, $350. 

One story frame, size and cost unknown; also owner 
— U. S. Examining Surgeon, U.P.R.R. Surgeon, and Sur- 
geon of Wells, Fargo & Co., occupants. 

One story abode, 36x50, G. Adams & Co., Grocers, 
owners and occupants — cost, unknown. 

One story log, 18x24, Thatcher & Bryant, Grocers, 
owners and occupants — cost, $450. 

One story frame, 20x36, Postoffice, Thos. E. M'Leland, 
P. M. and City Clerk, owner and occupant — also occupied 
by R. M. Beers & Co., Stationers, Tobacconists, etc. — 
cost, $3,000. 

This completes this side of the street, going eastward. 

Note: The only change made in copying these articles for the 
ANNALS is that the side of each street described is <5bmpleted, and 
not carried over in the next article, as in the Cheyenne Leader. 

Wif04ftUu^ Bt/i^<s^tn NoHie^l 

By Dee Linford* 

Place names are always fascinating, and in the nomen- 
clature of Wyoming creeks and rivers is a wealth of early 
western lore. 

Wyoming is a region of headwaters, a mother of 
great rivers. Her streams are numerous, but too small 
and too swift-running to have served in the usual historic 
role of American rivers — as trunklines of transportation 
and communication along which civilization advanced into 
the wilderness, spreading out from the vital arteries to 
take root in the earth body. White men's civilization as 
a result did not reach Wyoming until the transcontinental 
railroad "opened the country up," and the first important 
settlements mushroomed — not along the rivers in accepted 
American tradition — but along the gleaming rails which 
Union Pacific laid across the State without regard for 
our waterways. Many Wyoming streams were large 
enough to accommodate the small water craft of the early 
trapper and trader, however, and therein lies the historical 
interest of their names. 

The ranchers and farmers and shopkeepers who fol- 
lowed the rails into the Wyoming area were for the most 
part literate, articulate. Coming west to resume as 
quickly as possible the existence they had interrupted 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH:— Dee Linford, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Joe E. Linford of Afton, Wyoming, was born in the Star Valley in 
1915. He studied English and history at the Utah State Agricultural 
College and Wyoming University, did newspaper work in Laramie 
for several years, and during 1938 and 1940 was State Editor of 
the Wyoming Writer's Project which produced the book, Wyoming — ■ 
A Guide to its History, Highways, and People (1941), as a part of 
the American Guide Series of WPA. Since 1939, he has edited 
Wyoming Wild Life, official publication of the Wyoming Game and 
Fish Commission, and since 1938 has contributed numerous adven- 
ture stories to the popular, all-fiction magazines. 

Linford's maternal great-grandfather, a member of the ill-fated 
"Willy's Handcart Company" of Mormon immigrants, lies buried 
near South Pass in a common grave with fourteen other members 
of the handcart company who succumbed to the rigors of the trail 
in 1856. His maternal great-grandfather was a Mormon polygamist, 
his maternal grandfather the eldest of 65 children. 

Note: From Wyoming Wild Life magazine. 


elsewhere, they brought their churches and schools and 
newspapers with them. Their desire was to attract as 
many others as possible to the New America, and in most 
cases they left copious contemporary records behind them. 

In prerailroad Wyoming, the situation was different. 
With the exception of the non-stop emigrants who left 
no mark on the country deeper than a wagon track, the 
only white men in Wyoming in appreciable numbers be- 
fore the laying of the rails were the nomadic fur trap- 
pers and traders. These, generally, were illiterate and 
unaware of their historical significance, or were jealous 
of their wilderness and wise enough to know that publicity 
would attract others. As a result, records of Wyoming 
during the prerailroad era are few and inconclusive. But 
in the names they ascribe to their Whitewater canoe trails, 
these wanderers left a supplementary record of their time 
• — a key to an alluring chapter in western history which 
has never been fully explored. The tragedy is that this 
record is not clearer. 

Not All Wyoming stream names have historical signif- 
icance. Perhaps this is as well, because repetition in the 
roster would discourage any effort to ascribe importance 
■ — historical or otherwise — to them all. A catalogue of 
Wyoming streams compiled recently by Stream Survey 
of the Wyoming Game and Fish Department lists 38 
Spring Creeks, 30 Cottonwood Creeks, 29 Beaver Creeks, 
28 Willow Creeks, 25 Bear Creeks, 23 Dry Creeks, 21 Horse 
Creeks, 18 Sand Creeks, 17 Rock and Sheep Creeks, as 
well as numerous claimants to the appellations Clear, 
Brush, Cabin, Lost, Canyon, Rawhide, Pass, Teepee, 
Cedar, Deep, Muddy, Soldier, Jim, Elk, Trout, Muskrat, 
Crow, Owl, Fox, Porcupine, Buffalo, Mink, etc. 

Such designations are sometimes descriptive of the 
stream itself or of the topography or wild life of the 
surrounding area, or else have reference to some event 
associated with the stream in the mind of the party be- 
stowing the name. Indeed one officially accepted creek 
name in Sweetwater County is so descriptive of the water's 
quality as to be quite unprintable. But usually stream 
names lack even descriptive significance. The methods 
by which they become established follow no pattern, ob- 
serve no logic. Most often, like Topsy — and other types 
of place names — stream names just grow. 

A horse dies of poison along a creek, and the stream 


may be known thereafter as Dead Horse Creek, Poison 
Creek, Hard Luck Creek, or just plain Horse Creek — all 
according to the temper and first reaction of the human 
being involved. A stream may be called Pine or Cedar 
or Aspen because such trees grow in profusion along its 
banks, or because of a single such representative, con- 
spicuous by reason of its isolation. There are no cotton- 
woods on or even near Cottonwood Lake in the moun- 
tains east of Star Valley. The cottonwoods are on Cot- 
tonwood Creek, the lake outlet, and there only in the 
valley, several miles from the lake! 

Similar examples could be cited from every locale 
in the State. One need not therefore probe too deeply 
into the significance of such arresting names as Hell, 
Damfino, Savage Run, Flame, Separation, Robbers' Gulch, 
Butchers Draw, Bald Hornet, Killpecker, Slippery Jim, 
Pipestone, Big and Little Twin, Hot Foot, Half turn, Full- 
turn, Sourmoose, Pilgrim, Crazy, Tough, Joy, Nameit, 
Warhouse, Pagoda, Baby Wagon, Medicine Lodge, Little 
Passup, Hidden Water, Gloom, Broken Back, Fool Pin- 
head, Balm of Gilead, Seven Brothers, Bossy, Hanging 
Woman, Crying, etc., all of which apply officially to 
streams in Wyoming. 

Each name undoubtedly has its legend, or lengends 
— some of which can be verified, most of which cannot. 
Few such names, however, have even local importance. 
They are the concern of the poet, not the historian.* But 
there are many streams in the State whose names do merit 
the attention of persons interested in Wyoming history 
and some of these will be noted here. 

There is not yet an official Wyoming place-name lexi- 
con, and since most important stream names were assigned 
before the coming of the railroad, their histories for rea- 
sons noted are generally more vague and contradictory 
than those of names ascribed to landmarks since 1868. 
Napoleon is credited with having defined history as "fable 
agreed upon." But his definition offers little comfort in 
this instance. For fable, as regards Wyoming Stream 
names, almost never agrees. 

There is no better example of the confusion and con- 
tradiction in our stream name history than that which 
surrounds the naming of Snake River, chief tributary of 
the Columbia, whose main fork heads in Wyoming just 
below Yellowstone National Park. Some local sources 

*To neither distinction does the writer lay claim. 


say it is called Snake because of its serpentine course, 
some because its waters were once presumed to contain 
especially large numbers of such reptiles, while others 
hold it was named for the Indians who lived along its 

The latter theory seems the most plausible. But the 
vagueness of the term as applied loosely to the Shoshone, 
Bannock, and Paiute tribes complicates the picture still 
further. Idaho — A Guide in Word and Picture (1937) 
states that one authority "says the name (Snake) means 
inland; a priest has declared the Indians were so named 
because, like reptiles, they dug food from the earth; and 
a third says these Indians ate serpents. A fourth de- 
clares that when such an Indian was asked the name of 
his tribe, he made a serpentine movement, intended to 
suggest not snakes but basketweaving. The last seems 
the most probable. The Shoshonis themselves called the 
river Yam-pa-pah, the stream where the yampa grows; 
though later, after the Oregon Trail followed it, they 
called it Po-og-way, meaning River Road." 

With regard to the appellation "Yam-pa-pah, the 
stream where the yampa grows," it is curious to note that 
a Yampa River occurs in Colorado, tributary to the Green, 
and that a branch of the Yampa is called Little Snake 
River (a section of which lies in southern Wyoming). 
Since stream names qualified by the word "little" gener- 
ally duplicate the title of the stream into which they flow 
(i.e., Missouri, Little Missouri; Wind River, Little Wind 
River, etc.), it would seem possible that the Little Snake 
River might have been "Little Yampa" to the Utes who 
lived along it. It may also be significant that the Utes too 
were of Shoshonean or Snake linguistic stock, though why 
the words "Snake" and "Yampa" should be associated 
in this case also is not clear. Even in the case of Snake 
River, the words have no apparent derivative relationship 
— unless the roots of the Yampa plant were somehow as- 
sociated with snakes in the Indian mind. 

"La Maudite Riviere Enragee (the accursed mad 
river) was the name given to the Snake by French voy- 
ageurs after they had come to grief upon its falls and 
cascades," the Idaho Guide Book says in another place. 
But Wilson Price Hunt, Astor associate, who traveled 
overland from St. Louis to Astoria at the mouth of the 
Columbia in 1811-12, says in his journal (as reproduced 
in Nouvelles Annales des Voyages in Paris in 1821, re- 
printed in Rollins' Discovery of the Oregon Trail, 1935) 


"Americans have named it Mad River, because of its 
swiftness." About the only Americans believed to have 
had boating experience on the river prior to 1811 were 
those of Andrew Henry's Missouri Fur Company brigade, 
and Rollins suggests that the name might have been be- 
stowed by Henry's men in 1810. Since Henry's "Amer- 
icans" included a number of French-Canadian rivermen, 
as did Hunt's party, both statements might be correct. 

The name Mad River, however, seems to have been 
applied only to the South or Wyoming Fork of the Snake. 
Hunt himself named the North Fork (sometimes called 
Henry's Fork for Andrew Henry) and the main channel of 
the Snake below the juncture of the North and South 
Forks "Canoe River." The name did not become estab- 
lished, however, possibly because Hunt's disasters in try- 
ing to negotiate it by boat proved it was NOT a canoe 
river. It is significant that Robert Stuart, another Astor 
partner who reached Astoria aboard the illfated ship Ton- 
quin and who led Hunt's overland party back to St. Louis 
the next year, does not use Hunt's name, "Canoe River," 
with reference to the Snake. 

"It is the main branch of the right-hand fork of Lewis 
River," Stuart noted in his journal (Rollins, p 80), "called 
by Lewis and Clark Kimooenem, by some Indians Ki-eye- 
min, by the Snakes Bio-paw, and by the generality of 
whites the Snake River." 

Stuart thus records another name sometimes applied 
to the Snakes in early times, i.e., Lewis River,* for Cap- 
tain Meriwether Lewis of Lewis and Clark — the Snake 
proper being the south or "right-hand fork," the Salmon 
River in Idaho the north or "left-hand fork." A lake 
and stream tributary to the Snake in Yellowstone Park 
still bear the name Lewis, possibly because of this earlier 
styling of the River. But more important than the listing 
of that name is Stuart's early use of the title "Snake" 

Other names which Rollins lists in a footnote as hav- 
ing been applied to the river at one time or another in- 
clude Shoshone (further evidence that the stream's present 
accepted name referred to the Snake or Shoshone Indians 
who dwelled along it), Saptin, Sahaptin, Nez Perce, Chop- 
unnish, and — through Granville Stuart — Po-ho-gwa, mean- 
ing Sagebrush River, "because the upper and larger part 

*Name applied by Clark in 1805. 


of its immense valley was a sagebrush plain." Granville 
Stuart's "Po-ho-gwa" undoubtedly has reference to the 
phonetic sequence rendered "Po-og-way" and translated 
"River Road" in the Idaho Guide, indicating that one or the 
other is probably wrong. It illustrates also that arbitrary 
white translations of Indian words and phrases often miss 
the Indian's meaning completely, and that such transla- 
tions, generally, should be taken with reserve. 

It also seems strange at first glance that so many 
Indian names of different meanings should be assigned 
to one stream by people of the same linguistic stock. But 
Rollins makes the point that "Indians were not so much 
disposed to bestow a single name on a stream in its en- 
tirety as they were to allot particular names to the several 
salient portions of it." The same might be said, with 
qualifications, of the early whites, as witness the case of 
the Wind-Big Horn River in Wyoming. Often, too, early 
explorers and travelers failed to discern which of two 
affluent streams constituted the main channel and which 
the tributary, as in the case of the Green and Colorado 
Rivers — the Green being, in the opinion of many geograph- 
ers, not a tributary but the main channel of the upper 
Colorado. Similarly, Hunt accepted the name Mad River 
as applying to the present day South Fork of Snake 
River, but retained the name Canoe River, which he or- 
iginally applied to the lesser North Fork, after reaching 
the confluence of the two branches. Stuart followed him 
partially, in that he spoke of the main stream as Snake 
River, but retained Hunt's designation "Mad River" as 
applying to the South Fork — evidently thinking of it as 
a tributary. 

Original application of the name Snake thus is ob- 
scure. Stuart's statement indicates that it was in general 
use among whites by 1812, but no occurrence of the name 
in literature earlier than Stuart's reference has come to 
the attention of this writer. 

The South Fork of Snake River receives six import- 
ant tributaries in Wyoming before turning west into Idaho 
to begin its torturous journey to the sea. Of these. Pacific 
Creek is aptly named, being the west branch of Two Ocean 
Creek, a high mountain stream which forks on the Con- 
tinental Divide in Wyoming and sends a branch to both 
oceans bordering the continent (see WYOMING WILD 
LIFE. October 1942). The Buffalo Fork undoubtedly was 
named for a mountain variety of that species of animal; 
and the Gros Ventre (usually pronounced Gro-vont) takes 


its designation from the mountain range of the same name, 
in which it heads. Both Rolhns and Chittenden (1902) say 
the mountains were named from the fact that the war- 
Kke Atsina Blackfeet (sometimes called Gros Ventres of 
the Prairie) skirted the range on frequent pilgrimages 
from their home range in present Montana to visit with 
southern Arapaho friends on the South Platte River. 
Whites seem to have applied the term Gros Ventre 
(French, big stomach) to the Atsina arbitrarily, and for 
no particular reason. At least there is no record that the 
Atsina digestive cavity was oversize, and it certainly was 
not so large as to interfere with the prowess of this people 
in battle. The Atsina were feared above all other tribes 
by early whites in the Northwest. 

The Hoback River which flows into the Snake from 
the Southeast, through a long canyon bearing the same 
name, was clearly named for the Astorian John Hoback 
— also spelled Hobaugh, Hobough, Hubbough, Hauberk 
Rollins, p. ci). Hoback, a Kentuckian, came west with 
Andrew Henry's Missouri Fur trappers, in 1809. Driven 
from the Three Forks area (Montana) by the implacably 
hostile Atsina, Henry led his brigade south to the North 
Fork of Snake River where in the autumn of 1810 he 
erected a temporary winter shelter which came to be 
known as Henry's Fort, near present St. Anthony in Idaho. 
After the fort's abandonment in the spring of 1811, the 
brigade disintegrated and Hoback with two Kentuckian 
companions — Edward Robinson and Jacob Reznor — set out 
for St. Louis. Fearing the hostility of the Upper Missouri 
tribes, they took a southern route across what is now 
north-western Wyoming, rather going directly north to 
the Yellowstone and Missouri. Near the mouth of the 
Niobrara River, on the Missouri, they encountered Hunt's 
out-bound Astorians, and their account of Indian hostiles 
along the river ahead dissuaded Hunt from his original 
plan to follow the Lewis and Clark route through present- 
day Montana to the headwaters of the Columbia. Con- 
sequently, Hunt engaged the three adventurers to guide 
him back across the route they had followed from Fort 

Hoback and his companions guided the Astorians 
across northern Wyoming, over Union Pass and the upper 
Green River Valley, down Hoback's fork to the Snake, 
and thence over Teton Pass. At Fort Henry that fall, 
the trio — no longer being of value as guides — engaged to 
remain behind and trap for Hunt in the area. Misfortune 


befell them, and Robert Stuart rescued them the next sum- 
mer, while leading the overland Astor party back to St. 
Louis. Once again, after this rescue, the three declined 
an opportunity to return to civilization, "in their present 
ragged condition" as Stuart noted, and engaged to trap 
for the company for two more years in the sector of their 
earlier trials. All three were killed by Indians near the 
mouth of the Boise River in Idaho (1814). 

Members of the Astorian party apparently named the 
river in question for Hoback. Hunt's journal as it ap- 
pears in Nouvelles Annales refers to the stream only as 
a "small river," but Robert Stuart, retracing Hunt's route 
through the Jackson region in 1812, calls it "Hoback 
River" — first known application of the name. 

OF THE ORIGIN of the name Grey's River, largest 
tributary received by the Snake in Wyoming, the record is 
not so specific. Early maps identify this stream as "John 
Day's River" — commemorating another member of the As- 
torian party. The name was changed to "Grey's" in more 
recent years, possibly because of an objection advanced 
by Chittenden, who wrote, in 1902, "It is unfortunate that 
modern geography has made a mistake in perpetuating 
the name of this stream (John Day's). It should be John 
Gray. There was a John Gray in the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany Service under Alexander Ross, and a person by the 
same name, but whether the same individual or not is un- 
certain, in the American Fur Company's service between 
1830 and 1835. Both John Grays, if different individuals, 
were distinguished hunters, and from one of them came 
the name Gray's Hole as applied to a valley on the stream 
which is now called John Day. The hunter who bore the 
latter name was never near this stream." 

However, Washington Irving, chronicler of Astor's 
costly venture on the Pacific Coast, reports in Astoria 
(1836) that Day was one of three men sent by Hunt from 
the mouth of the Hoback River in 1811 to investigate the 
navigability of the Snake's south fork. And Hunt's Journal 
reports that the three "set out downstream to explore 
it for a distance of four days' march." Since the extent 
between the mouths of the Hoback' s Fork and Grey's or 
John Day's River is hardly 25 miles, and since the ex- 
plorers were gone for three of their allotted four days, it 
aDDears likely that Day at this time was at least "near" 
if he did not actually reach the mouth of the river which 
once bore his name. Rollins also reports that Day (who 
started east with Robert Stuart's returning Astorians 


but went insane and was returned to the Astor post) re- 
covered — despite Irving' s statement to the contrary — and 
spent the remaining years of his Hfe "on the upper reaches 
of the Snake River's Valley" before succumbing in 1820 
in the Salmon River Mountains in Idaho. Rollins' "upper 
reaches of Snake River's Valley" might well have included 
the Snake River Tributary in questsion. 

This confusion of identities is involved further by the 
occurrence of a "Gray's Lake" in Idaho, about 30 miles 
from the mouth of Grey's River in Wyoming. This lake 
was known to early settlers as Day's Lake or John Day's 
Lake, the valley surrounding it as John Day's Hole, fur- 
ther evidence that Day at some time was in the vicinity. 
This valley may possibly be the "Gray's Hole" mentioned 
by Chittenden. (It is not on Grey's or Day's River, as 
Chittenden locates his "Gray's Hole," but no such "hole" 
is known along Grey's River today). Old timers of the 
Gray's Lake area report that when their post office was 
established in the 1880's, Day's Lake was the name sug- 
gested in their petition for postal service, but that Federal 
authorities designated the post office as Gray's Lake, to 
avoid confusion with another Idaho community which then 
bore the name of Day. Gray's Lake thus was the name 
adopted for the town originally called Day, and in time 
the appellation was extended to apply to the lake itself. 
The spelling, however, differs from that of the now-ac- 
cepted river name — Grey's — in the use of "a" for "e". 
Chittenden, it will be noted, also favors the "a" spelling 
in the name of the man for whom he thought the stream 
should have been named. 

So much for the riddle of John Day or John Gray or 
John Grey, and the river which now bears his name. Cir- 
cumstances accounting for the designation of the last im- 
portant tributary acquired by the Snake in Wyoming, the 
Salt River, are not so controversial. According to Gran- 
ville Stuart (not to be confused with Astorian Robert 
Stuart), the Snake Indians interchangeably called the Salt 
River "To-sa car-nel" meaning "white lodges" and taking 
note of a number of small white gyserite cones left along 
its course by extinct mineral springs, and "0-na-bit-a pah," 
which he translated to mean "salt water," and which re- 
ferred of course to the salt ledges and saline springs which 
occur along its principal tributaries, the Crow and Stump 
or Stumph Creeks. Tradition says that Indians in pre- 
historic times traveled great distances to secure salt from 
deposits along these two streams, and Stump Creek bears 


the name of Emil Stumph who with a partner named Wil- 
ham White operated a salt works in the 1860's along the 
stream, then known as Smoking Creek, for the mountains 
in which it heads. The partners hauled their refined 
product by ox team to mining camps of Idaho and Montana. 

Original application of the name "Salt" to this stream 
is not evident. Robert Stuart, who apparently followed 
it the length of Star Valley while wandering, lost, through 
the area in 1812, refers to it only as "another stream." 
But Irving, retracing the routes of both Hunt and Stuart 
from their original journals some twenty years later, 
uses the name to designate the stream, and this is prob- 
ably its first appearance in literature (1836). 

The Teton River, most important affluent of the 
Snake's north fork to rise in Wyoming, takes its name 
from the Teton Mountains, the west slope of which pro- 
vides its headwaters. According to Granville Stuart, early 
voyageurs called the three dominating peaks in this range 
Le Trois Tetons (the three breasts) because of their con- 
ical shape, and in time the name came to be applied to 
the entire range. There is confusion, however, between 
this word "teton" as applied to the mountain range and 
as used to designate an important division of the Sioux 
Indian nation. There undoubtedly is no connection what- 
soever between the two terms, since the Teton Sioux lived 
far east of these mountains. Rollins points out that the 
word "Teton" as used in reference to the Sioux division 
was probably a corruption of "Titonwan," an Indian word 
meaning "prairie-dwellers." 

"Each of two inconsistent traditions seeks another 
origin for the name," Rollins elaborates (p. 361). "One 
of them gives derivation from an alleged merger of two 
Dakotan words, 'tinta' meaning 'prairie' and 'tonwon' 
meaning 'village' — hence 'prairie village.' According to 
the second tradition, a chief having seceded from a main 
camp and having been later joined by other apostates, it 
became usual to say 'Tetona?' — an elliptical form for the 
question signifying 'How many tepees has he?' " 

The Teton River was formerly known as Pierre's 
River, for one Pierre (Vieux Pierre or Old Pierre), an 
Iroquois Indian who entered the region in 1824 while 
scouting for Alexander Ross of Hudson's Bay Company. 
Similarly Teton Basin, the broad valley drained by the 
river, was formerly known as Pierre's Hole, 'for the same 


Leigh Creek, an important afluent of the Teton which 
heads in Wyoming, undoubtedly bears, the name of "Beaver 
Dick" Leigh, Hayden's guide and early Jackson Hole 
pioneer whose name was also given to Leigh Lake and 
Beaver Dick Lake (now String Lake) in Jackson Hole. 
The name of another Teton tributary. Bitch Creek, is ac- 
cording to the Idaho Guide, "an unhappy corruption of 
Biche Creek. The latter French word means doe." 

The name "Bear River" as applied to the most im- 
portant stream in the Great Salt Lake Basin, a portion 
of which lies in Wyoming, dates back to early times. The 
Great Basin area was coveted by all the great fur com- 
panies during the storied "buckskin decades," and its larg- 
est and longest river was undoubtedly named by one of 
the early fur-gatherers who plumbed the lush recesses of 
the Rockies sometime prior to 1820. Chittenden (1902) 
says that Bear Lake which is drained by Bear River was 
first known as Black Bear Lake, and cites a letter written 
in 1819 from "Black Bear Lake" by Donald McKenzie of 
the Northwest Fur Company. 

"To Ashley's men," Chittenden continues, "in 1826, 
it was known as Little Lake, in distinction from the great 
(Salt) lake further west. At that time. Bear River was 
spoken of by Ashley as a 'water of the Pacific Ocean'." 

The Idaho Guide Book says definitely that Bear Lake 
was named by McKenzie in 1818, though it does not elab- 
orate on circumstances accounting for the designation. 
"The river under this name," the text continues, "was first 
called Miller, but Indians called it Quee-yaw-pah, meaning 
the stream along which the tobacco root grew." 

The Miller for whom the stream was first named was 
Joseph Miller, ex-soldier and Astor partner who accom- 
panied Astorian Wilson Price Hunt west from St. Louis 
on his overland trek to Astoria in 1810-11. At Henry's 
Fort on the Snake River in the autumn of 1811, Miller 
became disgruntled, resigned his share in the Astor-con- 
trolled Pacific Fur Company, and joined John Hoback's 
trappers who remained in the area to trap for Hunt. Dur- 
ing the months which elapsed before the party was con- 
tacted by Robert Stuart's returning Astorians, Miller and 
his companions wandered south and spent the winter on 
what is now called Bear River, becoming the first known 
white man to. see the stream. Robbed of their catch and 
belongings by Indians, the trappers set out for Astoria 
early in the spring of 1812, and encountered Stuart's east- 
bound party on the Snake River. 


An Indian guide previously had told Stuart of a 
"shorter trace to the South" — undoubtedly referring to 
South Pass in Wyoming, which the party later negotiated 
— and when the Astorian heard of the new river to the 
south, he decided "after very urgent persuasions" to fol- 
low a southerly route to this "shorter trace," thus to avoid 
the difficulties Hunt's party had encountered in descend- 
ing the Snake River a year earlier. Hoback and his com- 
panions were re-outfitted by Stuart and remained on the 
Snake to trap, as previously noted, but Miller — his "cur- 
iosity and desire of travelling thro' the Indian country 
being fully satisfied" decided to accompany the Astorians 
to St. Louis. He subsequently guided the group south to 
the river in whose discovery he had shared, and Stuart 
came to speak of it as "Miller's River." 

The name seems never to have become established, 
although it appears on a map published in conjunction 
with the Astorian journals in Nouvelles Annales in 1821 
(Rollins, p. 270). Stuart supposed, as did Ashley 24 years 
later, that the stream must discharge itself into the Pacific 
Ocean, but the early map noted above shows it ending 
in a lake in the approximate location of Great Salt Lake — 
thus casting doubt on the generally accepted theory that 
Jim Bridger was the first white man to view the Salt Lake, 
later in the 1820's. 

Bear River may have taken its present designation 
from the lake McKenzie named, or McKenzie may have 
applied the name Bear or "Black Bear" to the stream as 
well as to the lake. 

Thomas' Fork, one of the more important Bear River 
tributaries to head in Wyoming, was originally called 
Thompson's Fork, according to Chittenden, for a member 
of General William H. Ashley's trapper brigade which 
spread over western Wyoming early in the 1820's. Chit- 
tenden also advances the supposition that Smith's Fork, 
another Wyoming Bear River affluent, commemorates 
Jedediah S. Smith, a more prominent Ashley associate who 
was later a partner in the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 
and, still later, a distinguished trader-explorer in the 

(To be continued) 

WtfomUuf. 9*1 WaM. Wa^ II 

Just one and a half years ago the American people 
found themselves engulfed in World War Two. That 
Wyoming has and is doing her part is shown by the fol- 
lowing list of her heroes who have made the supreme 

We are also listing those missing in action and it is 
only the lack of space which prevents us from including 
the Wyoming men in service. The county lists included 
here are as of May 15, 1943. We plan to include the same 
of different counties in ensuing issues. 


Killed in action 

Raphael Richard McGauran Delbert Ray Fisher 
Charles Edward Thero George Hanson 

Leslie P. Jacobs Raymond Fry 

Missing in action 

Elmer Erie Brown Carl F. Gunnerson 

Arnold Sureson Maxwell Mariette 

Arthur H. Varphal Lester Lee Throckmorten 
Howard C. Corsberg 


Killed in action 
Jack A. Spaulding 

Missing in action 

Joe E. Carrillo Jack McDowell 

Thomas L. Cotner Robert L. McLaughlin 

Joe L. Cotter Quentin D. Miller 

John C. Cook Robert Allen Montgomery 

Truman Marion Dickeson Roy Musfelt 

Donald Bruce Forsythe John Sinadin 

Richard Huffsmith James Henry Small 

Claude W,. Herron Kenneth L. Vesey 
Ronald Wayne Losey 



Albert M. Hart 


Killed in action 

Elmer Christensen 

Missing in action 
Thomas Hushbeck Patrick Taylor 

Franklin Dennick 
Philip Bacon 
Leo Good 
Frank Harmon 
Edward Lane 


Killed in action 

Robert Milatzo 
Newton Simpson 
Charles Stafford 
Charles Steele 
Walter Stein 

Oscar Brevdy 
William Calder 
Raymond Lawson 
Elmer Schliske 

Missing in action 

J. Clinton Asher 
John McFarland, Jr. 
James Orr 
Raymond Osborn 


L. A. Ponath 
M. Jack Barton 
A. L. Piasecki 
Herman Schmidt 
George J. Wolney 
Arthur K. Perry 

Killed in action 

Albert Morgenweck 
George Eisele 
Billy Powers 
Paul W. Byrtus 
Harold G. Phillips 

Missing in action 
Frank Houx 

The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad did 
wonders for this once remote part of the country; it 
brought about the creation of Wyoming Territory, gave a 
new impetus to the development of the valuable coal and 
mineral resources of the new Territory, as well as to other 
industries; stage lines north and south of the U. P. R. R., 
were established connecting a vast isolated interior with 
the railroad running east and west. 

The Sweetwater Stage Company, established by Alex 
Benham in May 1869, was one of the many Stage lines 
organized; it connected the Sweetwater mining district 
with the Union Pacific Railroad and the outside world. 
Mr. Benham ran a daily line of four horse Concord Coaches, 
which were splendidly equipped, between Bryan and South 
Pass City, a distance of ninety-five miles; Atlantic City 
and Miner's Delight, a distance of four and eight miles 
respectively from South Pass City. The fare from Bryan 
to South Pass City was twenty dollars ($20.00) the time 
less than fifteen hours. The route ran over a well 
watered and verdant country; the company carried the 
Wells Fargo Co.'s express and secured a contract to carry 
the U. S. Mail from Bryan to South Pass and Atlantic 
City, receiving $64,000 per year. 

A. Benham continued the Bryan route to South Pass 
City until 1871, when he was succeeded by C. C. Huntley 
& Co., who in 1872 changed the route from Bryan to Green 
River and extended the line from Green River to Lander. 

The Railroad reached Bryan in September, 1868; it 
was an important town for a few years, being a railroad 
terminus, Government freight depot, and a stage depot; 
its importance lasted but a few years for when the Union 
Pacific straightened its tracks, Bryan was left to one side 
to be known as a "ghost town." 

In 1870 Mr. Benham put in a line of coaches on the 
Point of Rocks route from Point of Rocks to South Pass 
City; William Larimer also ran a daily line of coaches 
from the same points for one season, when this route was 
entirely abandoned. 


The mines of the Sweetwater district attracted con- 
siderable attention as early as 1867, but it seemed im- 
possible to collect reliable information before the com- 
pletion of the Union Pacific Railroad to Bryan was an 
established fact. 

The early history of the Sweetwater mines is com- 
paratively unknown. These mines were located in Fre- 
mont County on the Sweetwater River and its tributaries 
in about latitude 421/^" north and longitude 109° west of 

In the "Sweetwater Miner" March 24, 1869, a news- 
paper published by M. E. A. Slack,' is an article which 
contains all the information known about the discovery 
and very early history of this district. It has been used 
by several geologists and historians, apparently the only 
available early history of these mines. 

R. W. Raymond^ also included this article in "Stat- 
istics of Mines and Mining in the States and Territories "^ 

"Gold in the Sweetwater district was first dis- 
covered in 1842 by a Georgian, who came here with 
the American Fur Company for the recovery of his 
health. After remaining a year he started for home, 
intending to organize a company and bring them to 
work the mines. He never reached his home, how- 
ever, and was suiDposed to have been killed by In- 
dians. Thirteen years elapsed, when a party of forty 
men arrived here. They prospected the whole length 
of the Sweetwater, found gold everywhere in the 
river as well as in all its tributaries, and turned the 
main stream from its channel for 400 yards. A small 
shaft, eight feet deep, from which they took from 
two to ten cents worth of gold per pan, was sunk 
and worked for some time. Winter approaching, 
they abandoned their enterprise to winter at Fort 
Laramie, where they intended to provision them- 
selves for a year and get a supply of necessary tools 
in the spring. This done they started, but when on 

1. Knight, W. C. "Sweetwater Mining District" 1901, Bull. p. 8. 
Coutant. C. G. "History of Wyoming" 1890, p. 637. R. W. Raymond 
also names Charles J. Hazard as editor of the "Sweetwater Mines," 
41st Cong. H. R. Ex. Doc. No. 207 — p. 9. 

2. R. W. Raymond was U. S. Commissioner of Mining Statistics 
in 1870. 

3. 41st Cong. 2nd Sess. H. R. Ex» Doc. No. 207, pp. 327-328 
[Serial 1424.] 


their way two days they were overtaken by United 
States dragoons, and brought back to the fort; the 
leader was sent to prison for some imaginary of- 
fense, and the property of the company was con- 
fiscated. In 1858 the leader returned to this region, 
but did no mining until the summer of 1860, when 
he and eight others commenced mining on Straw- 
berry Creek. Their rotton sluices, rockers, and tons 
remain there to the present day. During 1861 mining 
was abandoned, because men could make more money 
putting up hay, delivering telegraph poles, etc., for 
the Overland Stage Company. In the fall of 1860, 
however, fifty-two men had collected at South Pass 
City ready to commence mining in the early spring 
of 1862. Their locations were selected, and prospects 
were promising, when, like a thunderbolt, the Sho- 
shone Indians broke down on them, robbed them of 
everything and drove them off. This put a stop to 
mining operations until the fall of 1866, when a party, 
led by the same man who guided all the former ex- 
peditions, came down from Virginia City, Montana. 
They wintered on the Sweetwater, and June 8, 1867, 
the Cariso lode was discovered by H. S. Reedall."* A 
mining district was organized and called Shoshone 
district. Mining laws were agreed upon and regula- 
tions entered into by the pioneers. 

Reedall and his party commenced working the 
Cariso lode when they were attacked by Indians, who 
killed three of them and drove off the remainder. 
The survivors returned to the mines July 28, and 
remained over winter. They succeeded in extracting: 
from the croppings of the lode, which they crushed 
in a hand-mortar, $1,600 in gold. Seven thousand 
dollars more they washed out of the detritus in the 
gulch below the vein. The news of this success 
spread rapidly and was greatly exaggerated. A great 
rush commenced from the neighboring territories, but 
the majority of the adventurers, not findins: the facts 
to bear out the reports, left very soon. Only about 
five hundred remained and went to work. Their 
labor was well rewarded, and s^radually more popula- 
tion was attracted, so that in July, 1869, 2,000 people 

4. Bancroft, H. W. The Works of H. W. Bancroft Vol. 25, p. 
731, claims Noyes Baldwin discovered the Carissa lode. He also 
calls this lode Cariso. P. V. Hayden, W. C. Knight, R. W. Raymond 
and several others call it Carissa which is no doubt correct. 



had settled here. They were doing well and appar- 
ently satisfied with the results already reached, and 
their future prospects. Although all those persons 
came to the district poor they had three mills with 
twenty-six stamps running, and several arrastras 
were in operation." 

While we are principally interested in the Sweetwater 
Stage Company, we cannot lose sight of the fact that one 
of the main reasons for the establishment of this and 
other stage lines through this region was the gold discov- 
ery in the Sweetwater District, and a little of its early 
history does not go amiss. 

Tilt: .swi-:ETir,%Tf:s5 


Hiive e.stablKht't} n <i;iilv liuf of < 'ou'.-ori! 

i Bryan and South Pass Gitj^ 


f ZSiii3.ei*'s T)eliii*lit 


to the 

January 1, 1943 to June 1, 1943 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Lutz, Mr. J. B., Cheyenne, Wyoming — The Magic City — photos, 1890. 

Doetsch, Mr. L. J., Carpenter, Wyoming — Indian artifact — hammer — 
shows much use. Picked up near Carpenter, Wyoming. 

Atwood, J. G., Rawlins, Wyoming — Turilla from the DeLaney Rim, 
Carbon County. 

Shelton, Warren D., State Mineral Supervisor — Shealite ore, source 
of tungsten. Prom Copper Mountain District northwest of 
Bonneville, Fremont County. This is a new important mineral 
development in Wyoming. 

Treasury Department, War Savings Staff, United States Treasury 
Department. "Liberty Brick" an original brick from the walls 
of Independence Hall in Philadhlphia. 

Rice, Robert, 500 C. A. Johnson Building, 17th and Glenarm Sts., 
Denver, Colorado. Donor of a Hotel Register of the Metropolitan 
Hotel, Cheyenne, 1884-1885. 

Webster, Olvier V., 1811 East Ocean Blvd., Long Beach, California, 
Author and donor of a poem, "The Ballad of Jim Bridger." 

Shaffner, E. B., Douglas, Wyoming, donor of a photograph of Major 
J. W. Powell and John "Portugee" Phillips. 

Bowder, Henry L., 1766 Ponce De Leon Ave., N. E., Atlanta, Georgia, 
donor of several pieces of paper Confederate money issued by 
the state of Georgia during the Civil war. 

Thorp, Russell, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Loaned a collection of 65 pieces 
of the Black Hills Stage Coach Days. 

Rooks Purchased 

Spring, Anges Wright, 70 Years Cow Country. 

Bieber, Ralph P. and Hafen, LeRoy R., The Southwest Historical 
Series, Analytical Index. 

Books — Gifts 

Shoemaker, Floyd C, Missouri Day by Day. 



A letter written by Mr. Russell Thorp with reference 
to a loan made by him to the State Historical Department. 
State Historical Department, 

Supreme Court Building, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Dear Mrs. Erwin: 

It is gratifying to know that the State of Wyoming 
has provided space in the Supreme Court Building for the 
preservation and display of historical relics. 

It is with considerable more than passing interest that 
I loaned to the State of Wyoming my personal collection 
of historical items that I have preserved these many years 
from the Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage and Express Line 
that extended from Cheyenne to Deadwood, more than 
three hundred miles, back during the Black Hills gold rush 
commencing in 1876. This line was at one time owned 
and operated by my father. 

The steel treasure boxes, guns, whips, shotgun, mes- 
senger's arms and many other items, I am sure could not 
be replaced, and I hope that this collection will be of edu- 
cational value to those who visit our State Historical De- 

Sincerely yours, 

Billiard ball from first billiard set west of Missouri 
River. From the Officer's Club, Old Bedlam, Fort 
Laramie. Presented by John Hunton. 

00 Extract of log wood from which ink was made by 
early day military expeditions and pioneers. 

1 Shoshone Indian drum, 1905. 

2 Handmade Hudson's Bay bucket. Blackfeet Indians. 

3 Stone hammer. Originally Scott Davis Collection. 

4 Buffalo skinning knife. Home made from a horse 
shoeing rasp, 1860. Originally Scott Davis collection. 

7 Brass bucket traded to Blackfeet Indians by Hud- 
son Bay Company. 

8 Rawhide covered Indian squaw travois saddle tree. 


Found by George Lathrop in the vicinity of Rawhide 
Buttes, 1899. 

10 Canteen used on the stage coaches in early days. 

11 Gold pan purchased in Denver, Colorado, June 3, 
1859, by Luke Voorhees who used it in the gold 
diggings at Gregory Gulch on Clear Creek, Colorado, 
1859, Alder Gulch, Montana, 1863, and in discovery 
of the Kootenai Diggings, British Columbia, April 
4, 1864. Presented to Russell Thorp by H. Clay 
Kienzel, May 8, 1937. 

12 Beer bottle from Old Sutler store. Fort Laramie. 
According to check-up verified by Schlitz Brewing 
Company, the label was used in 1883. 

13 Rough lock used on stage coaches. Last used on 
Laramie-Centennial Rambler Stage Line in 1903. 
Presented by Mrs. G. L. Wright. 

14 Handmade 14 plat buckskin six horse whiplash, 14 
feet long, tapered in silk. Used by stage drivers 
Last used in Yellowstone National Park. (Very fine). 

15 Handmade buckskin stage driver's whip lash. Used 
by Russell Thorp, Sr. 

16 Buckskin Winchester four horse whip lash. Used 
by stage drivers, 

17 Four horse whip with hickory stock, buckskin lash 
and hand worked silk between ferrules. Presented 
to Russell Thorp by John S. Collins (leading har- 
ness maker, Cheyenne) 1884. 

18 Whalebone stock, buckskin lash stage driver's whip. 
Presented by J. Elmer Brock. 

19 Hand wrought treasure box used on Cheyenne and 
Black Hills Stage Line to transport gold from Dead- 
wood to Cheyenne. Prior to 1876, used on Nevada 
and California Stage Lines. Gilmer, Salsbury and 

21 Bolt action rifle carried by Quick Shot (Scott) 
Davis, captain of messengers, on Old Black Hills 
Stage Line, later carried by him on range as live- 
stock detective during invasion, 1892. 

22 Double barreled shotgun carried by Quick Shot 
(Scott) Davis, shotgun messenger on Old Black Hills 
Stage Line. 

23 First model repeating 44 Winchester Henry Rifle 
issued to shotgun messengers to guard gold, Dead- 


wood to Cheyenne, on Cheyenne and Black Hills 
Stage & Express Company line. Jointed ramrod 
carried in butt of rifle showing 7 notches indicating 
number of men and Indians killed with this gun. 

24 Belts and rifle ammunition worn by Scott Davis. 

25 Ammunition vest and buckshot shells worn by Scott 

26 Binoculars used by Scott Davis to locate road agents 
and cattle rustlers. 

27 Leg irons used on prisoners carried on stage lines. 

28 Hand cuffs carried by shotgun messengers on Chey- 
enne and Black Hills Stage & Express Company line. 

29 Bracket and telegraph line insulator on first tele- 
graph line built north from Cheyenne. 

30 Telegraph lightening arrester from Rawhide Buttes. 
First telegraph line built north of Cheyenne. 

31 Telegraph instrument from Rawhide Buttes. First 
telegraph line built north of Cheyenne. Cheyenne- 
Black Hills Telegraph Line, 1876. Used by Ed. L. 
Patrick, Sr. 

32 Set of whip stock ferrals made by George Lathrop 
and presented by him to Russell Thorp, Jr. 

34 Stage driver's whip socket used on stage coaches to 
hold whip when not in use. 

35 Bridle that belonged to Quick Shot (Scott) Davis. 
Used in Johnson County War. 

37-38 Hame bells used on leaders of string team freight 
outfits both for decorative purposes and to enable 
approaching teams to hear them on mountain roads. 
Used in Nevada. Last used in Yellowstone National 
Park prior to the use of trucks. 

39 Mule skinner's shot-loaded blacksnake whip. 

44 Center rings used to hold inside check lines to keep 
them from spreading. Six horse stage harness. 

45 Single center rings used on stage harness. 

46 Complete set of rings for six horse stage team 

47 Inside spreaders used sometimes on six horse stage 


48 Off and near terrets used on wheel bridles. Six 
horse stage harness. 

52 Sioux Indian war bonnet, 1892, Worn by sub-chief. 
Presented to R. Thorp, Jr., by Stinking Bear. 

53 Pair of tees and toggles from Concord harness used 
to hook traces into Concord stage coach single-trees. 

102 Sioux Indian beaded moccasins. Sewn with sinews. 
Worn by Russell Thorp, 1886. 

103 Sioux Indian beaded moccasins. Sewn with sinews, 

104 Indian made buckskin gloves. Shoshoni, 1906. 

105 Arapahoe Sun Dance whistle made from the wing 
bone of an eagle. 

106 Wampum used in lieu of money by Fox Indians of 
Wisconsin, 1840. Handed down by J. P. Brooks, 
grandfather of Russell Thorp. 

107 Steel spearhead used by plains Indians. 

108 Steel arrowhead. Sioux Indians. 

109 Iron hatchet used by Mountain men and in trade 
with the Indians. 

110 Hatchet used in trade with the Indians by Hudson's 
Bay Company. Ploughed up near Rawhide Buttes. 

111 Skinning knife ploughed up near Rawhide Buttes. 

112 French fencing foil. Found by a sheepherder in 
vicinity of the Green River rendezvous of the Moun- 
tain men and fur traders. 

113 Sioux Indian peace pipe, 1888. 

114 Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage & Express Com- 
pany express seal. 

115 Original passenger way bills. Douglas Short Line, 

116 Stage driver's way pocket in which they carried way 
bills and special messages. Cheyenne and Black 
hills Stage & Express Co. 

126 Insulator from original overland telegraph line. Con- 
structed by Count Edward A. Creighton. Presented 
by Clark Bishop. 

127 Six horse stage whip used by Al Patrick of firm of 
Gilmore, Salsbury and Patrick who established Chey- 
enne and Black Hills Stage & Express Company 1876. 


Luke Voorhees, Manager. Patrick established the 
famous P. K. ranch near Sheridan, Wyoming. Pre- 
sented by his nephew, John Patrick, Jan. 1942. 

129 Bullwhacker's whip used on ox team in overland 

130 English Military buckle found near Spanish Diggings 
in 1937. Latin inscription "God and My Right." 
Evidently lost by early-day explorer. 

131 Peruvian bridle decorations secured by Russell 
Thorp in Peru. Spanish coins dating 1807-1867. 

132 Pair of handmade andirons made by blacksmiths 
with Jenney's Expedition at Jenney's Stockade. 
Later used at Jenney's Stockade Stage Station. 
Cheyenne-Black Hills stage line. Presented by Mr. 
and Mrs. P. S. Jackson. 

133 Handmade door bolt from station on Black Hills 
stage line. 

135 Stub of Telegraph pole, first telegraph line north of 
Cheyenne and to Deadwood. Set in 1876 and dug 
up in 1936. Presented by Charles Meyers, Fort 

136 Sole leather trunk, used by R. Thorp, Sr., in early 
days. Leather trunks were discarded when staging 
was discontinued. They were especially designed to 
carry on stage coaches. 

Note: These numbers correspond to loaner's numbers. 


We had the pleasure of a call yesterday morning from 
Judge J. P. Bartlett, United States Commissioner, who has 
just arrived here from Omaha. Judge B. informs us that 
he will open court for the dispatch of business forthwith. 
He is a young man of fine legal abilities and social worth, 
and his advent here is welcomed by all order loving people. 
—The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 2, Sept. 24, 1867. 

Vol. 15 July, 1943 No. 3 



By William A. Riner 


Investigation as to Causes of Indian Hostilities 

West of the Missouri River, 1824 198 

Bonneville's Expeditions to Rocky Mountains 

1832-'33-'34-'35-'36 220 

By Gouveneur K. Warren. 

Historic Document Tells Early Day Drama of the West 229 

By Amanda Z. Archambault. 

CHEYENNE INDIAN PORTRAITS— Painted by George Catlin....234 
By Marie H. Erwin. 


Sites Famous in History of Laramie City 

Marked During Jubilee 242 

Neikok, Indian Interpreter 246 

Wyoming Sheriffs 247 

An Incident on the Plains, 1870 249 

The "Magic City" Cheyenne, Dakota Territory, 1867 (Con't.)..250 


By Dee Linford. 

By Douglas C. McMurtrie. 

IN MEMORIAM—John Eugene Osborne, 1858-1943 279 


By John C. Friend. 


E. WILLARD SMITH, 1839-1840 287 


Senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney. 









Printed by The Douglas Enterprise, 
Dou.tflas, Wyomin.o: 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any 
statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presenta- 
tion of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manu- 
scripts of Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observa- 
tions of those familiar with important and significant events in the 
State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of 
Wyoming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical 
magazine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which 
the Department seeks to gain this objective. All communications 
concerning the ANNALS should be addressed to Mary A. McGrath, 
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This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Historical Board 
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CopyriRht, 194.3, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Lester C. Hunt, President Governor 

Mart T. Christensen , Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Earl Wright State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Mary A. McGrath, Secy. . State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 
Frank Barrett, Lusk 
George Bible, Rawlins 
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 
Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 

Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green 

P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 


State Museum 

Mary A. McGrath. Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 
Marie H. Erwin, Co-Editor Assistant Historian 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Build- 
ing in Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, 
the Museum provides for the preservation and display of 
the prized possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they 
may be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thou- 
sands of visitors. 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is num- 
bered, labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring 
permanent identification. 

^^e Old ^^ixul ta An ZinfiiAje 

By William A. Riner* 

Justice, Wyoming Supreme Court 

At one o'clock in the afternoon of July 4, 1920, a 
Masonic meeting was held in a depression on top of In- 
dependence Rock in Natrona County, fifty-five miles 
southwest of Casper. The place where the meeting was 
held is located about 170 feet above the surrounding plain 
and, so far as could be ascertained, was the identical place 
where a Masonic meeting was held on July 4, 1862 by about 
twenty members of the Order who were there on that date 
as part of a covered wagon train which was traveling west 
on the Old Oregon Trail. 

The altar used on this occasion was similar to the 
altar used by the men who held that first meeting being 
composed of thirteen large stones emblematical of the 
thirteen original colonies. The same Bible was used in 
1920 as had been used at the meeting fifty-eight years 
before. This volume had been presented to the Masonic 
Grand Lodge of Wyoming in 1875 by the gentleman who 
acted as presiding officer at that first meeting on the 
Rock. The Bible had been carried to the Pacific Coast, 
then taken East, and finally, as stated above, was placed 
in the possession of the ■Masonic Order of the then Terri- 
tory of Wyoming. 

At the meeting in 1920, many of the states in the 
Union were represented. There were several members of 
the Order from Scotland, one from the Philippine Islands, 
and one from Alaska. In all, there were some 200 mem- 
bers of the Masonic Order present, and they with their 
families made a gathering of in the neighborhood of 700 

On this occasion, after the Lodge meeting had been 
held at the northern end of the Rock, ceremonies were 
held in commemoration of the Old Oregon Trail which did 
so much in the task of peopling the Northwest territory 
and retaining its vast and valuable expanse for the Amer- 
ican Union. On that occasion the following address was 

The spread of civilization to a new land is always 

*For biography see Annals of Wyoming, vol. 12, No. 4, p. 302. 


fraught with the deepest interest. It is the estabhshment 
of a milestone for humanity. The means whereby this is 
accomphshed, oftimes is memorialized in song and story. 
From childhood we have heard of the Mayflower and 
Longfellow's verses about "the Old Colony days in Ply- 
mouth, the land of the Pilgrims." The prose of Hawthorne 
has woven into our lives the spell of that 'lock bound 
coast." Who, then, shall be the poet who shall sing to us 
of the gaining for our nation a realm more than four 
times larger than all the six New England states? Who 
shall delight our children's children with the romantic 
history of the Old Oregon Trail? It is a histcry worthy 
to minister to the imagination and idealism of the best 
youth our nation shall ever produce. The heroism of days 
to come which they will need must grow out of the heroism 
of the days that have been. The incentive to do and dare 
noble deeds tomorrow will spring mightily from the 
aroused memory of such yesterdays. Let me tell you, 
therefore, briefly of this old northwest Trail which 
beckoned ever toward the setting sun, and the land of 
promise which lay beyond. 

There is no single name or date or event that we 
can select and say "Here begins the history of the road 
to Oregon." In the main it was a natural highway fol- 
lowing the easy grades of the water courses. The fords 
of the rivers, the passes through the mountains; the 
quickest and easiest paths between water holes on desert 
stretches — these were first found and traveled by deer, 
elk, buffalo and other creatures of the wild. The paths 
made by them were worn deeper by the moccasined feet 
of Indians. Next came the fur trappers and traders, the 
real forerunners of civilization. After them appeared mis- 
sionaries and the adventurous van guard of homeseekers. 
Forts Laramie and Bridger sprang up along the road and 
many another post whose name is historic. 

Thus the trail grew and became a highway as easy 
to follow as a country road. Along it surged for years the 
advance tide of a nation's migrating host. Men of all 
classes forsook their customary vocations and joined the 
hegira to the new western lands, forgetful or careless of 
the pathless distances, the unavoidable hardships, and the 
inevitable perils of the wilderness. With good luck the 
journey could be made in four months and with bad luck 
six months hardly sufficed. Children were born; men and 
women sickened, died and were buried but the great pro- 
cession hastened ever westward. 


The Oregon Trail started at Independence, Missouri, 
and for forty-one miles was identical with the older Santa 
Fe Trail. Where the town of Gardner, Kansas, now stands 
a sign board indicated a deep worn highway turning off 
to the northwest. Laconically inscribed thereon were the 
words "Road to Oregon". Thence the direction of the 
Kansas and Little Blue rivers was followed to the Platte 
near Grand Island. From there the road swept along the 
Platte and Sweetwater rivers for six hundred and fifty 
miles. Independence Rock, the register of the wilderness 
with its rudely carved names, marked the entrance into 
the Sweetwater district. Its massive granite bulk rear- 
ing itself out of the plain made known to the travellers 
they were nearing the Devil's Gate and the crossing of 
the Continental Divide at South Pass. It told them, too, 
that the first half of the journey was nearly done. The 
road then bore away across Green River and wound on- 
ward toward the Pacific Coast, finally terminating at Fort 
Vancouver its more than two thousand miles of length. 

Over this highway Brigham Young led the Mormons 
on their pilgrimage to their Zion. The days of '49 saw 
it used by countless thousands of seekers after wealth in 
their mad rush to the gold fields of California. But the 
Oregon Trail more than any other road of the nation mav 
be characterized "The Path of Empire." For by it came 
the pioneers who saved Washington, Oregon, Idaho and 
parts of Wyoming and Montana, to the American Union. 

During the first quarter of the last century little was 
known of the country west of the Missouri. Even as late 
as January, 1843, it was asserted in the United States 
Senate that for agricultural purposes the whole Oregon 
Territory was "not worth a pinch of snuff". One Senator 
piously thanked God "for his mercy in placing the Rocky 
Mountains there" as an impassable barrier. The same 
year the Edinburgh Review declared that the region be- 
tween the western border of Missouri and the Rocky 
Mountains was "incapable, probably forever, of fixed set- 
tlement" while west of that range "only a very small por- 
tion of the land is susceptible of cultivation." Even Daniel 
Webster said to his fellow senators concerning the Oregon 
country "What do we want with the vast worthless area, 
this region of savages and wild beasts, of deserts, of 
shifting sands and whirlwinds of dust, of cactus and 
prairie dogs? Mr. President, I will never vote one cent 
from the public treasury to place the Pacific Coast one 
inch nearer to Boston than it is now." 


But these erroneous ideas were not long to stand. 
The American people themselves revised the notions of 
their legal representatives. Even as the great orator's 
words were being uttered, forces were in motion to save 
that broad expanse of wonderful territory to the Union. 
Over this pathway of the wilderness was commencing to 
pour such a stream of determined men from the East that 
soon they outnumbered the British Hudson Bay Com- 
pany there. With characteristic firmness they seized and 
held the land. From their number came that man of 
heroic mould, Marcus Whitman. None can forget the story 
of his terrible journey across the continent, in the face of 
obstacles well nigh insurmountable, to appear before Pres- 
ident Tyler and plead for the retention of the Oregon ter- 
ritory. No one but a Whitman could have convinced the 
President's skeptical Secretary of State, Daniel Webster. 
When the latter sarcastically inquired of what use was a 
land to which no road led. Whitman's response was instant 
and crushing: "There is a road. I, myself, have- traveled 
over it." And so it came about that in August, 1845, the 
Hudson Bay Company accepted the protection of the Ore- 
gon provisional government and paid taxes to its officers. 
The following year the title of the United States was for- 
mally recognized by treaty. England had abandoned the 
region below the 49th parallel and the Trail had done the 
work assigned it. It had won Oregon. 

More romance attaches to this old highway than to 
any other thoroughfare on this continent. Though not 
much more than half a century has fled sinnce the last 
of the huge wagon caravans fared out across the plains, 
the memory of the great trail they traversed is almost a 
tradition. Only now and then in spaces still untenanted 
may its former course be traced. Here in Wyoming along 
the Platte and Sweetwater rivers in a solitude almost as 
profound as when the first white pioneers passed this way 
the road remains as of old, a deep ineffaceable scar across 
the plateau. Miles and miles of it are worn so deep that 
decades of storm will not efface it. Generations may pass 
and the origin of the trail become a legend, but the marks 
will be there and amaze the wondering eyes of centuries 
still unborn. Even we marvel to see it worn fifty feet 
wide and three feet deep, where the tramp of thousands 
upon thousands of men and women, the hoofs of millions 
of animals and the wheels of untold numbers of vehicles 
have loosened the soil and the fierce winds have torn it 
away. On the solid rock, ruts are found worn a foot deep. 


Standing here we can look back along the Trail and 
out of the dim distance for us in fancy's eye appears again 
the slowly moving train ; the wagons with their once white, 
but now stained and battered tops; the patient beasts of 
burden measuring their tired steps; men, travel-worn and 
bronzed by exposure; women with mingled hope and care 
appearing on their anxious faces; and children huddled 
in the rattling and rocking abodes, whose questioning eyes 
ask ever when their discomforts will cease. These are 
the pioneers of the Oregon Trail. Days slip by into weeks 
and weeks into months; yet tirelessly the toilsome march 
is resumed. Sometimes the way is beset with Indian 
scares and fights; unbridged streams must be forded; 
rugged ascents and steep declivities occur; teams become 
useless and equipment fails; but finally when the year 
has glided into the golden tints of autumn, the long looked 
for end of the journey comes. Such is the story many of 
those travellers would tell us; some could tell us more. 
And there were those who looked back with heavy hearts 
and remembered where they had left the wild winds to 
chant their funeral requiem over a lonely and deserted 
grave. For many sank beneath the ravages of the dread 
cholera augmented by the unnatural mode of life, the 
hurry and the hardships. It is estimated that in one year 
alone, more than five thousand laid down their lives a 
sacrifice to the peopling of the Pacific Coast States. The 
roll call was never had. Their unknown and unmarked 
last resting places have passed into oblivion, though they 
line the way. 

The journey was one which sounded the heights and 
depths of human emotion from the oftimes amusing in- 
cidents of camp life down through the wearisome daily 
marches and dull night watches, to the solemn tragedy 
of the death of loved ones. Yet, withal, there was much 
of happiness and joyous hope in the hearts of many who 
formed that mighty caravan. Though they were leaving 
childhood's homes and friends behind, many forever, they 
were going, confident of winning new homes and new 
friends in a new land. We should reverence with lofty 
pride this dusty, grey battle field far flung over prairies 
and mountains on which thousands of precious lives were 
laid down that this great victory of peace, this great con- 
quest over nature, this great invasion of American home- 
seekers by American of a former generation for Ameri- 
cans in the ages to come might be accomplished. 

It is not surprising that this result was wrought. For 


over the trail there passed descendants of men who left 
the quiet lanes and hedgerows of old England for homes 
beyond the sea; who had fought against King Philip; who 
marched with Boone through Cumberland Gap; who were 
with Harrison at Tippecanoe when American arms over- 
whelmed British and Indian alike and made secure to our 
country the old Northwest Territory east of the Missouri. 
Over this trail, too, passed both the humble and the hon- 
ored members of our beloved Masonic Order, then as al- 
ways in the van of those who lead mankind to greater 
fields, to loftier achievements. 

So that they may not be forgotten we keep this me- 
morial occasion. It is very fitting we should do them 
honor on this, the nation's Independence Day. Fifty- 
eight years ago on this very Independence Rock they held 
their lodge. The noble pile of granite, nature's own monu- 
ment to the great Trail, looked down upon them then and 
listened to their ritual in solemn, silent grandeur. It has 
enshrined the recollection of . their meeting well. Its un- 
yielding mass majestically typifies the eternal foundation 
of our Order-Truth. As it shall endure for ages hence, 
so do we think will the work the great procession of which 
they were a part achieved. 

No more will this great Rock behold the wild troops 
of savages, bedecked with paint and war plumes, flutter- 
ing trophies, bows, arrows, lances and shields; no more 
will it mark for weary migrating hosts a spot of solace 
and of rest; for it forever, probably, will remain only the 
quiet solitude of a lonely place, peopled solely by the 
memories of sunshine and shadow from days that are no 
more. But as the soft whispering winds of summer play 
about its massive flanks let us believe they bring to it 
a message to mingle with those memories; let us believe 
they re-echo to it as they pass the Song of the West which 
tells to us all: 

"At first 'twas the lure of the metals, 

the dull-red stream borne gold. 
When the weaklings died by the roadside, 

when the slid snows buried the bold. 
And then 'twas the lure of the ranges, the 

miles of unbroken sod, 
Where the herder spread his blankets 'neath 

the scintillant stars of God. 
But now 'tis the song of the water 

flooding the thirsty soil ; 


The gride of the stamps, quartz crushing, the 

gush of the spouting oil. 
The crash of the faUing timber, the murmuring 

fields of grain 
The hum of the blooming orchards, 

the roar of the laboring train." 


Cheyenne, D. T., Sept. 18, 1867 

The Common Council of Cheyenne met at the City 
Hall this evening at 7 o'clock. 

Present, Mayor Hook, Councilmen Talpey, Preshaw, 
Willis, Thompson and Harlow. 

A memorial from John Kenyon praying that so much 
of a fine imposed upon him by Police Magistrate Larimer, 
as subjects him to a forfeiture of his license, be remitted. 

A petition from a number of citizens requesting the 
Council to submit the question of allowing the games of 
keno and rondo to be conducted under proper restrictions, 
to the voters of the city. Referred to the Committee on 

A number of applications for License to carry on dif- 
ferent branches of business in the city were received by 
the Council, and on motion, Licenses were granted to the 

The Committee appointed at a previous meeting for 
the purpose of securing a suitable Hall for the use of the 
city, reported that they had rented the second story of 
Mr. J. R. Whitehead's new building on Eddy street. The 
report of the Committee was received, the city to take 
possession of the Hall as soon as completed, at the month- 
ly rent of $125. 

The Committee appointed to secure a piece of ground 
to be used as a City Cemetery, reported through its chair- 
man, Mr. Preshaw, that they had conferred with Gen. 
Stephenson on the subject and he had consented to set 
off 40 acres from the east end of the Military Reservation, 
to be used by the city and also by the troops at Ft. Russell. 

On motion the City Clerk was requested to furnish 
a synopsis of the proceedings of this meeting to the Editor 
of the Cheyenne Leader, who kindly offers to publish the 
same free of charge. 

On motion, the Council adjourned to meet on Thurs- 
day the 27th at 7 o'clock p. m. — (The Cheyenne Leader, 
Sept. 19, 1867.) 

jboc4/i4m4iil atijA Jietten^ 


These documents which deal with Indian affairs, ap- 
parently along the Missouri, included territory which ex- 
tended far into the country reaching the Rockies to the 
west and to the south into what is Texas today. The 
tribes included here inhabited that part of the unorganized 
territory, which later became Wyoming and these docu- 
ments reveal many of the causes which gradually led to 
serious Indian troubles in this portion of the territory, 
which finally culminated in the late '60s, with the final 
quelling of major Indian warfare in this section. 

These documents also reveal the attitude of the British 
who without doubt instigated the Indians to an unfriendly 
attitude toward the Americans. 

Washington City, February 10, 1824. 

I have the honor to enclose to you the answers to 
the questions put to me by the Committee of the Senate 
on Indian Affairs. A part of these answers are made 
from my own knowledge and observations, and a part 
from the recollection of conversations with persons con- 
versant with Indian affairs on the Missouri, and on whose 
opinions and judgment I have great reliance. 

Respectfully, yours, 

R. GRAHAM, United States Indian Agent. 

Hon. Thos, H. Benton, Chairman of the Committee on 
Indian Affairs. 

Question 1. Have you had opportunities of becoming 
acquainted personally, or by information to be relied upon, 
with the Indian tribes beyond the Mississippi? 

Answer. I became acquainted with several tribes re- 
siding on the west side of the Mississippi, personally; and 
with the character of other tribes residing high up the 
Missouri, by information from persons on whom I could 


Ques. 2. Have you known or heard of any hostilities 
between the citizens of the United States and the Black- 
foot Indians? If so, state the instances. 

Ans. I have. About the year 1809 or 1810, a com- 
pany was formed in St. Louis, for the purpose of trading 
with, and trapping among, the Indians residing on the 
waters of the Missouri river. A party from this company 
were sent to the mountains to trap; they built their post, 
I believe, on the Yellow Stone, and commenced their trap- 
ping in that country over which the Blackfoot Indians 
range. A party of these Indians discovered one of the 
trapping parties, waylaid, and killed some of them; rein- 
forcements were obtained from the post, or some of the 
trappers near at hand; they pursued, overtook, and had a 
battle with the Indians, in which several Indians were 
killed, and I believe one or two white men. The hostility 
of these Indians presented such obstacles to the party, 
that, after several losses, by robbery of their traps, &c., 
they were compelled to retire from the country. 

Ques. 3. Are the Blackfeet a wandering or stationary 
tribe ? 

Ans. They are a wandering tribe, and have no fixed 
habitation; raising no corn, and depending entirely upon 
the chase. 

Ques. 4. Over what district of country do they range? 

Ans. Over that country which lies between the Yel- 
low Stone river, the Rocky Mountains, and as far north 
as the Saska-tche-wine river; seldom or never wandering 
on the Missouri below the mouth of the Yellow Stone river, 
but sometimes crossing that river, and extending their 
war or hunting parties as far as the Arkansas. The 
Arrepahas, who inhabit the country south of the Yellow 
Stone, and who are also erratic, and depend entirely upon 
the chase, are a band of the tribe of Blackfoot Indians; 
making the range of these Indians along the base of the 
Rocky Mountains, from the Rio del Norte to the Saska- 

Ques. 5. Do you know, or have you heard, of any 
citizens of the United States hunting or trapping in this 
district? If so, state the particulars. 

Ans. The answer to the second query furnishes the 
first instance that I have heard of. Some time after this, 
a party hunting south of the Yellow Stone were taken 


prisoners by the Spaniards, and carried into Santa Fe. 
The party of Ashley and Henry, of recent date, and some 
of the Missouri Fur Company, furnish the only instances 
of parties hunting or trapping within that district of 
country. The traders from Missouri to Sante Fe occasion- 
ally trap on the waters of the Arkansas and head waters 
of the Rie del Norte; these traders meet with the Ar- 
repahas, but, as yet, I have not heard of any mischief 
done by them, though I hear of their threats. 

Ques. 6. With whom do the Blackfeet trade? 

Ans. Formerly, I believe, through the Assinaboins, 
with the British establishments on Moose river* at pres- 
ent, with that establishment, and others of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, extending on as far as the waters of the 
Columbia river. 

Ques. 7. Have you known or heard of any hostilities 
between the Arickara Indians and citizens of the United 
States? If so, state the circumstances of each case. 

Ans. The first instance was in the case of the Man- 
dan chief, who was returning home, under the protection 
of the United States; for the particulars of which, I refer 
to the official reports. 

Within the last twelve months, after inviting, as I 
understood, the Missouri Fur Company to send traders 
among them with such articles as they wanted, they 
treacherously attacked the company's post, in which at- 
tack the Indians lost two men; they also attacked General 
Ashley, with his party of trappers, on their way to the 
mountains in June last, and killed and wounded twenty- 
six men. For the particulars, I refer to the official report. 

Ques. 8. Are the Arickaras a stationary or wander- 
ing tribe? 

Ans. Stationary. They raise abundance of corn, 
pumpkins, peas, and beans; live in two villages, on the 
banks of the Missouri, about one hundred and fifty miles 
below the Mandans, and which they have fortified; they 
seldom or never extend their hunting excursions beyond 
forty or fifty miles from their village. Buffaloes, on which 
they principally depend, are found in immense herds within 
that distance. 

Ques. 9. Do you know, or have you heard, that any 
American citizens have hunted or trapped on the grounds 


belonging to the Arickaras? Do you know of a letter, 
purporting to be written by an Indian agent at St. Louis, 
and published in the Atlantic papers, ascribing their hos- 
tility to this cause? 

Ans. Never. I have always understood that beaver 
and otter are found but in small quantities in this country. 
American citizens, who go into the Indian country for the 
purpose of trapping, always go where they believe the 
most beaver is to be taken; distance and difficulties pre- 
sent no obstacles to them. In passing through the Arickara 
country, they kill of the buffalo a sufficiency for their daily 
subsistence. I know nothing of the letter written by an 
Indian agent at St. Louis, ascribing their hostility to the 
trapping on the Arickaras' ground; nor do I believe such 
a letter could be written by an Indian agent. 

Ques. 10. Do you know of any cause which led to 
the attack upon General Ashley's party? 

Ans. I have understood the cause which led to Gen- 
eral Ashley's attack was a demand made on him for com- 
pensation for the two Arickaras killed by the Missouri Fur 
Company, which was refused by General Ashley. After 
failing in their various efforts to induce him to pay for 
the Indians who were killed by the Missouri Fur Com- 
pany, they consented to open a trade for some of their 
horses, which General Ashley was much in want of; the 
trade progressed, and finished satisfactorily to both parties. 
In the course of the evening, General Ashley was notified, 
by a chief, of the intention of the villages to attack him 
that night, or very early the next morning, and advised 
him to take his horses on the opposite bank of the river. 
Circumstances that then looked suspicious induced Gen- 
eral Ashley to believe it was rather the intention of this 
chief to steal the horses, by his urging him to remove 
them across the river, as small parties of Indians were 
occasionally seen on the opposite side. He, however, 
strengthened his guard, and paid no further attention to 
the chief, who continued urging him to move to the op- 
posite side. Early in the morning, the party were alarmed 
by the firing which they heard, and soon discovered that 
their guard had not only been attacked, but nearly all 
killed and wounded. 

Ques. 11. Have you any reason to believe that the 
Hudson's Bay Company excited the Arickaras to that 
attack ? 


Ans. I have no reason to believe they did. 

Ques. 12. Do you know, or have you heard, of any 
hostihties between the Assinaboins and citizens of the 
United States? 

Ans. I have not heard of any. 

Ques. 13. Are the Assinaboins stationary or wander- 

Ans. I know very little of the habits of those In- 
dians. I know of no traders, other than British, who 
go among them. They are numerous, and are the nearest 
Indians to the Hudson's Bay establishment on Red river 
and its waters. 

Ques. 14. Where is the richest fur region beyond the 
Mississippi ? 

Ans. I have always understood the northern branches 
of the Missouri, above the junction of the Yellow Stone, 
contained more beaver than any known country. 

Ques. 15. Can the fur trade of this region be secured 
to the citizens of the United States, without the aid of 
a military post at or beyond the Mandan villages? 

Ans. I think it cannot. If the hand of Government 
were extended to the protection of the fur trade of this 
country, it would be a source of immense wealth to the 
nation; but, without the protection of a military post 
above the Mandans, our traders will be compelled to 
withdraw themselves, and the whole of that rich fur 
region will be occupied by those from the Hudson's Bay 
Company, and our traders cut off from any participation 
of it above the Mandans; below this point, the fur trade 
will be of no value or profit in a few years. 

Ques. 16. Can corn, for the supply of a post, be 
raised or purchased? 

Ans. Corn can be raised at the most northern points 
of the Missouri. The Mandans and Arickaras raise large 
supplies; but I would suppose a dependance upon an In- 
dian supply would be precarious. 

Ques. 17. Is there a trade carried on between Missouri 
and New Mexico? And what articles are carried out, and 
brought back in return? 

Ans. There is a small trade at present, the continu- 


ance of which will very much depend upon the capacity of 
the Spaniards at Santa Fe to support it. They are miser- 
ably poor, and give in exchange, for British and domestic 
goods, which our traders take to them, jacks and mules, 
which they get from St. Antoine, and some little silver 
and furs caught by the Indians in that quarter. Combined 
with this trade is the trapping carried on by our citizens, 
who, for that purpose, spend some time on the waters 
of the Rio del Norte and Arkansas. Though I have gen- 
erally been informed by the parties returning from that 
trade that it was not worth carrying on, yet they continue 
the trade. If these parties, trading to Santa Fe, were less 
liable to interruption in their trade by depredations of 
the different Indian tribes through which they are com- 
pelled to pass, I believe the trade would be carried on to 
a greater extent, and the enterprise of our hardy citizens 
would push it to the more wealthy city of Mexico. 

Ques. 18. Is it subject to be interrupted by Indians 
on the waters of the Arkansas? 

Ans. It is. The Camanches, Arrepahas, Pawnees, 
and Osages, all cross the Santa Fe trail in their hunting or 
war parties; consequently, are liable to fall in with parties 
going to or coming from Santa Fe, and are very apt to 
steal their horses. A part of their route runs through the 
Osage country. One of the articles of a treaty with that 
nation provides that no white man shall pass through their 
country without their permission. They complain of the 
violation of this article of the treaty. The chiefs say it 
is impossible for them to keep their young men from steal- 
ing from those parties. The assent of the different Indian 
tribes, through whose country our traders pass, would, 
I think, facilitate the trade. 

Ques. 19. Would a military post, some distance higher 
up the Arkansas than Fort Smith, contribute to protect 
the citizens engaged in this trade? 

Ans. I am of opinion that a post established at or 
near the mouth of the Little Arkansas would greatly con- 
tribute to the protection of the trade to Santa Fe. Any 
position below that point would be so far from the track 
travelled, that but little protection could be extended to 
those who carried on the trade. 

Ques. 20. What is the temper of the tribes which 
have an intercourse with the British towards the citizens 
of the United States? 


Ans. Generally unfriendly. I have always found those 
Indians within our territories who visit British posts more 
unfriendly to us, and more difficult to control. 

Ques. 21. What is the temper of the tribes which have 
no intercourse with the British traders towards the citi- 
zens of the United States? 

Ans. With those tribes within my own knowledge, 
very friendly; and generally so, so far as I have under- 
stood of others. 

Ques. 22. How near do the British trading estab- 
lishments approach the territories of the United States? 

Ans. Those on Red river border immediately on our 
territories, and some of them, I believe, are within it. 
There are some situated within one hundred and fifty 
miles of the Great North Bend of Missouri. 

Ques. 23. Is it to the benefit, or injury, of the fur 
traders, to have hostilities with the Indians? 

Ans. By no means to the benefit, but to the great 
injury of the traders. The very existence of the trade 
depends upon peace with the different Indians, both 
with the white people and among themselves. 

Ques. 24. Has the abolition of the factory system 
been the cause of any Indian hostilities beyond the 
Mississippi ? 

Ans. In no one instance, within my knowledge. 

Ques. 25. What is your opinion of the good or bad 
effects of hunting and trapping on Indian lands by Amer- 
ican citizens? 

Ans. I am decidedly of opinion that the hunting and 
trapping on Indian lands by American citizens produces 
the most unhappy effects upon the mind of the Indians. 
They look upon their game as we do upon our domestic 
animals, and hold them in the same estimation. It is 
their means of support: they have nothing else to depend 
upon for subsistence. It is not, therefore, unreasonable 
to suppose that they will not only steal from, but mur- 
der, those who are depriving them of their only means of 
subsistence. One of the means of putting a stop to this 
would be, to locate the traders at suitable positions within 
the Indian countries, and not to permit them to attend 
the Indians on their hunting parties, as they at present 


do, many of them carrying with them their traps. They 
should be placed at such points as the agent might desig- 
nate; and the Indian would then know that every white 
man found on his lands, at any other place than the trad- 
ing establishment, was a trespasser, and might be taken 
up and brought to the agent. 

Mr. Pilcher's answers to questions put to him by the 
Committee of the Senate on Indian Affairs. 

Question 1. Have you had an opportunity of becom- 
ing acquainted personally, or by information to be relied 
upon, with the Indian tribes beyond the Mississippi? 

Answer. Having been engaged in the Indian trade 
for the last four years on the Missouri river and its tribu- 
tary waters, I have had an opportunity of becoming ac- 
quainted personally, and by information to be relied upon, 
with most of the Indian tribes in all that region beyond 
the State of Missouri as far as the Rocky Mountains. The 
tribes personally known to me, and with most of whom 
an extensive trade has been carried on, as well by the 
Missouri Fur Company (to which I belong) as other com- 
panies of St. Louis, are the followinng: The Kanzas, whose 
permanent residence is on the Kanzas river; the Ottoes 
and Missourias, two small tribes who have villages on the 
river Platte, a short distance from the Council Bluffs; 
the Pawnees, a very numerous tribe, whose villages are 
also on the river Platte, about one hundred and fifty 
miles from Council Bluffs; the Mahas, residing a little 
west of the Council Bluffs, on the Elk Horn, a branch 
of the river Platte — say from four to five hundred men; 
the Poncas, a small, and, at present, a wandering tribe, 
who generally range through the country on the I'Eau- 
qui-cours, as far west as the mountains in which that 
river takes its rise; and with the different bands of Sioux, 
neither of which have any fixed residence, but wander 
over a vast section of country on the right and left banks 
of the Missouri river — on the right, from the Big Sioux 
river to the sources of Jacques river, the St. P.eter's, and 
Red river; and on the opposite side, they range through 
all the country watered by the I'Eau-qui-cours, White 
river, and the river Cheyenne, as far as the Black Moun- 
tains, in which some of those streams rise, and frequently 
as far north as the heads of the Little Missouri, above the 


At or near the Big Bend of Missouri, a trade is car- 
ried on with these several tribes, which are as follows: 
The Yanctons, Teetons, Siouones, Ogallallas, Hunkapas, 
and Yanctonas; amounting in all, I should judge, from 
their own accounts, and from my own observation, to 
ten or twelve thousand souls, and perhaps more. A small 
band of the Cheyenne Indians, another wandering tribe, 
sometimes visit those establishments for the purpose of 

I have also a personal knowledge of the Arickaras, 
Mandans, and Minatares, (sometimes called Gros Ventres;) 
these tribes reside permanently on the banks of the Mis- 
souri. The Arickaras are from four hundred and fifty to 
six hundred warriors strong; the Mandans and Minatares, 
about two hundred and fifty each, from their own ac- 
counts, and reside near the same point, in different vil- 
lages. These are the only three tribes of Indians above 
the Council Bluffs, east of the Rocky Mountains, who 
have any fixed residence, or depend on any thing but the 
chase for subsistence. 

The foregoing tribes are the only Indians of whom 
I have any personal knowledge. There are several wan- 
dering tribes south of the Yellow Stone river, known only 
by the information of persons on whom I can rely, who 
have been sent into that country with a view of ascer- 
taining the prospect of opening a trade with those tribes, 
and for the purpose of trapping beaver. The Cheyenne, Rap- 
pahos, (supposed to be a band of the Blackfeet,) Kayawas, 
and Crows, are separate tribes, who range through the 
country south of the Yellow Stone river, from its conflu- 
ence with the Missouri, through the Rocky Mountains, on 
the waters of the rivers Platte and Arkansas, and as far 
as the Spanish settlements. I have no accurate informa- 
tion respecting the numbers of the three former tribes. 
The Crows, by their own accounts, have about one thou- 
sand five hundred men; but, from the information of per- 
sons who have spent several winters amongst them, and 
taken some pains to ascertain their actual strength, I 
should judge they fall short of that number. The Black- 
feet, numerous and powerful; and the Assinaboins, also 

Ques. 2. Have you heard of any hostilities between 
the Blackfoot Indians and citizens of the United States? 

Ans. The Blackfoot Indians have uniformily mani- 


fested a hostile disposition to all American citizens who 
have visited their country, from the time of its discovery 
by Messrs. Lewis and Clarke, up to the present day. It 
will be recollected that Captain Lewis, when returning 
from the Columbia, met with a party of those Indians 
on Maria's river, or with a party called Minatares, of 
Fort de Prairie, who were the associates of the Blackfoot 
Indians, and probably a band of that nation. This party, 
after the most liberal and friendly treatment on the part 
of Captain Lewis, attempted to rob him and his men. 
which produced a skirmish, and some two or three of 
the Indians were killed. Between the years 1808 add 
1810, a company was formed in St. Louis, by a number 
of respectable citizens, as well for the purpose of hunting 
and trapping beaver, as to open a friendly intercourse and 
trade with those and other Indians in that country. Sev- 
eral members of this company headed an expedition, and 
penetrated as far as the Three Forks of the Missouri. I 
believe nothing was omitted which it was thought would 
tend to bring about a friendly interview with those In- 
dians, as a friendly understanding with them could alone 
insure a successful result to the adventure. This obiect 
could not be accomplished; the Indians attacked them at 
all points; and, in a short time, they were compelled to 
abandon the country, with the loss of many men and 
some property. Since that time, no American citizens 
have visited the country, until the spring of 1823. In the 
summer of 1822, our company fitted out an expedition, 
under the direction of Messrs. Immell and Jones, the ob- 
ject of which was to extend our business to the sources 
of the Missouri, as well for the purpose of trapping beaver, 
as to ascertain the prospect of introducing our trade 
among the Blackfoot Indians, and any other tribes in 
that country. This party wintered on the Yellow Stone 
River, near the mouth of the Big Horn, at Fort Benton, 
a post established in the winter of 1821, for the trade of 
the Crow Indians, and as a depot for a party of trappers. 
In the spring of 1823, the partv (then consisting of thirty 
men) left this post, and penetrated as far as the Three 
Forks of the Missouri. I had instructed the heads of 
this party to use every effort to obtain a friendly inter- 
view with the Blackfoot Indians, and to incur anv reason- 
able expense for the accomplishment of that object: and 
to impress them with the friendly disposition of American 
citizens towards them, and with the true object of their 
visiting the country. The party continued in the country, 


without meeting with any Blackfoot Indians, until about 
the middle of May; having extended their operations to 
the sources of Jefferson's Fork, when they concluded to 
return to the Yellow Stone. While descending the Jef- 
ferson river, on their return, they met, for the first time, 
with a party of Blackfoot Indians, consisting of thirty- 
eight men. Aware of the hostile spirit formerly mani- 
fested by them, they were not permitted to approach 
without some precaution on the part of the whites; fin- 
ally, one of the Indians exhibited a letter, when they were 
immediately invited to approach. The bearer presented 
the letter to Mr. Immell, which was not directed to any 
person, but was superscribed, in the English language, 
"God save the King." The paper contained a recommendation 
of the Indian, stating that he was one of the principal 
chiefs of his nation, well disposed towards whites, and 
had a large quantity of furs, &c. The letter was not 
signed; it was written on the leaf of an account book, 
which seems to have been headed, before it was taken 
from the book, "Mountain Post, 1823;" it was dated at 
the bottom, "1820." The Indians were invited to remain 
with the party for the night, and did so, making many 
professions of friendship, and appeared much gratified 
at the proposition to establish trading-houses in the coun- 
try; and pointed out the mouth of Maria's river, seventy 
or eighty miles below the falls of Missouri, as the most 
desirable spot; stating that they had understood such 
to be the objects of the company, &c. This was the fact, 
but how they got the information I am unable to divine. 
They were also in possession of all the information relative 
to an establishment at the mouth of the Yellow Stone, 
made the preceding fall by Messrs. Ashley and Henry; 
their views respecting trapping, hunting, &c. In the 
morning, the Indians received a number of articles as 
presents, and left the party apparently well satisfied. 

The suspicious appearances of the above-mentioned 
letter, a good knowledge of the Indian character, and 
particularly of the treacherous disposition of that nation, 
induced the heads of the party to move with all possible 
expedition, and to use every precaution. Thev succeeded 
in reaching the Yellow Stone river, and had descended 
it for some distance below the mountains, and began to 
consider themselves secure, having met with several hunt- 
ing parties of Crow Indians, who were known to them, 
and well disposed. But the Blackfeet had assembled, to 
the number of three or four hundred warriors, inter- 


cepted the party, and selected a favorable position, where 
they attacked and defeated them. The result was, the 
loss of Messrs. Immell and Jones, and five other men. and 
the entire loss of all the property in their possession, 
amounting to $15,000 or $16,000. The chief who bore 
the letter before mentioned was recognized amonsrst the 
party as one of the leaders. About the time these cir- 
cumstances occurred, a party of Blackfoot Indians at- 
tacked a party of trappers headed bv Maior Henrv. at 
some point between the Missouri and Yellow Stone, killed 
four or five of his men, and drove them from the countrv. 

Ques. 3. Are the Blackfoot Indians wandering or 
stationary ? 

Ans. The Blackfoot Indians are a wandering tribe. 

Ques. 4. Over what section of country do they range? 

Ans. They range through the country north of the 
Missouri, from the Saska-tche-wine to Maria s river, over 
all the country watered by that river: through the Rockv 
Mountains, on the different tributaries of the Missoi^ri, 
to the heads of Gallatin's Fork, and to the sources of the 
Yellow Stone, Platte, and 7^rkansas rivers; and. from, nil 
the information I have been ab^e to collect, the mouth of 
Maria's river is the most central point of the countrv 
through which they wander. But it is difficult to Point 
out the exact limits of any of those wandering tribes, be- 
cause thev observe none themselves. Both the Crow 
Indians and Blackfeet ( parti cularlv the latter) frequentlv 
range west of the mountains, particularlv on war excur- 
sions against the Shoshones, Snakes, Flatheads. and other 
tribes on the Columbia river. 

Ques. 5. Do you know, or have vou heard, of anv 
citizens of the United States having- hunted or trapped 
in this district? If so, sta,te the particulars. 

Ans. The committee will find an answer to this in- 
terogatory in my reply to those preceding it. 

Ques. 6. With whom do the Blackfoot Indians trade? 

Ans. There is no doubt but the Blackfoot Indians 
trade with the Hudson's Bay Company. They are well 
supplied with arms, ammunition, traps, blankets, stroud- 
ings, chiefs' coats, hats, and all other articles of mer- 
chandise, used by the different tribes of Indians, who 
trade in British manufactured goods; and at all the old 


Indian encampments about the Three Forks of the Mis- 
souri are to be found small rum kegs, and the heads of 
kegs, branded with the marks of the Hudson's Bay and 
Northwest Companies. The Indians themselves say they 
procure those articles from the British living to the north. 
It is well known that they derive nothing of the kind from 
the Spanish settlements, and that there never has been 
any trade between them and American citizens. It is 
known that those Indians were in the habit of trading 
with those companies many years ago; and all the cir- 
cumstances combined can leave no doubt that that inter- 
course is continued. 

Ques. 7. Have you known or heard of any hostilities 
between the Arickara Indians, and citizens of the United 
States? If so, state the circumstances of each case. 

Ans. In relation to the hostile disposition of the 
Arickara Indians towards American citizens, I would ob- 
serve, that a minute detail of each case would occupy more 
time than be spared to its recital. I will therefore only 
state some of the most prominent cases which have come 
to my knowledge. It is known to some of the committee, 
that the Arickara nation attacked and defeated Lieuten- 
ants Chouteau and Pryor, about the year 1808, while 
ascending the Missouri river, under the American flag, 
with one of the Mandan chiefs and his family, who ac- 
'companied Messrs. Lewis and Clarke to the United States 
on their return from the Columbia. I know that the 
Arickaras killed a man about the year 1816 or 1817, a 
little above the Big Bend of the Missouri River, in the 
Sioux country, who was in the employment of some one 
of the fur traders of St. Louis. I know that a war party 
of Arickaras, amounting to eighty or ninety men, came 
down to that country (Sioux country) in the month of 
April, 1820, and robbed two trading-houses established 
by the Missouri Fur Company for the trade of the Sioux 
Indians — one above, and the other below, the Big Bend 
of Missouri; beat and abused the men in charge of the 
houses; and that the same party continued down the Mis- 
souri still further, to the trading-houses of another com- 
pany, and robbed them of a considerable amount of mer- 
chandise — from the owners' account, not less than $1,600 
or $1,700. 

In September, 1822, I visited the Arickara villages 
myself, for the first time. I was going to the Mandans 
and Minatares, for the purpose of establishing trading- 


houses for these Indians. I was deceived in the Arickaras 
in different ways. From their former disposition, I had 
anticipated difficulties with them. But they received me 
well; and their conduct was so different from what I had 
expected, that I made them large presents, and received, 
in return, many professions of friendship, and promises 
to commit no further depredations. I left, by their own 
request, a clerk in their villages, with merchandise amply 
sufficient for their trade. I was then acting as special 
sub-agent, having received that appointment from Manor 
O'Fallon, United States agent for the Missouri river; and, 
from the peculiar good conduct of those Indians on that 
occasion, I wrote him a very favorable letter respecting 
them, and the prospect of their future good behavior. The 
friendly disposition manifested on that occasion, however, 
was not of long duration. I know that one of the prin- 
cipal and leading chiefs of that nation, after visiting me 
at the Mandans, and ascertaining the time I intended to 
descend the river, returned home, raised a party, and 
waylaid the river, for the purpose of attacking my boat. 
I know that some of the principal braves of that nation 
attempted, during the last winter, to rob my clerk, while 
in their own villages, and committed violence upon him. 
In the month of March last, after this clerk left their 
villages, and descended the Missouri, to one of our prin- 
cipal Sioux trading-houses, about two hundred miles be- 
low the Arickaras, a party of that nation, consisting of 
about eighty men, came down to the neighborhood of this 
house, met six of our voyagers a few miles from it, who 
were employed in collecting the furs and peltries traded 
from the Sioux Indians at different points in the vicinity 
of the house, stripped them naked in the prairie, robbed 
them of their clothes, stole two or three horses or mules, 
beat each of the men severely, and left them naked in 
the prairie. The same party came that night and fired 
on the house, stole another horse, and went off. 

A day or two subsequent to these outrages, another 
party, amounting to about one hundred and fifteen men, 
came, in daylight, and attacked this house. Mr. McDonald, 
one of my partners, his clerks, and eight or ten voyagers, 
defended themselves and the house, which contained a 
large amount of property. In this affair, the Arickaras 
lost two men killed, and probably three or four wounded. 

Ques. 8. Are the Arickara Indians a stationary or 
wandering tribe? 


Ans. It will be seen, from my answer to preceding 
questions, that they are stationary. 

Ques. 9. Do you know, or have you heard, that any 
American citizens have hunted or trapped on the grounds 
belonging to the Arickaras? Do you know of a letter 
written by an Indian agent at St. Louis, and printed in 
the Atlantic papers, attributing their hostility to this 
cause ? 

Ans. No party of American citizens, authorized to 
pass through the Indian country, have ever been in the 
habit of trapping on the Arickara grounds, to my knowl- 
edge. The country affords but very little fur; nor do I 
know of any hunting in the Arickara country, other than 
what is necessary for the subsistence of persons passing 

The letter referred to by the committee, purporting to 
have been written by an Indian agent at St. Louis, at- 
tributing the attack upon General Ashley to this cause, 
accidentally fell into my hands a day or two before I 
left St. Louis, in December last. It was published in some 
one of the Atlantic papers. I have no knowledge of the 
author of said letter. I am personally acquainted with 
the different Indian agents and officers of the Indian De- 
partment on that station, and feel satisfied that it is not 
the production of either of them. Major O'Fallon, with 
whom I conversed about it, was indignant at its contents, 
and concurred with me in the opinion that it was a fabri- 
cation. Major Graham, whom I have seen at this place, 
is ignorant of the writer of this letter; and he and Major 
O'Fallon are the only agents on the Missouri river. 

Ques. 10. Do you know of any cause which led to 
the attack upon General Ashley's party? 

Ans. I do not positively know the cause of attack 
upon Genera^ Ashley. I think the remote causes may 
very readily be traced to their uniform hostility to Amer- 
icans, and disposition to commit all sorts of depredations; 
but, from my views and knowledge of the Indian character, 
I think it highly probable that the immediate cause or- 
ginated in a spirit of revenge for the loss sustained in the 
attack upon our house. Indians are not governed by the 
principles of right and wrong in such cases, or in the habit 
of inquiring where the fault lies. When the blood of an 
Indian is split, his relations are apt to revenge it the first 
opportunity. But, as so many contradictory statements 


have been made in relation to the commencement of this 
war, I hope the honorable committee will not think it amiss 
in me to remark, that an investigation upon that particular 
point would be met with some satisfaction. 

Ques. 11. Have you any reason to believe that the 
Hudson's Bay Company excited the Indians to that attack? 

Ans. I have no reason to believe that the Hudson's 
Bay Company excited the Arickaras to that attack. On 
the Contrary, I am convinced they did not. The influence 
of that company does not extend as low as the Arickaras: 
nor do I believe they have any intercourse with them at 
present. The Arickaras make nothing, to induce a wish 
on the part of that company to acquire influence amonsrst 

Ques. 12. Do you know, or have you heard, of anv 
hostilities between the Assinaboin Indians and citizens of 
the United States? 

Ans. The only late hostilities, of which I have any 
knowledge, on the part of the Assinaboins towards Amer- 
ican citizens, are the following: They committed a robbery 
upon Major Henry, in the month of August, 1822, a little 
above the Mandan villages. He was ascending the Missouri 
at the head of an expedition, fitted out by Messrs. Ashley 
and Henry, for the purDOse of trapping heaver. Major Henry 
was on board his boat, and had a party of men going by 
land, with some forty or fifty horses. They met a large 
party of those Indians, who, by their address, got posses- 
sion of the horses, and rode them off. Another party of 
those Indians came to our fort at the Mandan villages, 
in the month of January last, and, I think I understood 
from Mr. Vanderburgh, fired on the fort: after which, they 
stole one or two mules, and retired. This was done in 
the night. 

Ques. 13. Are the Assinaboins stationary or wander- 

Ans. The Assinaboins are a wandering tribe; and. 
I believe, are a band of the Sioux Indians. They speak 
the same language; and, from the vast region through 
which they range, must be very numerous. The principal 
hunting grounds and country most frequented by such 
of those Indians as I have any correct knowledge of lies 
on the Assinaboin river, and left of the Missouri, above 
the Mandans, on the different streams coming in from the 


north, as high as Milk river ; and I beheve they range as far 
as Maria's river. They are frequently found on the Mis- 
souri, between the Mandans and Yellow Stone river; and 
I believe their principal trade is carried on at those British 
establishments on the Assinaboin river, about one hundred 
and seventy miles from the Mandans. American citizens 
have had no friendly intercourse with them in that section 
of the country, to my knowledge. 

Ques. 14. Where is the richest fur region beyond the 
Mississippi ? 

Ans. The richest fur region, of which I have any 
knowledge, is that through which the Blackfoot Indians 

Ques. 15. Can the fur trade of this region be secured 
to citizens of the United States without the aid of a mili- 
tary post at or beyond the Mandan villages? 

Ans. The fur trade of that country, and the country 
lying north of the Missouri river, below, as far as the 
Mandans, cannot be secured to American citizens until the 
causes which now and have ever prevented them from par- 
ticipating in it are removed; unless they are protected in 
extending their business into these remote regions, until 
such time as they acquire an influence sufficient to coun- 
teract that of British trading companies. The committee 
will observe, that those companies have no intercourse or 
influence with any of the tribes heretofore mentioned, with 
the exception of those which range through the country 
in question. If all trade and intercourse between those 
tribes and British traders can be cut off, and the Amer- 
ican trade introduced, it would very soon protect itself. 
Most Indians, who have long been accustomed to inter- 
course with whites, become dependent on them for the 
supply of particular articles, without which they cannot 
well live, once having acquired a knowledge of their use. 
It is not my opinion that the Mandans are sufficiently 
near the Rocky Mountains to make it a point for protect- 
ing the trade on the upper waters of the Missouri river. 
The falls of Missouri, or Maria's, or the Yellow Stone river, 
would each be preferable to it; particularly either of the 
former points, and in the order in which they are named. 
A large post is now not necessary at the Council Bluffs. 
A small garrison there, one at or near the Big Bend, 
one at the Mandans, and the principal one at or beyond 
the Yellowstone, are, in my opinion, so indispensably nee- 


essary for the preservation of the fur trade on the Upper 
Missouri, that, without them, the most valuable part of 
that trade may be considered as lost to American citi- 
zens, and surrendered to the British. 

Ques. 16. Can corn for the supply of a post be raised 
or purchased from the Indians at or beyond the Mandan 
villages ? 

Ans. The Mandans and Minatares raise considerable 
quantities of corn, and frequently supply traders and 
wandering tribes of Indians who visit them. In the fall 
season, a good deal may be purchased from them; but 
still I think it would be a precarious dependence for the 
supply of a post. The article, however, can as well be 
raised by whites as Indians. From the same soil, and 
with sufficient inducements, the Indians would doubtless 
raise much more than they now do. 

Ques. 17. Is there a trade carried on between Mis- 
souri and New Mexico? and what articles are carried 
out, and brought back in return? 

Ans. I know there is a trade carried on between the 
citizens of Missouri and New Mexico, but I am not suf- 
ficiently informed upon the subject to enable me fully to 
answer the question. I believe, however, the only articles 
brought back, in return for those taken out, are mules, 
specie, and furs. 

Ques. 18. Is it subject to be interrupted by Indians 
on the Arkansas? 

Ans. I have understood that some of those trad- 
ing parties have been interfered with by Indians on the 
Arkansas, and several robberies committed, and some 

Ques. 19. Would a military post, some distance higher 
up the Arkansas than Fort Smith, contribute to protect the 
citizens engaged in that trade? 

Ans. I am not sufficiently acquainted with that 
country to justify me in giving information respecting 
the effect of a military post above Fort Smith, on the 
Arkansas; but think it obviously true that such a post 
would be a great protection to the trade between Missouri 
and Mexico. 

Ques. 20. What is the temper of the tribes who have 


no intercourse with British traders towards the citizens 
of the United States? 

Ans. The disposition of such of the Indian tribes on 
the Missouri as are personally kn6wn to me, which have 
no intercourse with British traders, (excepting the Aric- 
karas) has generally been friendly, since I acquired a 
knowledge of them. But where there are so many dif- 
ferent tribes and bands of Indians, it is almost impossible 
to keep them all at peace with each other. Parties of war 
are continually roving through all sections of the coun- 
try, and, while on these excursions, have frequently com- 
mitted some slight depredations, which come within my 
knowledge; but such things do not originate in a general 
spirit of hostility on the part of their nation. Amongst 
those who are ignorant of the character of whites, having 
but little intercourse with them, such depredations are 
more frequent, because there is a greater spirit of hos- 
tility existing amongst those remote tribes towards each 
other, than those who have long had intercourse with the 
whites, and such parties are more numerous. 

Ques. 21. What is the temper of the tribes which 
have an intercourse with British traders towards Amer- 
ican citizens? 

Ans. It will be seen, from my answer to preceding 
questions, that the disposition of such tribes of Indians 
as have intercourse with British traders, particularly the 
Blackfeet, has been uniformly hostile towards American 
citizens, in so much that they have had no intercourse 
with any of those tribes, with the exception of the Man- 
dans and Minatares. It has not been long since British 
traders had intercourse with these tribes; but they have 
been so reduced by war and pestilence, the quantity of 
hirs obtained from them at present is so small, and the 
American trade having been introduced amongst them, 
that there has been no intercourse, to my knowledge, for 
the last two or three years. 

Ques. 22. How near do the British trading establish- 
ments approach the territory of the United States? 

Ans. The establishments of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany now stretch entirely across the continent, bordering 
upon the American territory, and at some places, perhaps, 
are within it. If the country beyond the Rocky Mountains, 
in the latitude of the Columbia, belongs to the United 
States, they have four establishments on American terri- 


tory; one at the mouth of that river, one near its junction 
with Lewis' river, one near the mountains convenient to 
the Flathead Indians, and one other higher up. Fort de 
Prairie is a very celebrated establishment, and I think 
it is situated high up on the Assinaboin river. This river 
is lined with establishments; one very large at the mouth 
of Moose river, one hundred and seventy miles from the 
Mandan villages; another on the river Capel, a southern 
branch of the Assinaboin: both of which must be either 
within the American boundary, or near to it. The Saska- 
tche-wine river, which runs parallel to the Missouri, and 
but a short distance from it, rising in the same chain of 
mountains, and flowing into Lake Winnipeg, is also lined 
with British establishments; and, from Indian informa- 
tion, I have reason to believe that they have an estab- 
lishment on Maria's river, a branch of the Missouri. It 
is from these establishments, on the Assinaboin and Saska- 
tche-wine rivers, that the Blackfeet and Assinaboins, both 
numerous and powerful nations, get their supplies of mer- 
chandise, arms, and ammunition, and come across to at- 
tack the American traders on the upper waters of the 
Missouri; and the furs robbed from American citizens 
are doubtless carried to these establishments to trade. 

Ques. 23. Is it to the benefit, or injury, of fur trad- 
ers, to have hostilities with the Indians? 

Ans. So far from being to the benefit of persons 
engaged in the fur trade to have hostilities with the In- 
dians, the very existence of such a trade depends on their 
pacific disposition; and both the interest and safety of 
persons engaged in that business require that they should 
not only preserve a friendly understanding with the In- 
dians themselves, but, so far as possible, keep the dif- 
ferent Indian tribes at peace with each other, in order 
that their property and men may not be exposed to 
roving war parties, who, particularly amongst those re- 
mote wandering tribes, are always disposed to mischief 
when on such excursions. 

Ques. 24. Has the abolition of the factory system 
been the cause of any Indian hostilities beyond the Mis- 
sissippi ? 

Ans. I know of no hostilities on the part of the In- 
dians originating in the abolition of the factory system. 
I know but little of the operation of influence of these 
establishments, having been removed far beyond them. 


It is hardly probable that the abolition of this system 
excited the Arickaras and blackfoot Indians to hostilities, 
neither of those tribes ever having heard of a factory or a 
factor, removed, as they were, from twelve hundred to 
three thousand miles from the range of their operations. 

Ques. 25. What is your opinion of the good or bad 
effects of hunting or trapping on Indian lands by Ameri- 
can citizens? 

Ans. The tribes in the neighborhood of the Council 
Bluffs have complained of it, and are greatly opposed to 
it. The Crow Indians have never objected to it, although 
they have seen it with their own eyes, by parties in the 
employment of the Missouri Fur Company for two years. 
These parties have carried it on during all that time, 
without the least interruption of friendly intercourse, 
probably because they also traded with the Indians for 
all they could take. But I consider the case of the Crows 
an exception, and that the practice must lead to bad con- 
sequences. But no Indians, that I have heard of, ever 
objected to traders, travellers, or others, killing what was 
necessary for their subsistence. That comes under the 
notion of hospitality. The trapping done by the men of 
our company was in conformity with the practice, and 
not under any license; the one which we receive from the 
Government is to trade. 

Ques. 26. Have any other companies, besides Gen- 
eral Ashley's and the Missouri Fur Company, hunted or 
trapped in the Indian country? 

Ans. Messrs. Berthold, Chouteau, and Pratte, of St. 
Louis, who have been largely engaged in the Indian trade, 
and the principal competitors of the Missouri Fur Company 
in that business, have also been, and are still, largely en- 
gaged in the trapping business. 

The numerous inquiries of the committee being 
answered, I must beg to be indulged in a few observations 
relative to the system of trade and intercourse with the 
Indians; which are most respectfully submitted to the 
consideration of the committee. 

It is now, and has long been my opinion, that the 
present system of trade and intercourse with the Indians, 
so far as it applies to the Missouri river, is defective in 
several particulars. I believe that certain points should be 
fixed for trading establishments, and that every person 


engaged in that business should be strictly prohibited 
from carrying on any trade out of those trading-houses, 
either in a direct or indirect manner, or accompanying 
Indians on their hunting excursions for any purpose what- 
soever; and that no white man or half-breed, who has 
been raised amongst whites, and is considered a citizen, 
and who is not authorized by license or otherwise, or in 
the employ of some licensed person, should be permitted 
to live in the Indian country, or among the Indians, under 
any manner of excuse or pretence whatsoever; that the 
points for the trading establishments ' should be selected 
by the Indian agent or agents, or the person exercising 
their duties; and that it should be the duty of said agents 
frequently to visit each and ever of such establishments 
in their agency, provided they can be furnished with a 
competent escort to make themselves respected as the 
representatives of their Government, particularly when 
visiting such tribes within their agency as are far removed 
from civilization. 

It would not be proper in me to trouble the committee 
with any reasoning upon this subject. Suffice it to sav, 
that these were my original views upon the subject, and 
that every day's experience has impressed me more fully 
with their correctness, and convinced me that such a 
system, while it contributed must to the benefit of the 
Indians in a pecuniary way, would have a tendency to 
impress them with something like a regular system of 
business; teach them the true character of the whites. 
and impress them with a degree of respect for American 
citizens, which the present mode of roving about is not 
calculated to do; and, at the same time, would contribute 
greatly to the safety and convenience of those engaged in 
the business, without depriving either of any single benefit 
derived from the present system. 

I would further beg to be indulged in making a few 
statements, to impress the committee with an idea of the 
value of the Indian trade to the United States. The re- 
turns of licenses show that upwards of $600,000 was em- 
barked last year in the trade; and, if extended into the 
Rocky Mountains, I should suppose that it would employ 
a capital of three times the amount now employed in thnt 
trade, for an indefinite term of years to come. Almost 
the whole of the articles necessary for this trade can be 
made in the United States. They consist of hardware, 
comprehending light guns, knives, hatchets, axes, hoes, 


lances, battle-axes, and beaver traps; cottons, compre- 
hending checks, stripes, coarse calicoes, handkerchiefs, 
&c. ; woolens, comprehending coarse cloths, blankets, and 
flannels; to which may be added, tobacco, powder, lead, 
and many other articles of smaller value. The company 
of which I am a member has always kept several black- 
smiths' shops in operation on the Missouri, for the manu- 
facture of some of the above-mentioned articles; and, at 
the time of the commencement of the late hostilities, 
had one at the Mandans, one at the Big Bend of the Mis- 
souri, and two forges in the neighborhood of the Council 
Bluffs. The woolen and cotton goods, particularly, can 
be made by American manufacturers of a quality equally 
as well suited to the Indian trade as British goods, with 
which the Indians are at present supplied. 

With much respect, I am your obedient servant, 



1832-'33, -'34, -'35, -'36 

By Gouverneur K. Warren* 

The narraitve I have perused is entitled "The Rocky Moun- 
tains; or, Scenes, Incidents, and Adventures in the Far West; 
digested from the Journal of Captain B. L. E. Bonneville, of the 
army of the United States, and illustrated from various other sources. 
By Washington Irving. In two volumes. Philadelphia: 
Carey, Lea & Blanchard. — 1837." This is accompanied by 
two maps : one on a scale of twenty-three miles to an inch, 
showing the sources of the Missouri, Yellowstone, Platte, 
Green, Bear, Snake, and Salmon rivers, and a portion of 
Lake Bonneville, (Great Salt Lake;) the other, on a scale 
of fifty miles to an inch, giving the country from the 
Rocky mountains to the Pacific, between the parallels of 
38° and 49° north latitude. 

Captain Bonneville's explorations were made in pros- 

*First Lieutenant, Corps of Topographical Eng:ineers, U. S. A. 
From his Memoirs giving a brief account of the exploring expedi- 
tions, from 1800 to 1857. 33d Cong. 2d sess. H. R. Ex. Doc. No. 
91, p. 31. [Serial 801]. 


ecution oof the fur trade, which was his principal object, 
and very great accuracy in the map is not, therefore, to 
be expected. His letter of instructions, from Major Gen- 
eral Macomb, dated Washington, August 3, 1831, contains 
the following directions: "The leave of absence which vou 
have asked, for the purpose of enabling you to carry into 
execution your design of exploring the country to the 
Rocky mountains and beyond, * * * * has been duly con- 
sidered and submitted to the War Department for ap- 
proval, and has been sanctioned. You are, therefore, 
authorized to be absent from the army till October. 1833. 
It is understood that the government is to be at no ex- 
pense in reference to your proposed expedition, it having 
originated with yourself. * * * * You will, naturallv, in 
preparing yourself for the expedition, provide suitable in- 

On the 1st of Mav, 1832, Captain Bonneville, with a 
train of wagons, took his departure from Fort Osa2:e. and 
proceeded up the Missouri to the mouth of the Kansas. 
Crossing this stream, he followed very nearly the present 
travelled road to the Platte, thence along this river to 
the forks, and up the South Fork for two days. Here 
ferrying his party over, he struck across the North Fork. 
followed it to the Sweetwater, and thence up that stream 
to its source in the South Pass. From this point he pro- 
ceeded northwesterly to Green river, where he established 
his grand depot, near the mouth of Horse creek, and 
abandoned his wagons.* Having oi^ganized several hunt- 
ing parties, he proceeded towards the northwest alons: 
the upper sources of Green and Snake rivers, unti^ he 
reached Salmon river. The winter was passed on the 
upper portion of this stream and in travelling over the 
Great Lava plain or Shoshonee valley between it and the 
Snake river. In the spring a grand rendezvous was held 
at the caches, in the Green River valley. Having made 
his arrangements for the year, he visited the Great Salt 
lake, and saw its northern portions. "To have this lake 
properly explored and all its secrets revealed was the 
grand scheme of the captain for the present year. * * * * 
This momentous undertaking: he confided to Mr. Walker, 
in whose experience and ability he had great confidence." 

*There were at this time two rival companies trading in this 
region — the American Fur Company and the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company — both having their principal rendezrv'cus at "Pierre's 
Hole," in the valley of Pierre's river, an affluent of Snake or 
Lewis' river. 


"He instructed him to keep along the shores of the lake, 
and trap in all the streams on his route. He was also 
to keep a journal and minutely to record the events of 
his journey and everything curious or interesting, and 
make maps or charts of his route and of the surrounding 
country." No pains nor expense were spared in fitting 
out this party, which was composed of forty men, they had 
complete supplies for a year, and were to meet Captain 
Bonneville in the ensuing summer in the valley of Bear 
river, the largest tributary of Salt Lake. 

This party endeavored to proceed south over the 
great barren salt plain lying to the west of the lake, but 
their sufferings became so great, and the danger of perish- 
ing so imminent that they abandoned the proposed route, 
and struck to the northwest for some snowy mountains 
in the distance. Thus they came upon Ogden's (Hum- 
boldt) river, and followed down it to the "sinks," or place 
where it loses itself in the sand. Continuing on, they 
crossed the Sierra Nevada, in which they were entangled 
for 23 days, suffering very much from hunger, and finally 
reached the waters of the Sacramento; thence turning 
south they stopped at the Mission of Monterey. After 
a considerable sojourn the party started to return. In- 
stead of retracing their steps through the Sierra Nevada, 
they passed round its southern extremity, and crossing 
a range of low hills found themselves in the sandy plains 
south of Ogden's river, where they again suffered griev- 
iously from want of water. On this journey they encount- 
ered some Mexicans, two of whom accompanied them to 
the rendezvous appointed by Captain Bonneville. The re- 
turn route of this party probably was nearly that taken 
by Captain Fremont in 1842, and known as the Santa Fe 
trail to California. They thus travelled quite around the 
Great Basin system. 

While this expedition was in progress. Captain Bonne- 
ville made an excursion to the headwaters of the Yellow- 
stone. Leaving Green river he moved east to the sources 
of the Sweetwater, so as to turn the Wind River moun- 
tains at their southeast extremity; thence, striking the 
head of the Popo Agie, he passed down it to Wind river, 
which he followed through the gap of the Little Horn 
mountains, and through the Big Horn range. Below these 
mountains the river becomes navigable for canoes, and 
takes the name of the Big Horn river. From this point 
he returned to Wind river and attempted to cross the 


Wind River mountains direct to his caches on Green river. 
In this he was foiled by the chasms and precipices and 
compelled to take his former route around their south- 
eastern extremity. From the depot he went up to the 
sources of Green river, crossed the mountains between its 
source and that of Wind river, and again returned to 
Green river by the Sweetwater. He then passed over the 
mountains to the Bear River valley, and thence to the 
Port Neuf river, where he established his winter quarters. 

During the winter he started to visit the Columbia, 
passing down the Snake River valley, through the Grand 
Ronde and over the Blue mountains, to Walla-Walla. He 
returned to Bear river in the succeeding June. On the 
3d of July, 1834, he made a second visit to the Columbia, 
and returned to spend the winter on Bear river. In 1835 
he returned home* by way of the Platte river. 

Captain Bonneville's maps, which accompany the 
edition of Irving's work, published by Carey, Lea & Blan- 
chard, in 1837, (the later editions generally do not give 
the original maps,) are the first to correctly represent the 
hydrography of this region west of the Rocky mountains. 
Although the geographical positions are not accurate, yet 
the existence of the great interior basins, with outlets 
to the ocean, of Great Sale lake, of Mary's or Ogden's 
river, (named afterwards Humboldt by Captain Fremont,) 
of the Mud lakes, and of Sevier river and lake, urns deter- 
mined by Captain Bonneville's maps, and they proved the 
non-existence of the Rio Buenaventura and of other hy- 
pothetical rivers. They reduced the Wallamuth or Mul- 
tonomah (Willamette) river to its proper length, and 
fixed approximately its source, and determined the gen- 
eral extent and direction of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin rivers. The map of the sources of the Yellowstone 
is still the best original one of that region. 

As there is no name on the published map to show by 
whom it was constructed, I wrote to Colonel Bonneville 
in relation thereof, enclosing him a copy of the map. I 
make the following extracts from his reply: 

*Captain Bonneville's long-continued absence after the expira- 
tion of his leave, during which time no news was received from him 
at the War Department, led to his name being dropped from the 
Army Register. He was, however, restored, and now holds the 
commission of colonel of the third infantry. 


"GILA RIVER, N. M., August 24, 1857. 

"DEAR SIR: I thank you for your desire to do me 
justice as regards my map and explorations in the Rocky 
mountains. I started for the mountains in 1832. * * * i 
left the mountains in July, 1836, and reached Fort Leaven- 
worth, Missouri, the 6th of August following. During all 
this time I kept good account of the course and distances, 
with occasional observations with my quadrant and Dol- 
land's reflecting telescope. * * * * j plotted my work, 
found it proved, and made it into three parts : one a map of 
the waters running east to the Missouri State line; a 
second of the mountain region itself; and a third, which 
appears to be the one you have sent me, of the waters 
running west. On the map you send I recognize my names 
of rivers, of Indian tribes, observations, Mary's or Maria's 
river, running southwest, ending in a long chain of flat 
lakes, never before on any map, and the record of the 
battle between my party and the Indians, when twenty- 
five were killed. This party clambered over the California 
range, were lost in it for twenty days, and entered the 
open locality to the west, not far from Monterey, where 
they wintered. In the spring they went south from Mon- 
terey, and turned the southern point of the California 
range to enter the Great Western Basin. On all the maps 
of those days the Great Salt lake had two great outlets 
to the Pacific Ocean: one of these was the Buenaventura 
river, which was supposed to head there; the name of the 
other I do not recollect. It was from my explorations 
and those of my party alone that it was ascertained that 
this lake had no outlet; that the California range basined 
all the waters of its eastern slope without further outlet; 
that the Buenaventura and all other California streams 
drained only the western slope. It was for this reason 
that Mr. W. Irving named the salt lake after me, and he 
believed I was fairly entitled to it. The Great Lava plain 
was never known as such; until my report drew attention 
to its character, it was even confidently asserted that there 
was no prismatic basalt columns in that region. I saw it 
perfectly formed once only, and this on Snake river, below 
Gun creek. The Three Buttes have often been my camping 
ground. I wintered once on Salmon river, by my observa- 
tion 45° 50' 24" north latitude. It was from my observa- 
tions and plotting that the headwaters of Snake river, of 
the Columbia, Muscle Shell, and Yellowstone; headwaters 
of the Missouri and Sweetwater, of the Platte, and those 
of the Colorado of the West, were brought together in one 


view, as reported in my journal; before this these heads 
of rivers were scattered far and wide. I gave Mr. Wash- 
ington Irving the three maps I mention; and as the pub- 
lication was by Carey, Lea & Blanchard, the originals 
may, perhaps, be found with them. The earliest editions 
have maps of my making. The one you refer to me I have 
no doubt is one of the three maps I made. 

"Yours, &c., 

"B. L. E. Bonneville, 

"Colonel 3d Infantry. 

"Lieut. G. K. Warren, Topographical Engineers." 

A reduced copy of the map of the Great Basin and 
sources of the YeFowstone are given with this memoir. 
Application was made to Mr. Irving and to the publishers 
of the work to obtain, if possible, the original maps, but 
they could not be found, as so considerable a period had 
elapsed that they had been lost or mislaid. 

Colonel Benton, in his "Thirty Years' View," page 
580, says of Fremont's second expedition: "He was at 
Fort Vancouver, guest of the hospitable Dr. McLaughlin, 
governor of the British Hudson Bay Fur Company, and 
obtained from him all possible information upon his in- 
tended line of return, faithfully given, but which proved 
to be disastrously erroneous in its leading and governing 
feature." * * * * '^A\\ maps up to that time had shown 
this region traversed from east to west, from the base 
of the Rocky mountains to the bay of San Francisco, 
by a great river called the Buenaventura, which may be 
translated the good chance. Fremont believed in it, and his 
plan was to reach it before the dead of winter, and then 
hibernate upon it." 

It is evident that Colonel Benton had never seen 
Captain Bonneville's map, or he would not have written 
this paragraph. 


The exploration of the Great Salt lake was a favorite 
object with Captain Bonneville; though called Lake Bonne- 
ville by Mr. Irving, its existence was well known to the 
traders and trappers on his arrival in that country, as 
was also that of the Ogden's or Mary's river. A short 


account of the first discoveries in this region may not be 
inappropriate in this place. 

In Captain Stansbury's report, page 151, he says: 
"The existence of a large lake of salt water, somewhere 
amid the wilds west of the Rocky mountains, seems to 
have been known, vaguely, as long as 150 years since. As 
early as 1689 the Baron la Hontan * * * wrote an ac- 
count of discoveries in this region, which was published 
in the English language in 1735." This narrative of La 
Hontan of his journey up "La Riviere Longue," flowing 
into the Mississippi from the west, has for more than a 
century been considered fabulous. It is spoken of even 
by Captain Stansbury as an "imaginative voyage up this 
most imaginary river," up which La Hontan claims to 
have sailed for six weeks without reaching the source. 
During this voyage he learned from four Mozeemlek slaves 
belonging to the Indians living on the river "that, at the 
distance of one hundred and fifty leagues from the place 
he then was, their principal river empties itself into a 
salt lake of 300 leagues in circumference, the mouth of 
which is two leagues broad; that the lower part of that 
river is adorned with six noble cities, surrounded with 
stone cemented with fat earth; that the houses of these 
cities have no roofs, but are open above, like a platform, 
as you see them drawn on the map; that, besides the 
above-mentioned cities, there are above a hundred towns, 
great and small, round that sort of sea, upon which they 
navigate with such boats as you see drawn on the map," 

Now, this description does not, in any particular, 
correspond with the Great Salt lake; and, if it was told 
by the savages to the Baron, might, with as much if not 
far greater propriety, be considered as referring to the 
Pacific ocean, with the Columbia flowing into it. 

The story of La Hontan excited much speculation 
and received various additions in his day; and the lake 
finally became represented on the published English maps 
of as late date as 1826 (see Plate III) as being the source 
of two great navigable rivers flowing into the South Sea. 
Here it was that historians supposed the Aztecs were 
located before their migration to Mexico. 

Father Escalante, in 1776, travelled from near Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, in a northwesterly direction, to the Great 
Colorado. After crossing it and passing to the southwest 


through the country near its western bank, he turned 
again to the southeast, recrossed the stream, and pro- 
ceeded to the Gila, during his journey he probably was in 
the vicinity of Utah lake. He there met with Indians who 
told him of a lake to the north whose waters produced a 
burning sensation when they touched the skin.* This 
lake was perhaps the Great Salt lake; and its property 
of making a burning sensation when applied to the skin 
was probably the effect of the strong solution of salt 
which it contains. This lake was not visited by Father 
Escalante; and that which he represents on his map, and 
which is copied on Humboldt's New Spain as Lake Tim- 
panogos, was probably what is now called Lake Utah, 
into which a stream flows called by the Indians Tim- 
panogos river. 

Being convinced that, down to the days of the Amer- 
ican trappers, the Great Salt lake had never been seen 
by white men, nor definite knowledge about it obtained, 
I addressed a letter to Robert Campbell, esq., of St. Louis, 
a gentlemen well known for his acquaintance with the 
early Rocky mountain fur trade. The following is his 

"St. Louis, April 4, 1857. 

"DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 25th ultimo reached 
me at a very fortunate period to enable me to give you 
a satisfactory reply to your inquiry as to who was the 
first discoverer of the Great Salt lake. It happened that 
James Bridger and Samuel Tullock both met at my count- 
ing-room after a separation of eighteen years, and were 
bringing up reminiscences of the past when your letter 
reached me. I read it to them, and elicited the following 
facts : 

"A party of beaver trappers who had ascended the 
Missouri with Henry and Ashley found themselves in 
pursuit of their occupation on Bear river, in Cache (or 
Willow) valley, where they wintered in the winter of 1824 
and 1825; and in descending the course which Bear river 
ran, a bet was made between two of the party, and James 
Bridger was selected to follow the course of the river 
and determine the bet. This took him to where the river 
passes through the mountains, and there he discovered 

*I have, by the assistance of Mr. Moreno, of the Spanish lega- 
tion, examined a manuscript narrative of his journey of Escalante, 
now in Colonel Force's library. 


the Great Salt lake. He went to its margin and tasted 
the water, and on his return reported his discovery. The 
fact of the water being salt induced the belief that it 
was an arm of the Pacific ocean; but, in the spring of 
1826, four men went in skin boats around it to discover 
if any streams containing beaver were to be found empty- 
ing into it, but returned with indifferent success. 

"I went to the Willow or Cache valley in the spring 
of 1826, and found the party just returned from their ex- 
ploration of the lake, and recollect their report that it 
was without any outlet. 

"Mr. Tullock corroborates . in every respect the state- 
ment of James Bridger, and both are men of the strictest 
integrity and truthfulness. I have known both since 1826. 
James Bridger was the first discoverer of Great Salt Lake. 

"I am happy in being able to give you the informa- 
tion and of the character that you wished for. 

"Your obedient servant, 


"Lieut. G. K. Warren, 

"Topographical Engineers, Washington City. 

"P. S. — A party of the Hudson Bay Company trap- 
pers came to the same place in the summer of 1825, and 
met the party that had discovered the Salt lake that 

"R. C." 

The party of trappers from the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, referred to in the postscript to Mr. Campbell's let- 
ter, was under the enterprising leader, Mr. Peter Ogden, 
who discovered the Ogden's or Mary's river in 1825. One 
of Mr. Ogden's party took a woman for his wife from 
among the Indians found on this river, to whom the name 
of Mary was given. From this circumstance the stream 
came to be called Mary's river. It is also called Ogden's 
river, after its discoverer. 

A portion of the Great Basin system was visited by 
Father Font as early as 1777, near the Mojave river, 
(which he called Rio del los Mortires.) He followed its 
course to the place where it sinks, and then travelled east, 
crossing the Colorado at the Mojave valleys, and kept 
on as far as the Moquis villages. A copy of his map was 
procured in California by Captain Ord, U. S. A., and is 
now on file in the Topographical Bureau. 



The death this week of the eldest member of the 
Loretto Heights college community, Sister M. Aurelia, 
brings to light an historic document, before unpublished, 
that recounts the early days of Wyoming settlers on the 
Sweetwater river. The document forms the recollections 
of Amanda Z. Archambault, the mother of the deceased 
Lorettine, and was prepared and signed by her in 1907. 
It now is in the possession of Leon Archambault, grand- 
son of the writer and a nephew of Sister Aurelia. 

On the day of Sister Aurellia's death, Mr. Archam- 
bault took the manuscript to Loretto Heights college. In 
discussing its contents with the sisters, he recalled that 
his grandmother had often told him of pioneer days in 
Wyoming and also that Sister Aurelia had frequently told 
her nephew how, when she was a little girl at the trading 
post, traders would often fill her apron with gold nuggets 
— so many that the cloth would finally break. 

The following account contains excerpts from this 
authentic and historic document. The children referred 
to in the article are Sadie Archambault, the recently de- 
ceased Sister Aurelia, and her two oldest brothers, Ed- 
ward and Charles. A third brother, Leon, father of the 
surviving nephews and niece, was born in Nebraska City, 
Nebr., and a sister and brother, Blanche and Alfred, were 
born in Florissant, Mo., to which village the family fin- 
ally returned. 

Alfred A. Archambault (a French Canadian, but a 
naturalized citizen of the United States) established a 
trading post in Wyoming on the Sweetwater river in 1853, 
one mile from Independent rock, where he erected build- 
ings consisting of a residence for his family, a store (a 
general Indian trading post), a house for the Indians 
in which to trade, and a house for his employes, i.e., the 
cattle herders, etc. He also built a bridge over the Sweet- 
water river, which cost him several thousand dollars. 

Instead of having to ford the river, all the emigrant 
trains, etc., going and coming to California and the West 
passed over on this bridge, to their great satisfaction 
and for which privilege they willingly paid a toll of $3 
for each vehicle. 

After said Alfred A. Archambault conducted this 


trading post and met with great success for about three 
years, the Indian war broke out, but said party did not 
leave at once as the Indians were his friends, called him 
in their language "fair trader," and he felt no fear. Be- 
sides, he had recently returned from St. Louis with a 
wagon train of goods for his store, amounting to thou- 
sands of dollars, and he hoped . . . that the war would 
be of short duration and that he would weather the storm, 
as he claimed he required only one more year's business 
to be independently wealthy. 


But the war grew worse and the Sioux Indians from 
Powder river (about a mile distant) came over one night, 
shot his cattle with poisoned arrows, ran off 50 head of 
horses, and left an arrow at the door as a warning that 
the trader and his family must leave. About this time 
Capt. or Lt. Johnson came up from Fort Laramie, which 
was the nearest military post, and took an inventorv of 
the fort, etc., valuing the bridge at $3,000, and the store, 
contents, buildings, cattle, and stock at many thousand 
dollars. Alfred A. Archambault had the original paper 
of this inventory and the understanding was that the copy 
held by Capt. Johnson was to be placed on file in Wash- 

On Oct. 2, 1856, Alfred A. Archambault (after mak- 
ing caches and burying such goods as was possible, which 
were promptly dup up and carried away by the Indians 
who had watched the performance from mountain peaks) 
left his fort with his family and several wagons loaded 
with stocks for Nebraska City, Neb,, • where they did not 
arrive until 40 days later after enduring untold hardships 
and privations, which were experienced by his wife (a 
Philadelphia woman — a relative of Gen. Robert Schenck, 
former minister to England), their baby, and two little 
children. The travelers were nearly frozen to death, 
with snow everywhere. The stock gave out and wagons load- 
ed with goods had to be left on the prairie, and many nar- 
row escapes were made from the Indians. The party arrived 
in Nebraska City on Thanksgiving eve with but one wagon 
and seven head of horses. Before taking his wife to the 
Indian trading post, said Alfred A. Archambault had spent 
several years there, building up a fine trade with the 
Indians and laying the foundation for what promised to 
be a very large fortune. When the spring emigration 


opened, one morning before breakfast he collected $1,500 
in gold in tolls over the bridge. 

The following spring Alfred A. Archambault attempted 
to return to his trading post, but the Indian war continued 
and he was obliged to go back to Nebraska City, where 
he had left his family. On the breaking out of the Civil 
war, Alfred A. Archambault enlisted in Company A, Vet- 
eran Volunteers of Iowa, and was wounded in the Battle 
of Spanish Fort. He was honorably discharged and died 
on Aug. 15, 1879, in Oakland, Calif., leaving a wife and 
six children. 

Linvingston and Kinkaid (spelling not positive) had a 
large general store in Salt Lake City and passed the Fort 
in going and coming between St. Louis and Salt Lake 
City. They made their purchases in the former city. The 
only wagon road to California and the West was that by 
the fort. The railroad had not been built or hardly thought 
of at that period. 


In the year — I think it was 1855 — Mr. Kinkaid, while 
on his way to St. Louis, with the view of making pur- 
chases for his store (he had $11,000 in silver in his pos- 
session) , was attacked while a passenger on the Salt Lake 
City mail coach ("The Brigham Young") between said 
fort of Alfred A. Archambault and Fort Laramie, by the 
Sioux Indians. All the passengers were killed (the coach 
was burned) and Mr. Kinkaid was left for dead, having 
been shot by seven poisoned arrows. But after the In- 
dians left he regained consciousness, and crept over the 
prairie (being unable to walk) for several miles until he 
reached the cabin of "Old Drip," a half breed, who did 
what he could to relieve Kinkaid's sufferings. In the 
meanwhile a rescue party was sent out on hearing of the 
Indians' depredation, and Mr. Kinkaid was taken to Fort 
Laramie for treatment and later to St. Louis. 

A short time afterwards, a band of Indians came to 
the fort, desiring to make a trade for horses. The chief 
and "big men" of the tribe had strings of the American 
silver dollars (that had belonged to Mr. Kinkaid), through 
which they had made holes. One end of the string was 
attached to the headdress of feathers, etc., and the other 
swept the ground. Understanding from the reports that 
had been brought in from the "runners" and emigrants 


that this money had belonged to Mr. Kinkaid, Mrs. Arch- 
ambault felt so indignant as the Indians proudly strutted 
about dragging their strings of silver that she told her 
husband that she was going to tramp on the end and 
see if she could break it. But he cautioned her that it 
might result in the murdering of their family and the 
burning of the fort. 

Over a year later Mr. Kinkaid stopped again at the 
fort on his way to Salt Lake City, having a wagon train 
of merchandise. Mrs. Archambault could hardly recog- 
nize him because he was so changed from the severe ill- 
ness that resulted from the attack by the Indians. He 
had to have a silver tube in his throat to assist him in 
breathing — he had been shot through the front of his 
throat. He related in detail to Mr. and Mrs. Archambault 
the terrible ordeal through which he had gone when the 
coach was attacked by the Indians and his frightful suf- 
ferings caused by the poison from the arrows permeating 
his entire system." 

Among the guests at the fort was Major Oldman 
(I am not sure about the spelling but that is the way it 
sounds), the Indian agent, who came directly from Wash- 
ington, D. C. (when the trouble first began), and had 
his men with him. He had been among the Indians in 
the interest of the U. S. government and he strongly 
urged Mr. Archambault to leave for the States, as he ad- 
vised that "there is trouble ahead" — referring to the In- 
dians. As his carriage drove off, he called to Mrs. Arch- 
ambault, who was standing in the doorway: "Take care of 
the top of your head!" 

The first contention was brought about by the In- 
dians killing a cow belonging to some emigrants. After 
a complaint was made, 36 sildiers were sent from Fort 
Laramie (the nearest military post). As a bluff they 
attempted to fire over the Indians' lodge, but unfortun- 
ately their aim was too low and they shot dead the In- 
dian chief in his tent. The fury of the Indians knew no 
bounds and only one soldier escaped. The Indians then 
pulled off the boots of all the soldiers and put them in 
the cannon, which they threw into the Platte river. All 
the soldiers were buried in one grave, on the top of which 
sat the baby daughter of Alfred A. Archambault whilst 
the family was on its way to the United States. 

The Bannacks were the good Indians and did all 


they could to protect the fort of Alfred A. Archambault. 
When they ran across them, they brought in cattle or 
horses that had strayed or had been stolen. All stock 
had its owner's initial burned on it. The Bannacks also 
acted as "runners," keeping the family informed as to 
the maneuvers of the other Indians. 

Another tribe of Indians had all its arrows topped 
with gold when the braves would come to trade at the 
fort. They called Alfred A. Archambault something that 
sounded like "Tchupechee" (Fair Trader) and told him 
in their dialect (he spoke the Indian languages) that be- 
cause he was so just in his dealings with them, if he 
would come they would show him where they had a moun- 
tain of this gold, and he could have all he wanted. But 
his wife would not permit him to go. 

Sister Mary Aurelia Archambault, the oldest member 
of the Loretto Heights community, died in St. Joseph's 
hospital, Denver, Tuesday morning, March 2, 1943, after 
an illness of more than a month's duration. 

Sister Aurelia, who would have been 90 years old 
on her next birthday, was born, Aug. 2, 1853, near In- 
dependence Rock, Wyo., on the fur-trading post owned 
by her father, Alfred Archambault, a native of Montreal, 
Canada, but a naturalized citizen of the United States. 
Her mother was Amanda Zerviah Schellinger, daughter 
of a German immigrant family of Philadelphia. When the 
little girl, Sadie, was three years old the Archambault 
family was forced to leave his trading post because of 
the Indian wars. After spending some time in Nebraska 
City, Nebr., they went to Florissant, Mo., where they es- 
tablished their home. 

The famous old Loretto academy in Florissant was 
the convent in which Sister Aurelia was educated. In 
1870, at the age of 16, she entered the Sisters of Loretto, 
and was clothed in the religious vesture on the Feast of 
the Assumption in that year. After a long illness she 
passed away on Feb. 23, 1943. Interment is at Loretto 
Heights Cemetery, Denver, Colorado. 

Sister Aurelia is survived by one sister, Mrs. James 
Hartford, and two nephews, Leon and Pierre Archam- 
bault, all residents of Denver. 

PcUnied liif QeMx^e GcUlin 

By Marie H. Erwin 

We are including in this number of the ANNALS a brief history 
of the migration of the Cheyenne Indians and of how George Catlin 
happened to paint portraits of some of the members of the western- 
most tribe of the Algonkin family, who claimed and inhabited at 
that time the greater part of what later became Wyoming, as their 
hunting grounds. 

The Crows and Blackfeet tribes also inhabited a part of this 
country about the same time, and we plan to treat them in a similar 
manner in following issues. 

The two photographs with this article and those to be included 
in the ensuing issues of the ANNALS, are from the original paintings 
by George Catlin in the United States National Museum, Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

They are a gift to the Wyoming Historical Department from 
Mr. A. Wetmore, Assistant Secretary of the United States National 
Museum, Smithsonian Institution. 

The early history of the Cheyenne Indians, a plains 
tribe of the Algonkin family, is as vague as that of their 
neighboring tribes. The Algonkin family which included 
numerous related tribes were, as early as the seven- 
teenth century, "the largest family of North American 
Indians within the present limits of the United States"' 
and "were at this period at the height of their prosper- 
ity."2 The earliest authenticated habitat "of this widely 
extended group was somewhere between the St. Lawrence 
River and Hudson Bay,"^ before the year 1700. In the 
seventeenth century they inhabited the country between 
New Foundland and the Mississippi and from the Ohio 
to Hudson Bay and Lake Winnipeg.-* Before the year 
1700 their habitat was that part of Minnesota between 
the Mississippi, Minnesota and upper Red Rivers. ^ 

It seems to be an established fact that the course 

1. Jackson, William H. Miscellaneous Publication No. 9, United 
States Geological Survey of the Territories 1877, quoted in Annual 
Report, Board of Regents, Smithsonian Institution, 1885, pt. V, p. 91, 
which is The George Catlin Indian Gallery, by Thomas Donaldson. 

2. Brinton, Daniel G., The Lenape and their Legends, 1885, 
quoted in Annual Report, Board of Regents, Smithsonian Institution 
1885, pt. V, p. 89. 

3. Brinton, Daniel G., Races and Peoples, Philadelphia, David 
McKay, 1901, p. 253. 

4. Jackson, W. H., op. eit., p. 91. 

5. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. 30, p. 251. 


of migration of the Indians was westward and southward; 
this tradition is especially true of the great Algonkin 

In around 1700 the Cheyennes drifted from Minnesota 
toward the Missouri and roamed north and west of the 
Black Hills. ^ This tribe while living in that part of the 
country which later became the state of Minnesota, and 
along the Missouri River, had established villages, made 
pottery and were engaged in agriculture ; but they lost their 
arts upon being driven from their permanent villages and 
migrating to the plains, where necessity for existence made 
them a roving buffalo hunting people. "^ 

In 1804 they were found by those enterprising ex- 
plorers Lewis and Clarke, "west across the Missouri River. "^ 
in the Cheyenne River Valley and along the Black Hills. 
They then numbered about 1500. 

Major T. E. Long in his first expedition 1819-20, re- 
ported having seen a small band of Cheyennes who seemed 
to have been separated from their tribe on the Missouri, 
joined the Arapahoes, and were wandering about the 
"Platte and the Arkansas. "^ 

In 1825 a commission, including Brigadier General 
Henry Atkinson, of the United States Army and Major 
Benjamin O'Fallon, Indian agent, was appointed by Pres- 
ident John Quincy Adams, with full powers and authority 
to hold treaties of trade and friendship with the Indian 
tribes "beyond the Mississippi." '° 

On June 23, 1825, the commission and escort left 
Fort Lookout, and arrived at the mouth of the Teeton River 
on June 30th, where there was an establishment of the 
American Fur Company on the right bank of the river. 
The commission waited here for the Cheyennes to come 
in from the plains for several days, they finally arrived 
July 5th; a council was held July 6th, with the Cheyenne 

Note: Port Lookout was 40 miles below old Fort Pierre, now 
in South Dakota. 

6. Wissler, Clark, Curator Emeritus, The American Museum 
of Natural History. New York City, Letter to Author, July 13, 1943. 

7. American Bureau of Ethnoiogy, Bull. 30, p. 251. 

8. Jackson, W. H., op. cit., p. 91. 

9. Ibid., p. 91. 

10. American State papers, vol. VI, Indian Affairs, vol. 11, 
p. 605. 


Chiefs, Headmen and Warriors, '^ and the first'^ treaty 
between the United States Government and the Cheyennes 
was signed on that date. This Treaty was submitted by 
the President to the United States Senate for consider- 
ation January 9, 1826; was ratified February 6, 1826.13 

Those who signed this first Treaty between the United 
States Government and the Cheyenne Indians were. 

Commissioners : 

Henry Atkinson, Brig. Gen. United States Army. 
Benjamin O'Fallon, United States Agent Indian 

Cheyenne Chiefs: 

Sho-che-new-e-to-chaw-ca-we-wah-ca-to-we, or the 

wolf with the high back. 
We-ch-ga-pa, or the Httle moon. 
Ta-ton-ca-pa, or the buffalo head. 
J-a-pu, or the one who talks against the others. 

Warriors : 

Nine warriors.'^ 

On November 7, 1825, H. Atkinson and Benjamin 
O'Fallon reported to the Secretary of War, Hon. James 
Barbour, the following : 

The Chayennes are a tribe of Indians driven by 
the Sioux some years since from the Red river coun- 
try across the Missouri, and now inhabit the coun- 
try on the Chayenne river, from near its mouth back 
to the Black Hills. Their habits, pursuits, and means 
of subsistence, and manner of dress, are similar to 
those of the Sioux. Like them, they live in leather 
lodges, and rove at pleasure, according to the direc- 
tion in which buffalo are to be found; use the bow 
and quiver, but are very well armed with fuses, and 
have an abundance of horses and mules. They are 
very friendly to the whites, and at peace with the 
Ogallalas, Siounes (branches of the Sioux) and 
Arickaras. They are estimated at three thousand 
souls, of which from five hundred and fifty to six 
hundred are warriors. Their principal rendezvous is 
towards the Black Hills, and their trading ground 

11. Ibid. 

12. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. 30, p. 251. 

13. United States Statutes, 7 Stat. 255-256. 

14. Ibid. 7 Stat. 256. 


at the mouth of Cherry river, a branch of the Chay- 
enne, forty miles above its mouth. They have had 
but Httle intercourse, heretofore, with traders. Their 
articles of traffic are robes and some beaver. '^ 

From Lieutenant G. K. Warren's map of North America 
Including all the Recent Geographical Discoveries, i826}^ the 
Shiennes were west of the Missouri and between its 
branches, the SMenne and Sarwaccarno Rivers, as far west 
as the Tongue, a branch of the Yellow Stone River, and 
through the Black Hills. 

From George Catlhl's mar). Outline Map of Indian Loca- 
tions in 1833,'^'' we find the SMennes as far south as the North 
Platte, and more in that part of the country, which is to- 
day Wyoming, and east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Bent's Fort was built on the upper Arkansas, (Colo- 
rado) in 1832, where a large number of Chevennes de- 
cided to establish permanent headquarters, while the bal- 
ance remained along the waters of the North Platte, 
which later became a part of Wyoming. Those remaining 
in this part of the country are known as the Northern 
Cheyennes, and those migrating to the Arkansas, the 
Southern Cheyennes. The onlv difference being geographi- 
cal, as they visited back and forth and continued tribal 

In a general way the habitat of the Cheyenne Indians 
has been traced to 1832, establishing the fact that they 
were living in that part of the Indian countrv, which later 
became Wyoming, at the time George Catlin, the noted 
artist whose paintings of Indians of North and South 
America are in the Museum of Natural Historv. Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D. C, iourneyed up the 
Missouri River from St. Louis to Fort Union, a distance 
of over 2,000 miles, traveling in the most primitive way 
"to rescue from oblivion" the primitive looks and customs 
of the North American Indian, in color and pen, and to 
preserve in picture these interesting but declining and 
some destined to be extinct peoples. 

Catlin left St. Louis early in the spring of 1832, made 

15. American State papers, op. cit., p. 606. (Words in paren- 
thesis inserted by the writer). 

16. 33d Cong. 2d Sess. H. R. Ex. Doc. No. 91, p. 30. [serial 801]. 

17. Donaldson, Thomas, The George Catlin Indian Gallery, p. 
422, which is pt. V of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents, 
Smithsonian Institution 1885. 


the journey up the Missouri in the steamer Yellow Stone, and 
after many delays and difficulties arrived about three 
months later, June 26, at Fort Union, an American Fur 
Company post, at the mouth of the Yellowstone River on 
the north bank of the Missouri River. 

Mr. Catlin painted many Indians, scenes, animal life 
on the plains, etc., while at this post, but it was not until 
on his homeward journey in the fall of 1832 when he 
stopped at Laidlaw's Fort (Old Fort Pierre) at the mouth 
of the Teton River that he encountered a party of Chey- 
ennes who were "on a friendly visit to the Sioux." '^ 

He relates that on his downward voyage to St. Louis 
and during his stay at the mouth of the Teton, at Laid- 
law's Fort, while painting his portraits amongst the Sioux, 
he painted a "noble SMenne Chief by the name of Nee-hee- 
o-ee-woo-tis (the wolf on the hill). The Chief of a party 
of that tribe on a friendly visit to the Sioux,"2o and 
of the Chief's wife, a Cheyenne woman, Tis-see-woo-na-tis, 
(She who bathes her knees). The Chief "was clothed in 
a handsome dress of deer skins, very neatly garnished 
with broad bands of porcupine quill work down the sleeves 
of his shirt and his leggings, and all the way fringed with 
scalp-locks. His hair was very profuse, and flowing over 
his shoulders; and in his hand he held a beautiful Sioux 
pipe, which had just been presented to him by Mr. K'Ken- 
zie, the Trader. This was one of the finest looking and 
most dignified men that I have met in the Indian coun- 

Note: Laidlaw's Fort (Old Fort Pierre) was one of the most im- 
portant and productive of the American Fur Company's post. 
Laidlaw was another Scotchman and a member as well as agent 
of the American Fur Company, who with M'Kenzie had the agency 
of the Fur Company's transactions in the Rocky Mountains and 
upper Missouri region. 21 

Note: Fort Union v>^as built in 1829 by Kenneth M'Kenzie 
(Makenzie in Patrick Gass's Lewis and Clarke's Journal to the Rocky 
Mountains^ 18/^7) a Scotchman born in the Highlands, who came 
to America in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company. In 1820 
he left the services of the Hudson Bay Company and established 
business of his own. "In 1829 he crossed to the upper Missouri and 
established Fort Union"; is he became a member and agent of the 
American Fur Company; had control of all the service connected 
with northwestern fur trade until 1939, when he sold out and moved 
to St. Louis. 

18. Donaldson, Thomas, op. cit. P. 432 (f.n.) 

19. Catlin, Georfie North American Indians, Philadelphia, Leary 
Stuart and Company, 1913. Vol. 2, p. 2. 

20. Ibid. 

21. Ibid. Vol. 1, p. 233. 



Ne-hee-o-ee-woo-tis, (wolf on the hill) Cheyenne Chief, 
original painting by George Catlin, 1832. 


try; and from the account given of him by the Traders, 
a man of honour and strictest integrity. "22 He was con- 
sidered a rich Indian, owning over 100 head of horses. 

The Cheyenne Indian woman, Tis-see-woo-na-tis, pos- 
sessed all the savage beauty any of these daughters of 
the earth could ask for; she was beautifully dressed, "her 

22. Ibid, vol. 2, p. 2. 



Tis-see-woo-na-tis, (she who bathes her knees.) Cheyenne woman, 

wife of the Cheyenne Chief. From original painting by 

George Catlin, 1832. 

dress being made of mountain-sheep skins, tastefully or- 
namented with quills and beads, and her long black hair 
plaited in large braids that hung down on her breast/'^s 

Catlin found the Cheyennes to be a small tribe of 
about 3,000, who lived as neighbors to the Sioux on the 

23. Ibid. 


west of them, and between the Black Hills and the Rocky 
Mountains. He claimed that "there is no finer race of 
men in North America, and none were superior in stature, 
except the Osages; scarcely a man in the tribe, full grown, 
was less than six feet in height. "^^ At that time the 
Cheyennes were undoubtedly the richest in horses of any 
tribe on the Continent. This can be accounted for in that 
living in a country as they did where the greatest num- 
ber of wild horses were grazing on the prairies, they 
caught them in great numbers and sold them to the Sioux, 
Mandans and other tribes, as well as to the Fur Traders. 

With wars, pestilence and the advance of civilization 
through the years, the Cheyenne tribe was greatly re- 
duced and was gradually subdued. In 1878-79 the Gov- 
ernment attempted to colonize the Northern Cheyennes 
with the Southern branch, but this had disastrous results. 
a great number of their Chiefs and warriors being killed. 
In 1884, by the President's Proclamation, they v/ere as- 
signed to the Tongue River Agency, Montana, where they 
are still residing. 25 

The fate of these sons of the earth was that of other 
peoples, fighting for what they believed to be rightfully 
theirs. These original tenants of the soil, who became 
fugitives from the civilized man, were forced to leave 
their earliest habitat, and become a people of the vast 
treeless plains, "desolate fields of silence", until another 
day, when again they were forced to accept a conclusion, 
which was inevitable. It was "the survival of the fittest" 
then, as it will be at the end of the conflict of today. 

24. Ibid. 

25. General Data Concerning Indian Reservations, 1929. Dept. 
of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, U. S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 


Laramie Anniversary in Full Swing; Old Pony 
Express Rides Again 

A merry, laughing troop of D. A. R. members and 
Old-Timers retraced the trail of history this morning as 
they posted placards on the sites of a score of historic 
buildings in Laramie. 

The ceremony was the central feature of the second 
day's program of the sixteenth anniversary Pioneer Jub- 

The party left the library a few minutes after 10 
o'clock and by 11:55 had marked 20 places. One carried 
a small hammer and a box of tacks, others the large 
cards. Some wore shawls and other garments having 
historic interest. 

At the beginning of the "expedition" Mrs. Mary G. 
Bellamy was the final court of appeal in all cases of doulbt, 
but shortly afterward, W. O. Owen, who is visiting here, 
and Jim Cordiner, both cronies from boyhood, joined the 
group and added their knowledge of earlier days to that 
of Mrs. Bellamy. 

Three of the sites marked had to do with the first 
efforts at beautification made in Laramie. One was the 
Finfrock home next to the Catholic church, where the 
first flower garden was grown. A placard was posted 
in the window of the Rex Billiard Parlor on Ivinson avenue, 
stating that it had been the site of Mrs. Sarah Montgom- 
ery's home. It was she who planted the first tree. J. W. 
Meldrum, now U. S. commissioner in Yellowstone park, 
was credited, on a placard posted on his former house 
here, with planting the first lawn. Mr. Owen and Mr. 
Cordiner laughed at this and reminded themselves that 
Mr. Meldrum afterward had a fountain with a statue 
of a nude woman in his yard, which was stolen by the 

'^The Republican-Boomerang , July 2, 1928. 


University students, taken to the University, painted red 
and dressed in a light skirt. 


When the party posted a card on the Opera House 
stating that back of the lobby stood the original school 
house, C. B. Root came out of his store and entertained 
members of the party for a few minutes with stories of 
the first theatrical ventures here. 

"A bov who was going in to see the program one 
time," he related, "asked me if there was going to be any 
shoooting in the show. I told him, 'Well, you go on in 
and if there isn't anybody shot you ask Mrs. Root for 
your money back when you come out'." 

The card for the First Sunday school was posted in 
the Clippinger Floral store window. 

The approximate site of the first newspaper, the 
Laramie Sentinel, J. H. Hayford, editor, was marked with 
a card in the window of the Wyoming Pool hall on First 

The G. W. Story home at 213 Fremont street, orig- 
inally the First Presbyterian church, was marked, as 
was also the Second street site of the First Methodist 
church, now occupied by the Marinello Beauty parlor. The 
building itself has since been moved across the street, 
northwest, and remodeled to form the present Moose hall. 

The school maintained by the Catholic church, built in 
1874, formerly stood on the ground now occupied by the 
Quality Chevrolet company on Second, and a card was 
placed in the window. 


On the alley beside the postoffice, on Ivinson, the 
party stopped and tacked a card to a telephone pole an- 
nouncing that here stood the blacksmith shop in which 
the story telling club made famous by Bill Nye as the 
"Forty Liars" had met and swapped yarns. Mrs. Bellamy 
reminded the party that the "Forty Liars" had also been 
in the habit of assembling around a stove in LeRoy's 
hardware store, where the First State Bank now stands. 

Across the street from the postoffice the party en- 
tered the Svenson studio and handed Henning Svenson a 


card bearing the information that this was the site of 
the first jail, M. H. Murphy being the jailer. Mr. Sven- 
son smiled boardly and remarked that some members of 
the party looked as if Jailer Murphy had just given them 
their freedom. 

The home of the Wyoming National bank, originally 
Edward Ivinson, banker, was marked with a sign in the 
window of the Baby shop on Second street, stating that 
the bank building had been erected in 1869. 

The first grocery store, opened by Edward Ivinson 
in 1868, called for a card in the window of the Metz 
Brothers store. This was afterward the first drug store, 
operated by Otto Gramm, and later the dress-making 
shop of Mrs. Caira May Simpson. 

To C. D. Spalding was handed a window card for 
the Albany National bank stating that on this site one 
of the first buildings stood, a structure of railroad ties 
stood on end, covered by a canvass roof. 


At the Kepp-Baertsch store, the women of the party 
stopped to view an old-fashioned wedding gown which 
belonged to a Laramie woman. 

On the rear of the long metal buildine housing the 
wholesale division of the Laramie grocery, signs were 
posted announcing that the Trabing grocery and the first 
theatre occupied the building there known as the "Old 
Blue Front." Here also the first women's jury met, and 
the first court was held, the case being that of Mike 
Caroll, who, when his mules were stolen, traced the alleged 
thief to Green River and brought him back himself. 

In the window of the Holliday store a placard was 
placed stating that the Frontier hotel, one of the first 
if not the first, occupied the site and had been made of 

A window of the Holliday store which had been filled 
with a liberal display of pictures and mementos, and 
featured by two old-time high wheeled bicycles and a huge 
chair formerly used by Bill Nye, attracted the attention 
of the party for a time. 

A short distance up Garfield, at the Quality bakery, 
a card was placed in the window stating that a stable 


had occupied the place, and over it, Bill Nye had pub- 
lished the Boomerang. In approximately the same place 
as this card had been Nye's sign, "Twist the Tail of the 
Iron Gray Mule and Take the Elevator." 

Mr. Owen related that one of Bill's favorite displays 
was a stuffed freak he used to keep on his desk, a bird 
with a duck's body and a hawk's head. "I've seen it in 
there many a time," said Mr. Owen. 


The N. K. Boswell house and the John W. Donnel- 
lan residence were marked with placards announcing that 
these buildings had been moved in from Fort Sanders, 
Mr. Donnellan was cashier of the Laramie National bank 
and served two or three terms as treasurer of Albany 

As the party broke up, Mr. Owen and Mr. Cordiner 
found cause for friendly disagreement over the site of 
the John Kane log house on Second street where three 
gamblers had been hanged one night, but on walking to 
the disputed places, reached a tentative agreement that 
it was on Kearney and Second, where Mr. Cordiner in- 
sisted it had been. Here Mr. Owen recounted the tale, 
as he told it in the Republican-Boomerang Saturday, with 
a few additional details. The three men been sus- 
pended from a log prop against the house, he said. 

Tribute was paid Laramie's pioneers in every Laramie 
church yesterday, with appropriate services. 

The Pioneer headquarters in the Elks building con- 
tinued to be the mecca today for old-timers, and the 
"golden" and "pioneer" registers grew steadily longer. 


The great Pioneer caravan which is to visit the Ames 
monument, witness the return of the Pony Express and 
its attack, and participate in a free barbecue at Centen- 
nial, will form in front of the Elks' home on Second street 
tomorrow morning between 8:30 o'clock and 9, leaving 
promptly at 9. Cars of all sizes, makes and descriptions 
will be needed for those who have none, for the commit- 
tee in charge wants everyone to go who wishes. 

A historic address of importance will be delivered at 


the Ames monument by N. H. Loomis, general counsel 
for the Union Pacific railroad. 

At noon a basket lunch will be served at Dale Creek, 
and. at 1:30 the party will witness the start of the Pony 
Express over the route of the old Overland Trail near the 
Colorado-Wyoming line. The caravan will then journey 
back to witness the finish of the Pony Express ride 12 
miles from town on the Laramie-Centennial highway. 
Here an Indian attack will be staged on the Pony Express 

Continuing on to Centennial, the members of the car- 
avan will be treated to a free barbecue at 6 o'clock. 

As will be the case tonight, a free band concert will 
be given down town by the Union Pacific musicians at 7 
o'clock, followed by carnival dancing on Ivinson at 8:30 
and a Pioneer ball at 9 o'clock in the Elks' home. 


Neikok, a Shoshone Indian interpreter spoke three 
languages, French, English and Shoshone. 

Respected highly by the whites, Neikok, whose name 
meant Black Hawk, was the son of a French trader, 
Baptiste; his mother, according to historians, was a Ute 
squaw who was captured by the Shoshones in a raid when 
she was a child. It was comparatively easy for Neikok 
to translate during the course of negotations, having his 
father to assist him. 

His word was never doubted by those who came in 
contact with him. This was considered important as he 
was the official interpreter of all the Shoshones and every- 
thing said by the Shoshones in council with the whites 
or in a case before the courts, and both sides had to be 
heard by Neikok and his translation was law. 

He was so honest in his desire to translate properly 
that more than once, according to The Indian Guide, pub- 
lished at the Shoshone agency in 1896, he would stop and 
ask questions before proceeding with the translation. The 
paper quoted him upon one such instance as follows: 

"I don't think I know that word," or "I can't tell 
that right." 


And he would not go until he fully knew what it was 
that he was to translate. He never was afraid to tell 
exactly what both sides said while a younger man might 
fear of giving offense if he spoke the exact truth. 

Neikok succumbed to paralysis in November, 1896. 
As was the custom among his tribe, his body was wrapped 
in a number of expensive blankets of beautiful colors and 
his body deposited in a grave on Sage creek, dug by sor- 
rowing friends. In the grave were placed his various 
trinkets and articles of daily use, without a coffin to en- 
close his remains. 

Neikok was a reputed brave in every sense of the 
word. He was engaged in skirmishes with the Arapahoes 
and Sioux during the days of Indian warfare. 

A parting tribute was paid Neikok at the time of his 
death by the agency publication. It follows: 

"A very prominent and useful Shoshone Indian died 
at this home near the Washakie Hot Springs on last 
Thanksgiving day. This man was called 'Norkok' by the 
whites, but his Shoshone name was Neikok, which means 
Black Hawk. He was about 70 years old. The Shoshones 
as a rule keep no account of time and do not know their 
own age or their children's after they become a few years 
old. He was stricken with paralysis * * * . He was buried 
on Sage creek among his relatives who preceded him * * * . 
Simply lying in his blankets and embraced in the arms 
of mother earth, he awaits the final end of time." 


No history of Wyoming nor any sidelights thereof 
is more colorful than that of the peace officers of the 
early days of the state and territory — sterling men all. 

Among them was Thomas Jefferson Carr, better 
known as Jeff, who was city marshal of Cheyenne, later 
sheriff of Laramie county and then in 1885 United States 
marshal for the territory of Wyoming, to which he was 
appointed by President Cleveland. 

Carr, a man over six feet tall and weighing about 225 
pounds, had a red beard several inches long, but no mus- 
tache. His beard brought him the appelation of "Red 


Will Schnitger, also a Cheyenne marshal, succeeded 
Carr as United States marshal. Then there was Nick 
O'Brien, an early-day sheriff, who was one of the most 
popular and genial of peace officers of his time. 

Frank Canton and Red Angus were early-day sheriffs 
of Johnson county. N. K. Boswell, Louis Miller and Jack 
Brophy each served as sheriff of Laramie when the uni- 
versity town was a cowtown lighted by kerosene. 

The circle of prominent Wyoming peace officers would 
not be complete without mentioning Malcolm Campbell, the 
first sheriff of Converse county and later marshal of 
Douglas. At the age of 90 his mind was replete with in- 
teresting stories concerning his adventures of the "good 
old days." He collaborated with Bob David in Casper in 
publishing a book of his life, in which space was also de- 
voted to Mr. Campbell's recollection of the famous John- 
son county invasion. And there was the late Frank Had- 
sell, one time sheriff of Carbon county, who died at Raw- 
lins while warden of the state penitentiary. He, too, served 
Wyoming as United States marshal, as did many of the 
old time officers. 

Others include John \^ard, several times sheriff of 
Uinta county; John Williarfis, sheriff of Converse county; 
Larry Fee, Billy Lykens and Johnny Owens. 

Fremont county, organized in 1884, had as its first 
sheriff B. F. Lowe, who was elected April 22 of that year. 
He was succeeded by J. J. Atkins. In earlier territorial 
days, John R. Murphy was sheriff. 

In Sheridan county, when its government was formed 
in 1888, Thomas J. Keesee was elected its first sheriff at 
the election that year. 

In Carbon county, Jim Rankin, brother of Joe Rankin, 
who made his famous ride to Rawlins to obtain relief for 
army troops in the Meeker massacre, was an early day 
sheriff. Joe Rankin rode 40 hours carrying news to Gen- 
eral Merritt of the massacre and subsequent relief to 
troops cut off by Indians. William Hawley was first 
sheriff of the county. 

At the first county election held at Sundance, Jim 
Ryan was named sheriff of Crook county. George W. 
Laney was his deputy. 

There were many others, who filled their places in 
the development of the new frontier state. 


Notwithstanding the plaintive assertion of the Indian 
chiefs that their tribes want peace, and that on the with- 
drawal of the United States regulars from certain local- 
ities, and the removal of certain forts, they will give 
themselves entirely to agricultural pursuits, such inci- 
dents as the one we have illustrated will do more toward 
preventing the consummation of their wishes than any 
promises to the contrary. 

A passenger train bound east from Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming Territory, on the evening of June 14th, was as- 
saulted by a squad of mounted Indians, who fired upon 
the travelers through the windows. No persons were in- 
jured, neither was the train damaged. Sixteen horses 
belonging to the party were killed, and a large amount of 
robes, bows, arrows, etc., scattered along the track. These 
cases of lawlessness fully justify the presence of well- 
armed and mounted soldiers; for common humanity, no 
less than the demands of business, requires the safe pas- 
sage of every train from Omaha westward. 



Seventeenth street, north side, from O'Neil to Hill 
street, four squares. 

One story frame, 32x90, George Tritch & Co., hard- 
ware dealers, owners and occupants — cost, $6,000. 

One story frame, 16x30, saloon, J. E. Meyers, owner 
and occupant — cost, $1,200. 

One story frame, 17x42, corral 49x90, N. H. Heath 
& Co., Auction and Commission merchants and coal deal- 
ers, owners and occupants — cost, $3,000. 

One story frame, Theatre — particulars unknown. 

One story frame, 12x28, Photograph Gallery, M. Sorn- 
lerger, owner and occupant — cost, $500. 

One story and half frame, 19x30 — addition, 16x26 — 


Boarding House and saloon, J. N. Slaughter, owner and 
occupant — cost, $1,400. 

Two story frame, 20x40, Saloon, Carpenter & Welch, 
owners and occupants — cost, $3,000. 

One story frame, 12x26, Meat Market, Solomon & Co., 
owners and occupants — cost, $350. 

One story frame, 22x40, dry goods house, Lieut. Mc- 
Donald owner, to be occupied by firm from Denver, name 
unknown — cost, $2,500. 

One story frame, 18x50, Grocery & Dry Goods House, 
J, N. Orchard, owner and occupant — cost, $2,000. 

One story frame, unfinished, particulars unknown. 

One story frame, ditto, as above. 

One story frame, 61/2x16, Variety Store, E. H. Brown, 
owner and occupant — cost, $250. 

One story frame, 16x24, Saloon, H. T. Smith, owner 
and occupant — cost, $700. 

One story frame, 8x40, Keg House, J. Venine, owner 
and occupant — cost, $460. 

One story frame, Rogers & Co., bankers — particulars 

One story frame, 20x40, Clothing House, H. Frieden- 
berg, owner and occupant — cost, $3,000. 

One story frame — ^unfinished, particulars unknown. 

One story frame, 6x24, law office, J. S. Ohord, owner 
and occupant — cost, $250. 

One story frame, 15x30, Central Drug Store, Farrar 
& Brennan, owners and occupants — cost, $1,200. 

One story frame, 15x40, Saloon, R, H. Underwood, 
owner and occupant — also occupied by L. N. Greenleaf & 
Cos., Variety Store— cost, $2,000. 

One story frame, 22x72, Restaurant, Lt. Murran. own- 
er, Parker & Co., occupants — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame, 19x29, Tobacco and Cigar depot, H. 
J. Bendingham. (absent at present) owner and occupant 
— cost, not ascertained. 


One story frame, 22x60, International Restaurant — • 
Pioneer of Cheyenne — Lt. Murren, owner, Bailey & Wil- 
liams, occupants — cost, $1,700. 

Two story frame, 24x60, tobacco house, Owens & Co., 
owners, M. Steinberger, occupant — cost, $7,500. 

One story frame, 16x20, Star Bakery, Heissing & 
Co., owners and occupants — cost, $900. 

One story frame, 12x52, restaurant, Fogg, owner, H. D. 
Wood, occupant— cost, $600. 

One story concrete, 16x30, addition one story and a 
half, 16x22, Cassels & Gayler, owners, occupants and 
proprietors of the Enterprise Bakery, in the building, also 
occupied by, Weldon, grocer — cost, $2,000. 

One story frame, 26x70, Billiard Plall, Stimpson & Co., 
owners and occupants — cost, $7,000. 

One story frame, 20x30, unfinished, E. S. Oppenheimer, 
owner — to be occupied as a clothing depot — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame 18x35, Wm. Rotton & Co., Gunsmiths, 
owners and occupants, also occupied by Camp & Co., Drug- 
gists — cost, $1,300. 

One story frame, unfinished, particulars unknown. 

One story frame, 18x36, Jones & Gray, owners, J. P. 
Ward, Grocer, occupant — cost, unknown. 

One story concrete, brick front, unfinished, particulars 

One story frame, saloon, particulars unknown. 

One story frame, 20x50, Occidental Restaurant, Curie 
& Williams, owners and occupants — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 20x30, Resident, Judge McLaughlin, 
owner and occupant — cost, $1,200. 

Two story frame, 22x60, Storage & Commission house, 
Manning & Post, owners and occupants — upper story oc- 
cupied by the Star and Argus printing offices — cost, $6,000. 

Two story frame, 22x60, Storage & Commission house, 
Geo. Tritch & Co., owners. Cooper & Preshaw, occupants 
— cost, unknown. 


One story and a half frame, 20x40, Gallatin & Gallup, 
Saddlers, owners and occupants — cost, $1,700. 

One story frame, 22x50, Jones & Gray, Grocers, own- 
ers and occupants — cost, $4,000. 

Two story frame, 22x50, Tremont House, Wm. Bots- 
ford, owner and occupant- — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame, 16x32, Residence M. Taylor, owner 
and occupant — cost, $800. 

One story log. Residence, particulars unknown. 

One story and a half frame. Residence, ditto, as above. 

One story frame, 16x24. Sheppard & Smith, owners, 
J. S. Riley, occupant — cost, $1,000. 


Cheyenne, D. T., Sept. 26, 1867 

The City Council met at City Hall, at 7 o'clock, p. m. 
Present, Mayor Hook, Councilmen Talpey, Preshaw. Har- 
low, Beckwith and Willis. 

An application from Joshua Felton, for the ar>point- 
ment as city jailer, was, on motion laid on the table until 
the next meeting". 

Sundry applications for licenses were presented and 
upon the recommendation of the License Committee, were 

The Committee on streets and alleys reported that 
they had contracted for the digging of a Dublic well on 
the corner of 17th and Thoraes streets, the contractor to 
dig and curb the same for $5.00 per foot. 

The citv physician's bill of prices for taking care of 
the sick in hospital, was presented and laid over until the 
next meeting. 

On motion, the City Clerk was directed to issue a 
warrant on the Treasurer for $75.00, payable to Dr. Irwin, 
city Dhysician, to be char)?ed to him on account. 

The Fire Warden, Mr. Preshaw, reported having 
visited all the houses in the citv. and that he had directed 
the owners of the same to construct their chimnevs, flues 
and pipes in accordance with the ordinance concerning 
the same. 

On motion Mr. Munday was appointed Policeman, his 
appointment to date back to the time of his enterins; upon 
the duties of the office bv order of the City Marshal. 

Messrs. Talpey, Beckwith and Harlow were appointed 
committee on Police. — (The Cheyenne Leader, Sept. 28, 

Dee Linford 

Note: Here is presented the second of a series of 
articles on Wyoming stream names. From Wyoming Wild 
Life Magazine. 


THE GREEN RIVER principal fork of the Colorado 
which heads in the Wind River Mountains in western Wyo- 
ming and flows southward to drain all of the state between 
the Divide Basin and the Bear River, figures prominently 
in the early history of the region. American trappers held 
their annual mountain rendezvous along the Green regu- 
larly for almost 20 years, and the stream was an import- 
ant landmark to emigrants later on the Oregon and Over- 
land Trails. But the circumstances of its naming are as 
controversial and as contradictory as those which surround 
the naming of the Snake and Bear. 

First direct reference to the river in available his- 
torical records appears to be that of Father Escalante, 
one of two Spanish Catholic churchmen who set out from 
Santa Fe in 1776 to find a route to Monterey. The two 
apparently wandered as far north as Utah Lake in the 
State of the same name, and Father Escalante's account 
of the journey describes a "River San Buenaventura" 
which undoubtedly was the Green. But among other early 
Spaniards the Green-Colorado River seems to have been 
known, along with the Rio Grande, as the "Rio del Norte" 
— River of the North. This name appears on several early 
maps, applied indiscriminately to both streams, and was 
used in this ambiguous context by President Thomas Jef- 
ferson in 1803. 

Jefferson, in a letter of final instruction to Captain 
Meriwether Lewis who was about to depart on the memor- 
able mission of exploration which has become known as 
the Lewis and Clark Expedition, wrote (see History of 
the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Elliot Coues, 1893) : "Al- 
though your route will be along the channel of the Mis- 
souri, yet you will endeavor to inform yourself, by inquiry, 
of the character and extent of the country watered by 
its branches, and especially on its southern side. The 


North River, or Rio Bravo (Rio Grande del Norte), which 
runs into the Gulf of Mexico, and the North River, or Rio 
Colorado, which runs into the Gulf of California, are un- 
derstood to be the principal streams heading opposite to 
the waters of the Missouri and running south westwardly." 

This reference is clearly to the Colorado River, of 
which the Green now is generally shown as a branch; but 
most cartographers agree that the Green itself forms the 
upper main channel of the Colorado, and in early times 
both streams were more accurately called by the same 
name. Lewis and Clark did inform themselves of this 
river *'by inquiry," and both included it on their maps of 
the Northwest. Lewis' map styles it "River Colorado" 
while Clark prefers the Spanish for North River, "Rio 
del Norte." 

The journal of Wilson Price Hunt who reached the 
head of Green River in 1810, four years after Lewis and 
Clark passed through the country to the north, contains 
the entry, "Halt was made beside the Spanish River, a 
large stream on the banks of which, according to Indian 
report, the Spaniards live. It flows toward the west and 
empties supposedly into the Gulf of California." (Rollins, p. 
286). \ 

Hunt and his companions are the first Americans 
known positively to h^ve reached the Green proper (though 
it is generally believeiji that Ezekial Williams' "Lost Trap- 
pers" may have preceded them by a few months). Hunt's 
words, however, suggest that the name "Spanish River" 
as applied to the Green-Colorado was already established 
in 1810, and the designation recurs frequently in later 
records, although it is sometimes applied as well to the 
Arkansas River. 

The Green, Rollins adds in a supplementary note (p. 
172), "was the 'Rio Verde' of the Spaniards, the 'Spanish 
River' of other early voyageurs, and the 'Colorado of the 
West' of Bonneville in 1837. The Snake Indians who fre- 
quented it termed it, so Granville Stuart states. 'Can-na-ra 
o-gwa,' meaning 'Poor River'; this because the soil ad- 
jacent to much of its course was such as not to support 
either trees or grass. Nevertheless, Gebow, p. 10, has 
these same Indians term it 'Pe-ah-o-goie.' Fremont avers 
that its Absarokan (Crow) name was 'Seeds-ke-dee-agie.' 
meaning 'Prairie Hen River' and applied because of the 


prevalence of that bird, Tetrao urophasianus, in the river's val- 

Chittenden, who maintains with others that the Green 
River forms the main upper channel of the Colorado, says, 
"For a time the name (Colorado) applied to the whole 
river, but now only to that portion below the junction of 
the Green and Grand (now Colorado). That part of the 
stream now called the Green River was very commonly 
known, down to 1840, as the Seeds-ke-dee, or Prairie Hen 
River. It generally so appears in the literature and cor- 
respondence of the time. The name Green River began to 
come into general use about 1833, although it dates back as 
far as 1824. Its origin is uncertain. Bancroft (and Cout- 
ant) says it was given for one of Ashley's men, but it 
certainly was in use before Ashley was in the country, 
for William Becknell has left a narrative of a trip he 
made from Santa Fe to Green River in 1824, and the name 
was evidently a fixture at that time among the Spanish. 
Fremont says it was the 'Rio Verde of the Spaniards' 
and adds that the refreshing appearance of the broad 
river, with its timbered shores and green wooded islands, in 
contrast to its dry sandy plains, probably obtained for it 
the name of Green River. This does not seem unreason- 
able (it certainly cannot be conciliated with Granville 
Stuart's 'Poor River'), although some who are well ac- 
quainted with the characteristics of the river are more 
inclined to attribute the name to the appearance of the 
water, which is a very pronounced green than to the 
foliage of the valley, which is in no marked degree dif- 
ferent from that along other streams in this locality," 

Charles Larpenteur's journal (Coues, 1898) refers to 
the Green in 1833 as the "Ques qui di River." Elliot Coues, 
late distinguished American historian and curator of his- 
torical materials who formerly had edited and published 
the Lewis and Clark Journals, says, in a footnote to Lar- 
penteur's entry: "The author's 'Quesquidi' is . . , the prin- 
cipal fork of the Colorado; the Crow Indian name has un- 
counted variants in spelling, among which I have noticed 
Siskadee, Sisedepazzeah, Sheetskadee, and Seedskedeeagie ; 
the word is said to mean Prairie-hen River, with reference 
to the sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. Our name. 
Green River, translates Rio Verde of the Spanish, who 
came to it somewhere about 1818 and were struck by the 
color of its water." 


Such is the record of the naming — and the names — 
of the Green. Circumstances accounting for the designa- 
tion of most of its tributaries are less controversial, but 
most are similarly vague. Origin of the name New Fork, 
for instance, appears to be lost completely. Horse Creek 
(of the Green), according to Chittenden, "received its 
name from the circumstances that Thomas Fitzpatrick 
(Ashley associate) was robbed of his horses there by the 
Crow Indians, in 1824." 

LaBarge Creek, according to the same source, was 
named (presumably by Ashley) for the father of Cap- 
tain Joseph LaBarge, well-known Missouri River pilot 
and boat owner, and a good friend of Ashley. Fontennelle 
Creek undoubtedly took its name from Lucien Fontennelle, 
long prominently associated with the American Fur Com- 
pany in the mountains. The Sandy Forks, Chittenden 
points out, were named for the character of the country 
through which they flow, as undoubtedly was Slate Creek. 

Clark's map of the Northwest, published in 1814, iden- 
tifies the Big Sandy as "Colter's River," for John Colter 
■ — Lewis and Clark expeditionary who at the Mandan Vil- 
lages on the return trip in 1806 secured a discharge from 
the company and remained behind to trap with two com- 
panions on the Yellowstone. It was the next year, in 
1807, that Colter made his celebrated journey which car- 
ried him into present Wyoming — becoming the first known 
white man to set foot on territory now included in the 
State. Clark, in tracing Colter's 1807 route after con- 
versing with him — subsequent to Colter's return to St. 
Louis — takes this solitary explorer to the head of the 
present Big Sandy and New Fork Rivers, in crossing from 
the Yellowstone to the Bighorn River. Like Clark's styl- 
ing of the Snake as Lewis River for his companion on 
their memorable journey, his designation of this stream 
for John Colter, unfortunately, was not adopted. There 
is evidence that the name "Sandy River" was given the 
stream by Ashley in 1825. 

The names Black's Fork and Ham's Fork, other Wyo- 
ming tributaries of the Green, date, according to Chit- 
tenden, from Ashley's time, though it is uncertain for 
whom they were bestowed. Henry's Fork, he continues, 
is believed named for Andrew Henry, who was associated 
with Ashley after the dissolution of his partnership with 
Manual Lisa in the Missouri Fur Company, in which 
capacity he (Henry) first came to the Rocky Mountains. 



The Little Snake River which heads in the Sierra 
Madre Mountains in Colorado and swings northward into 
Wyoming, is also tributary to the Green, via the Yampa 
River of Colorado. Conjecture as to the significance of 
the title "Little Snake" was made under the earlier dis- 
cussion of the naming of Snake River proper. Battle 
Creek (and Battle Lake), tributary to the Little Snake, 
was named from the fact that Henry Fraeb or Frapp, 
trapper and partner in the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 
was killed near by with four others of his brigade when 
attacked by Indians in 1841. 

The Missouri River, which receives its headwaters 
from Wyoming, is the longest river on the North Amer- 
ican continent and fifth longest stream in the world. 

Hammond's World Atlas and Gazettler (1942) lists 
the earth's longest rivers as follows: Nile 4,000 miles, 
Amazon 3,700 miles, Ob-Irtish (Siberia) 3,200 miles, 
Yangtze (China) 3,100 miles, Missouri 2,945 miles. 

Other major world rivers listed by Hammond's Atlas, 
in order of their length, are: 


Amur (Asia) 2,900 

Congo (Africa) 2,900 

Lena (Siberia) 2,860 

Yenisei (Siberia) 2,800 

Hwang (China) 2,700 

Niger (Africa) 2,600 

Mackenzie (Canada) 2,525 

Mekong (Asia) 2,500 

Mississippi 2,486 

Parana (S. A.) 2,450 

Murray (Australia) 2,310 

Volga (Russia) 2,300 

Yukon (Alaska) 2,300 

Maderia (S. A.) 2,000 

Colorado 2,000 

St. Lawrence 1,900 

Sao Francisco (S. A.) 1,800 

Salween (Burma) 1,750 

Danube 1,725 

Euphrates (Ii^aq) 1,700 

Indus (India) 1,700 

Orinoco (S. A.) 1,700 

Syr Darya (Turkestan) ..1,700 
Brahmaputra (India) 1,680 


Nelson (Canada) 1,660 

Rio Grande 1,650 

Si (China) 1,650 

Zambezi (Africa) 1,600 

Ganges (India) 1,540 

Paraguay (S. A.) 1,500 

Amu Darya (Turkestan) ..1,500 

Arkansas 1,460 

Dnieper (Russia) 1,400 

Rio Negro (S. A.) 1,400 

Ural (Russia) 1,400 

Orange (Africa) 1,300 

Ohio 1,283 

Red 1,275 

Columbia 1,270 

Irrawaddy (Burma) 1,250 

Saskatchewan (Canada) ..1,205 

Darling (Australia) 1,160 

Tigris (Iraq) 1,150 

Sungari (Asia) 1,130 

Don (Russia) 1,100 

Pease (Canada) 1,065 

Platte 1,030 

Churchill (Canada) 1,000 

Actually, however, the Missouri arises farther from 
the sea than any other stream on the globe. Chittenden 
gives the distance from the head of Red Rock Creek, upper 
channel of the Jefferson Fork, to the Gulf of Mexico as 


4,221 miles — of which "398 miles is above the mouth of 
the Jefferson, 2,547 miles is in the Missouri proper from 
Three Forks to the mouth, and 1,276 miles is in the Miss- 
issippi." Thus, taken together, the Missouri-Mississippi 
waterway is the longest river system in the world. 

Chittenden also shows the Missouri as draining an 
expanse more than double the watershed area of any other 
stream of the western United States: Missouri System 
above Independence (Mo.), 490,000 square miles; Colorado 
system, 248,000 square miles; Columbia system within the 
United States, 220,000 square miles; the Arkansas and 
Canadian above their junction, 146,000 square miles; the 
Rio Grande above El Paso, 42,000 square miles; the Great 
Basin (area drained by Great Salt Lake) 215,000 square 

As the Missouri eclipses all other western American 
rivers in geographic and economic importance, so it far 
surpasses all other western streams in historical interest 
and significance. It was for decades the great thorough- 
fare which linked American civilization with the wilder- 
ness outpost, by canoe and steamboat, and records show 
it was known to white explorers hardly 50 years after 
the Pilgrim Landing at Plymouth. 

First known reference to the stream, according to 
Chittenden, was by the French explorer Marquette, "who 
saw it in 1673. Upon a crude sketch which he made of 
the country through which he passed, the Missouri system 
appears under the name of Pekittanoui. In the region 
whence it was supposed to flow were noted the names of 
several tribes of Indians and among them the Oumessourit 
tribe which lived nearest the mouth, though some dis- 
tance from it. From this tribe, at an early date, the river 
came to be known. The name passed through nearly 
every combination of its letters which the eccentricity of 
orthographers could devise, but had settled down to its 
present form before the close of the 18th century. The 
word seems indubitably to have meant, as applied to the 
Indian tribe, 'Living at the Mouth of the Waters.' Their 
own name for their tribe was Ne-o-ta-cha (Say) and had 
the same signification. The most probable theory is that 
the word Missouri or Oumessourit was the equivalent or 
translation of this name by some other tribe or nation, 
probably the Illinois, from whom it passed to the French. 
There seems to be no foundation for the popular notion 


that the name is characteristic, and means simply 'Muddy 

Actually, no part of the Missouri proper lies within 
the boundaries of Wyoming, but two of its famous Three 
Forks — the Madison and the Gallatin — head in Yellowstone 
Park in the northwestern corner of the State. In ad- 
dition, five other major Missouri tributaries receive head- 
waters in Wyoming, and these, together with their innum- 
erable affluent streams, drain roughly three-fourths of 
the State's area. Thus, the Missouri River may well be 
thought of as arising in Wyoming. 

Of the naming of the Madison and Gallatin Rivers 
the record is, by contrast with the nomenclature of most 
Missouri tributaries heading in Wyoming, definite and in- 
disputable. The names were bestowed in 1805 by Lewis 
and Clark, and, unlike many other designations bestowed 
by the explorers on their famous trek, these two river 
titles have endured. 

On reaching the Three Forks on the outbound journey, 
the explorers according to their journals (Coues) paused 
first at the easternmost fork, which "in honor of the Sec- 
retary of War (Albert Gallatin), we called Gallatin's 
River." They then followed the main branch of the Mis- 
souri until it forked again, and "on examining the two 
streams, it became difficult to decide which was the larger 
or the real (continuation of the) Missouri. We were there- 
fore induced to discontinue the name of Missouri and gave 
to the southwest branch the name of Jefferson, in honor 
of the President of the United States, and the projector 
of the enterprise. We called the middle branch Madison, 
after James Madison, Secretary of State (later President 
of the United States)." 

Of the five major Missouri River tributaries which 
receive headwaters in Wyoming — the Platte, Niobrara, 
Cheyenne, Little Missouri, and Yellowstone — the Platte is 
the longest, the most interesting historically, and in other 
ways the most remarkable. 

The Platte's broad, shallow channel and shifting sand 
bars rendered it unnavigable to the small river steamers 
that plied the Missouri for 50 years prior to the building 
of the western railroads, but its early history is bound 
irrevocably with that of the larger parent stream. Its 
mouth was the accepted landmark which divided the lat- 


ter river into the "Upper" and the "Lower" Missouri, and 
here on the Missouri riverboats, it was regular procedure 
to subject the uninitiated to the mock rituals of practical 
jokes familiar to shipboard passengers on the high seas as 
incident to "crossing the line." 

Because of its character, the rivermen regarded the 
Platte with the kindly, affectionate contempt in which 
men often hold things which are friendly and harmless, 
but of no particular use. And the stream at one time was 
probably the most maligned of all American rivers. This 
very fact gave the Platte wide publicity, however, when 
the vast country it drains was comparatively unknown; 
and even during the riverboat era, the Platte was known 
almost as widely as the Missouri itself. 

Disgusted navigators described it as "a thousand 
miles long and six inches deep." Washington Irving, with 
the detachment of a commentator who had never come to 
grief on its shoals, characterized it as "the most magnifi- 
cent and most useless of rivers." Another early traveler, 
apparently lacking Irving's disinterested viewpoint, pic- 
tured it as "a dirty, uninviting stream . . . three inches of 
fluid, running on top of several feet of moving quicksand 
. . . too yellow to wash in, too pale to paint with ..." 

But because of this same flat, indolent character 
which the rivermen deplored the Platte was destined to 
eclipse and eventually to replace the Missouri completely 
as the Highway to the West. For when the western mi- 
gration of civilization began in earnest, the wagon was 
substituted for the boat of the fur trader, and it was 
the much-maligned "Flat River" which marked the easiest 
wagon route to the Rocky Mountains. Indeed, so far did 
it displace the Missouri as the route to the mountains that 
travelers bound for the Upper Missouri country in 1860.'s 
and '70's followed the Platte westward a thousand miles; 
then in present Wyoming, they turned northward toward 
their ultimate destination — intruding on hitherto undis- 
turbed Indian domain in so doing, and precipitating the 
longest and bloodiest Indian war in the history of the 

Record of the naming of the Platte is relatively speci- 
fic. To quote from Chittenden, "The name Platte (French, 
Plate — flat) is characteristic and arises from the extreme 
shallow character of the stream. Its use dates from 1739. 
In that year, two brothers, Mallet, with six companions 


undertook to reach Santa Fe from a point on the Missouri 
somewhere near the present site of Sioux City (Iowa), 
They left the river on the 29th day of May and arrived 
on the Platte on June 2. (Le 2 Juin, ils tomberent sur 
une riviere qu'ils nommerent la Riviere Plate — De Margry). 
(On June 2, they came upon a river which they named the 
Flat River.) The party ascended the main stream and the 
South Fork to the mountains and reached Santa Fe on the 
22nd of July." 

It would thus appear that there exists a clear-cut and 
indisputable record of the circumstances surrounding the 
naming of at least one major Wyoming river. However, 
the name appears on maps supposedly drawn before 1739. 
(Beard's History of Wyoming, 1933, contains a reproduc- 
tion of a "Paris" map of 1720 which charts and iden- 
tifies the "Riviere Platte," together with its south fork, 
"R. Platte du Sud.") But these purported early chartings 
may not be significant, as the practice of antedating maps 
appears not to have been altogether unusual. 

The North Platte — and to a lesser degree the South 
Platte also — was once known to some cartographers as 
the Paduca River or Paduca's Fork (also Padouca, Pa- 
duka, Padouka, etc.,) perpetuating an ancient Indian ethnic 
term of vague application which seems to have been ap- 
plied as well to the Kansas River. Pike identified the 
Paducas with the Comanche tribes, but most authorities 
take the view that the name was once applied collectively 
to all nations located on the headwaters of the Platte and 
Kansas Rivers — tribes later separated as Arapahoes, 
Kiowas, etc. Lewis' map of the Northwest identifies the 
North Platte as "Padoucas Fork," the South Platte simply 
as the "South Fork." Clark shows no division of the 
river at all, uses the name "Piatt." 

With regard to the South Platte, which receives tribu- 
taries from Wyoming, Chittenden offers the interesting 
note that the Arapaho tribe at one time held a series of 
trading fairs on the banks of the stream, acting as middle- 
men in exchanging articles received from the Spaniards 
to the south for goods from the British and the Indian 
tribes to the north, and that from these gatherings the 
South Platte was once known as "Grand Encampment 
River." In this connection, the same authority repeats 
the theory that the term "Arapaho" signifies "He who 
buys or trades," celebrating this early Arapaho custom. 


Other names applied to the Platte in the past include 
Nebraska and Flatwater; the latter term, according to 
some authorities, translates the former Indian work. 

THE NORTH PLATTE River receives its first head- 
waters in Colorado, flows north into Wyoming where it 
annexes numerous tributaries from the Medicine Bow and 
Laramie Mountains, then turns east into Nebraska — hav- 
ing drained roughly the southeastern quarter of Wyoming. 

The first major Platte River tributary acquired in 
Wyoming is the Encampment River, which heads in the 
rugged Sierra Madre Mountains. The book, Wyoming — 
A Guide to the People ^ Highways and History (1941), records 

cords that this stream was originally called the Grand En- 
campment River, for a trapper's rendezvous held on its 
banks in 1851. The name, however, would appear to be 
much older than this. Chittenden's statement concerning 
the application of the same title to the South Platte River 
at one time (see WYOMING WILD LIFE, April, 1943) 
suggests that the Encampment River also may have been 
named to commemorate the Arapaho trading fairs held 
in the region before the coming of the whites. 

Of the name "Medicine Bow", as applied to the second 
important tributary received by the North Platte in Wyo- 
ming, there is a generally accepted tradition that mountain 
birch and ash — both admirably suited to the making of 
bows — once grew in profusion along the stream's course. 
Various tribes are said to have traveled long distances to 
secure the "good medicine wood," and battles are sup- 
posed to have been fought in the vicinity, when hostile 
peoples collided. The name appears on Fremont's map 
of 1842, as applying to both the stream and the mountain 
range to the south. 

The Sweetwater, third important Platte River af- 
fluent received in Wyoming, is almost as well known as 
the Platte itself, historically. The Oregon Trail followed 
the "Flat River" west from its confluence with the Mis- 
souri to the point in present Wyoming where the Platte 
turns south in a wide oxbow, toward the Saratoga-En- 
campment Valley and the Colorado State line. At this 
point, near Independence Rock, west-bound emigrants 
veered west by north along the Sweetwater and followed 
it to its source in South Pass — finding its water a delight- 
ful change from that of the turgid Platte. 

The quality of its water undoubtedly inspired the 


river's designation, but the actual circumstance of its 
naming is controversial. According to Rollins, it was 
known to some early travelers as the "Eau Sucre", or 
"Eau Sucree" (Sugar Water), and as the "Riviere de I'Eau- 
douce" (River of Sweet Water). Father DeSmet called 
it the Sugar River, accounting for the name by citing the 
water's natural purity and good taste, as contrasted with 
the alkaline condition of other streams in the region. 
Granville Stewart, however, reports that "this stream 
takes its name from its beautiful clear cold waters, having 
a sweetish taste caused by the alkali held in solution in 
its waters, not enough, however, to cause any apparent 
injurious effects." Chittenden, adding another version, 
quotes an American Fur Company clerk as saying the 
name "Eau Sucre" was given the stream because a trad- 
er's sugar-laden pack mule once fell and was lost with 
its pack in the current. 

Muddy Creek, chief affluent of the Sweetwater, was 
the "Deep Ravine Creek" and "Steep Ravine Creek" of 
some early travelers (Rollins). Principal tributary of the 
Muddy is Whiskey Gap Creek, so called from the circum- 
stance that a Major O'Fallon encamped there with a trooD 
of cavalry in 1862 found whiskey in camp and poured it 
out upon the ground, near a spring. The spring assumed 
a distinct "bourbon" flavor, and thirsty soldiers congre- 
gated around it with canteens and mess kits. One intox- 
icated dragoon is said to have accosted his officer to re- 
port the phenomenal spring, averring that it produced the 
finest water he'd ever tasted. 

Lost Soldier Creek, near by, derives its name not 
from the fact that it actually is a "lost creek," i.e., evap- 
orating and vanishing before it reaches an affluent, but 
from, the circumstance that a soldier from Rawlins be- 
came lost in the region in early days, and wandered to 
the ranch of Tom Sun, prominent Sweetwater valley ranch- 
er. Sun was away from his premises at the time, but the 
latch string was out — in accordance with honored western 
custom. 'The soldier did not discover this, and removed 
a window to gain entrance to the ranch dwelling. Sun, 
in reporting the incident, observed that "man lacking sense 
to enter another's house by the unlocked door would get 
lost anywhere." 

Bates Creek, a Platte River tributary received from 
the northern tip of the Laramie Mountains, was "Poison 
Creek" to some early cartographers; Fremont called it 


Carson Creek, to honor his famous guide, Kit Carson, but 
the name did not become estabhshed. Origin of its present 
designation is obscure. Source of the name Poison Spider 
Creek hkewise is uncertain; some early maps call the 
stream simply "Spider Creek." Stansbury refers to it as 
Red Spring Creek. 

Casper Creek bears the name of Lieutenant Caspar 
Collins, youthful Indian fighter of the 1860's, who died 
a hero during the Platte Bridge Fight (Spring, 1927). His 
name was also given to a mountain, a frontier military 
post, and to Wyoming's second city. 

Boxelder Creek is so called, according to Rollins, for 
the box-elder, the common western term for the ash- 
leaved maple, Negundo accroides, which grows in the vicin- 
ity. "This stream," Rollins elaborates, "was the 'Mikes- 
head Creek' of Joel Palmer . . . the 'Box Creek' of Cly- 
man, the 'R. Boisse' (Wooded River) of St'iusbury, the 
'Fourche Boise' (Wooded Fork) of Delano, the 'Fourche 
Boisse' of Fremont and of Preuss, the 'Fourch Bois' of 
Keller, the 'Boisee Creek' of Jefferson, the 'Fourche de 
Bois River' of Shepherd." 

Of LaPrele Creek, Rollins says, "(the) name unless 
possibly perpetuating that of some French vuyageur, was 
due to the presence of preie, the common scouring rush, 
E'liequisetum hyemale/' LaBonte Creek, according to local 
cal tradition, bears the name of a French trapper who 
frequented the stream in the 1830's, and who was killed 
in later years by Indians, in present Utah. 

The Laramie River, largest tributary received by the 
North Platte in Wyoming, commemorates a French-Can- 
adian employe of the Northwest Fur Company, Jacques 
Laramie, believed killed by Indians during the 1820's some- 
where along the stream which bears his name. Also named 
for him are a range of mountains, a mountain peak, a sec- 
tion of plains, a frontier military post (now a national 
monument), a city, and a county, all in Wyoming. Spell- 
ing of his name is rendered variously Larama, Lorimier, 
La Ramee, La Ramie, and de la Rame. 

Of the more important Laramie River tributaries, the 
Chugwater was named — according to a generally accepted 
legend — from an early Indian custom of stampeding buf- 
falo over the brown chalk cliffs bordering the stream; 
because of the sound the bodies made, plunging down, the 
creek is reputed to have been known among these tribes- 


men as the "Water-at-the-place-where-the-Buffaloes-chug." 

The Sybille, local sources say, perpetuates the name 
of a French associate in the Adams Mercantile Company, 
which did business at Fort Laramie and on the Chugwater 
in early days. 

The name Horse Creek, as applied to the long Platte 
River tributary which heads in the Laramie Mountains 
northwest of the City of Cheyenne, dates back to Fre- 
mont's time, but the circumstances for which it was be- 
stowed do not appear. According to Rollins, Nathaniel 
Wyeth referred to the stream in the 1830' s as "Wild 
Horse Creek." 

The Niobrara River, which heads in east-central Wy- 
oming and parallels the Platte River across Nebraska to 
unite with the Missouri in the northeastern corner of that 
State, was formerly known interchangeably aa the "Rapid 
River," the "Rapid Water River," the "Running Water," 
and the "Running Water River." Its French form, "L'eau 
qui Court" or "Riviere qui Court" (literally, water or river 
which runs), appears on many early maps, and is cor- 
rupted variously into "Qui Court," "Quicurre," "Quicourre," 
"Quicure," "Quecure," "Ka-cure," and even — evidently by 
misprint — "Quicum." 

It is not recorded when or by whom the name was 
bestowed. However, the designation is known to predate 
Lewis and Clark, who passed the river's mouth in ascend- 
ing the Missouri in 1804, and the following L. & C. entry 
gives a clue to the reason for this early styling of the 
stream : 

"This river empties into the Missouri in a course 
S. W. by W., and is 152 yards wide and four feet deep 
at the confluence. It rises in the Black Mountains (an 
error) and passes through hilly country, with a poor soil. 
Captain Clark ascended (it) three miles to a beautiful 
plain on the upper side, where the Pawnees once had a 
village; he found the river widened above its mouth and 
much divided by sands and islands, which, joined to the 
great rapidity of the current, makes navigation very dif- 
ficult, even for small boats. Like the Platte, its waters 
are of a light color; like that river, too, it throws out into 
the Missouri great quantities of sand, coarser even than 
that of the Platte, which forms sand bars and shoals near 
its mouth." 


The entry likewise gives a clue to the reason for an- 
other name applied to the stream in earlier times, i.e., 
the "Spreading Water," which term seems to translate 
the Indian word, Niobrara. Some authorities give both 
Niobrara and Nebraska as Indian words for "Flat Water" 
— equivalents of the French, Platte. Lewis' map of 1806 
identifies the Niobrara as the "Quicurre or Rapid River," 
Clark's simply as the "Quicouree." 

The Cheyenne River heads in Wyoming north of the 
Niobrara's point of origin, and, with its numerous tribu- 
taries, it drains the entire Black Hills region. It undoubt- 
edly was named for the Indian nation bearing that desig- 
nation, although it is unknown in this case also when or 
by whom the title was given. That it was established by 
the time of Lewis and Clark, however, is indicated by the 
following L. & C. entry: 

"This river has occasionally been called Dog River, 
under a mistaken opinion that its French name was Chien 
(dog) ; but its true appellation is Chayemie (rendered 
also Schain, Shayen, Chaguyenne, Chaguiene, etc.). and 
it derives this title from the Chayenne Indians. Their 
history is the short and melancholy relation of the ca- am- 
ities of almost all Indians. They were a numerous people 
and lived on the Chayenne, a branch of the Red River 
or Lake Winnipeg. The invasion of the Sioux drove them 
westward; in their progress they halted on the southern 
side of the Missouri below the Warrconne, where their 
ancient fortifications still exist; but the same impulse 
again drove them to the head of the Chayenne, where they 
now rove and occasionally visit the Ricaras. They are 
now reduced, but still number 300 men." 

In a footnote, Coues introduces evidence that the In- 
dian name for the Cheyenne was Wasteg or Wakpa Washte, 
meaning "Good River," bestowed in antithesis to the 
Chicha or Shisha Wakpa, meaning "Bad River," which 
stream Lewis and Clark renamed Teton River (in present 
Montana), for the Sioux Indians who lived along it. 

Largest tributary of the Cheyenne to head in Wyo- 
ming is the Belle Fourche (French, beautiful fork), ap- 
parently named by early voyageurs. Indeed, the two 
streams are so near of a size that the Belle Fourche is 
shown on some recent maps as the "North Fork of the 
Cheyenne," the Cheyenne's main channel being identified 
as the "South Fork." Lewis' map of 1806 goes further 


and charts the Belle Fourche as the main channel of the 
Cheyenne, the Cheyenne proper as the "South Fork." Both 
Lewis and Clark give "Sharha" or "Shar-ha," as a primi- 
tive alternative word for Cheyenne. Lewis identifies the 
stream in question as the "Sar ha or Chyenne River." 

Most of the other numerous tributaries acquired by 
the Cheyenne from Wyoming bear names which are de- 
scriptive of the streams themselves, of the surrounding 
terrain, the wild life, or other natural phenomena associated 
with the streams in the minds of those anonymous per- 
sons who bestow most place names: Dry, Spring, Sand, 
Lodgepole, Willow, Beaver, Porcupine, Antelope, Thunder, 
Lightning, Little Lightning, etc. Stockade Creek, also 
known as Stockade Beaver Creek, takes its name from 
the circumstance that a government expedition dispatched 
to the Black Hills to investigate the presence of gold in 
the early 1870's, encamped on the stream and erected a 
temporary shelter or "stockade cabin" on its banks. Leader 
of the expedition was one Walter P. Jenney*, a geologist. 
The shelter subsequently became known as Jenney's Stock- 

Old Woman, Young Woman, and Crazy Woman, as 
applied to Cheyenne tributaries, appear to be white trans- 
lations of Indian names. Salt Creek is said to have been 
named for a number of salt furnaces located on its banks 
in early times (Clough), 

Inyan Kara Creek, tributary to the Belle Fourche, 
takes its name from Inyan Kara Mountain, near which it 
heads. The term undoubtedly is Indian, and according to 
Clough it appears on maps dating back to 1860. It is 
translated both as "stone-made" and as "mount ain-within- 

The Little Missouri River, which rises between the 
Cheyenne and Yellowstone drainages in northeastern Wyo- 
ming, takes its designation of course from the larger, 
parent stream which it joins in North Dakota after weav- 
ing a serpentine course through Montana and South Da- 
kota. Here again, circumstances of the naming are lost, 
but this stream title also was established by the time of 
Lewis and Clark. The following entry in the Expedition 
Journals reveals the reason for the appellation: 

"In its color, the nature of its bed, and its general ap- 
pearance, it resembles so much the Missouri as to induce 


a belief that the countries they water are similar in point 
of soil." 

Coues, in a foot note, says one Indian name for the 
Little Missouri was Wakpa Chan Shoka, meaning "heav- 
ily wooded river." 

The Yellowstone River, principal fork of the Mis- 
souri, is the largest and probably the most widely known 
of the many streams which find headwaters in Wyoming. 
Arising along the Continental Divide in the rugged Ab- 
saroka Mountains just south of Yellowstone Park — to 
which area the river gives its name — the Yellowstone 
flows north through the park, drains Yellowstone Lake 
and most of the park region, then continues north into 
Montana. In Montana, it turns gradually east by north, 
bisects that State diagonally, and unites with the Missouri 
just over the State-line in North Dakota. 

Actually, less than 50 miles of this stream's 700-mile 
course lie within Wyoming. But its numerous tributaries 
drain almost a third of the State's area, and it is prob- 
ably more important to Wyoming, geographically, than 
any other stream. 

The name "Yellowstone" is old, as age is reckoned 
in the West. According to Thwaite (Clough), the term 
was used as early as 1798 by the English fur factor, 
David Thompson. But both the name and the river ap- 
pear to have been unknown to Americans until 1805, when 
Lewis and Clark came upon the stream's mouth in their 
outbound journey of exploration up the Missouri. Anony- 
mous French voyageurs seem to have preceded the ex- 
plorers to the Upper Missouri country, and the following 
Lewis and Clark Journal entry (Coues, p. 283) suggests 
that the name originated with these French rivermen — 
possibly predating Thompson: 

"This river which has been known to the French as 
the Roche Jaune (Yellow Rock), or, as we have it. Yel- 
lowstone, rises according to Indian information in the 
Rocky Mountains ... It may be navigated in canoes al- 
most to its head." 

Coues adds, in a footnote to the entry, "The text reads 
as if the translation of the French was first made by 
Lewis and Clark, and in this passage. They (Lewis and 
Clark) doubtless are the real authors of the word." 

In a letter to President Thomas Jefferson after the 
expedition's return to St. Louis, Lewis uses a literal trans- 


lation of the French — "Yellow Rock River." And in the 
original journals, this French form ranges from "Roghe- 
jone" and "Rejone" through "Rejhone, Rochejone, Roche- 
john, Roche jhone," etc., to its proper spelling, "Roche 

Patrick Gass, a sergeant with the expedition whose 
personal papers were published in 1807, seven years before 
the appearance of the official Lewis and Clark Journals, 
uses the form "Yellow Stone" and also "River Jaune" or 
Yellow River in speaking of the stream. It is generally 
conceded that the river was named originally for the color 
of the soil in the country in which it heads, i.e., in the 
region now embraced principally in the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. But another possibility is suggested by a 
Coues statement to the effect that the Missouri itself was 
at one time known to the French as "la Riviere Jaune" 
or Yellow River. This prompts speculation as to whether 
the name Yellowstone might have been bestowed on the 
tributary simply as a variation of the term applied to the 
parent stream. 

Clark's map of the Northwest shows the Yellowstone 
River heading in a large body of water in the approximate 
position of Yellowstone Lake. This lake is nowhere men- 
tioned in the text of the journals, however; and since 
Lewis' map does not chart it and since Clark's map was 
not published until 1814, it appears likely that Clark lo- 
cated the large upland lake from conversations with John 
Colter, first known white man to view it, in 1807. The 
lake is identified on Clark's map as Lake Eustis — a name 
undoubtedly originated by Clark himself to honor a Wil- 
liam Eustis who was Secretary of War in 1811, when Clark 
was reappointed "Brigadier General of the Militia of 
Louisiana" by President Madison. At this time, Clark was 
preparing his map for publication along with the manu- 
script of the L. & C. Journals. 

Like so many names bestowed by the explorers, how- 
ever, this one did not become established, and the lake 
later took its name from the river which feeds it and 
drains it. The term as applied to the lake owes its exis- 
tence to an accident of nature, since the lake at the be- 
ginning was drained by Snake River; a prehistoric terres- 
tial upheaval changed the course of the latter stream, and 
sent the lake's waters to the Atlantic Ocean rather than 
to the Pacific, as they at first flowed. 

(To be continued) 

By Douglas C. Murtrie* 

Men who are making history are seldom cognizant of 
the importance of recording it. Yet contemporary record 
in writing or in print is the only source on which we can 
confidently depend. While pioneer editors in Wyoming 
were busy getting out daily or weekly issues under various 
handicaps incident to work on a new frontier, it is for- 
tunate that one agency in the east was compiling and pub- 
lishing each year a record of their activities. 

George P. Rowell, who conducted in New York one 
of the first advertising agencies, had carefully compiled 
and published annually the American Newspaper Directory. 
This publication recorded the salient facts regarding every 
newspaper in the United States. Complete files of this 
valuable publication are very rare. The result is that 
few historians of western publishing have consulted 
Rowell's record. 

This record was, by the way, conscientiously pre- 
pared. The editor insisted on basing his listing each year 
on a current issue of the paper. He would write several 
times to the editor of each paper believed to be in existence. 
If no reply was received, he did not draw on his imagina- 
tion for a listing; he simply noted "No report." The 
editorial standards of the Directory made it far more 
dependable as a reference work than most publications of 
similar kind. 

Since exact knowledge regarding Wyoming's early 
newspapers is none too plentiful, I have transcribed the 
data relating to local newspapers from each annual vol- 
ume of the American Newspaper Directory, from its first 
issue of 1869 through the volume for 1880, and present 
the listings herewith for the benefit of local historians. I 
gave the data exactly as printed without effort to edit 
it in any way. 

*For biography see ANNALS OF W^YOMING, Vol. 13. No. 4. 
p 347. 



CHEYENNE Argus: every morning except Monday, and 
weekly; democratic; four pages; size 24 x 36; sub- 
scription — weekly $5; Bedell & Garbanti, editors and 

CHEYENNE Leader: every evening except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Weekly Leader, Saturdays; republican; 
daily four pages, weekly eight pages; size — daily 25 x 
32; weekly 25 x 38; subscription — daily $20; weekly 
$5; N. A. Baker, editor and publisher. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every evening except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Leader, Saturdays; republican; four pages; 
size — daily 24 x 36, weekly 26 x 40; subscription — 
daily $20, weekly $4; N. A. Baker, editor and pub- 
lisher; circulation — daily about 500, weekly about 800. 

CHEYENNE Wyoming Tribune: Saturdays; republican; 
four pages; size 27 x 40; subscription $5; established 
1869; S. Allan Bristol, editor and publisher; claims 
500 circulation; largest paper and largest circulation 
in the Territory. 

LARAMIE CITY Sentinel: every evening except Sunday; 
republican ; four pages ; size 19 x 24 ; subscription $20 ; 
established 1869; N. A. Baker, editor and publisher; 
J. H. Hayford, associate editor; claims 288 circulation. 

SOUTH PASS CITY News: semi-weekly; Wednesdays and 
Saturdays; four pages; size 16 x 22; subscription 
$15; established 1869; S. W. Russell, editor and pub- 
lisher; circulation about 400. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every evening except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Leader, Saturdays; republican; four pages; 
size — daily, 24 x 36, weekly 26 x 40; subscription — 
daily $20, weekly $2; N. A. Baker, editor and pub- 
lisher; circulation — daily about 500, weekly about 800. 

CHEYENNE, Wyoming News: every morning except Mon- 
day; democratic; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscrip- 
tion $20; estabhshed 1870; W. Richardson, editor; H. 
A. Pierce, publisher; circulation about 400. 

CHEYENNE, Wyoming Tribune: Saturdays; republican; 


four pages; size 27 x 40; subscription $3; established 
1869; Church & Bristol, editors and publishers; claims 
648 circulation. 

LARAMIE CITY Sentinel: every evening except Sunday; 
republican; four pages; size 19 x 26; subscription $20; 
established 1869; Hayford & Gates, editors and pub- 
lishers; claims 288 circulation. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every evening except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Leader, Saturdays; republican; four pages; 
size — daily 22 x 32, weekly 24 x 36; subscription — 
daily $16, weekly $2.50; H. Glafcke, editor; Baker & 
Co., publishers; circulation — daily about 500, weekly 
about 800. 

CHEYENNE, Wyoming Tribune: Saturdays; republican; 
four pages; size 27 x 40; subscription $3; established 
1869; Geo. W. Corey, editor; Geo. W. Corey & Co., 
publishers; circulation 600; co-operative. 

LARAMIE CITY Independent: every evening except Sun- 
day; four pages; size 21 x 28; subscription $10; es- 
tablished 1872; E. A. Slack, editor; Slack & Webster, 
publishers; circulation about 280; largest circulation 
of any daily in the Territory, and subscription con- 
stantly increasing. 

LARAMIE CITY Sentinel: every moi;ning except Sunday; 
republican; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription $10; 
established 1869; Hayford & Gates, editors and pub- 
lishers; claims 436 circulation. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Leader, Saturdays; republican; four pages; 
size — daily 22 x 32, weekly 24 x 36; subscription — 
daily $16, weekly $2.50; H. Glafcke, editor and pub- 
lisher; circulation — daily 280, weekly 310; pioneer 
newspaper of Wyoming; the only newspaper in Wyo- 
ming sold on the cars of the Union Pacific Railroad 
for over 500 miles; official paper of United States, 
territorial, county, and municipal government; circu- 
lates in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, California and Ne- 

CHEYENNE, Wyoming Tribune: Saturdays; republican; 


four pages; size 27 x 40; subscription $3; established 
1869; Geo. W. Corey, editor; George W. Corey & Co., 
publishers; circulation 520, estimated. 

EVANSTON Age: Fridays; four pages; size 26 x 40; sub- 
scription $3; established 1873; W. R. Vaughn, editor 
and publisher; circulation 480, estimated. 

LARAMIE CITY Independent: every evening except Sun- 
day; four pages; size 20 x 26; subscription $10; es- 
tabhshed 1871; E. A. Slack, editor; Slack & Webster, 
publishers; circulation 300, estimated. 

LARAMIE CITY Sentinel: every evening except Sunday; 
republican; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription 
$10; established 1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hay- 
ford & Gates, publishers; circulation 350, estimated. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Leader, Saturdays; republican; four pages; 
size 24 X 36; subscription — daily $16, weekly $2.50; 
H, Glafcke, editor and publisher; circulation — daily 
300, weekly 340, estimated. 

EVANSTON Age: Fridays; four pages; size 26 x 40; sub- 
scription $3; established 1873; M. C. Hopkins, editor; 
Wm. E. Wheeler, publisher, circulation 504; co-opera- 

LARAMIE CITY Independent: every evening except Sun- 
day; four pages; size 20 x 28; subscription $10; es- 
tablished 1871; E. A. Slack, editor; Slack & Webster, 
publishers; circulation 342. 

LARAMIE CITY Sentinel: every evening except Sunday; 
republican; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription 
$10; established 1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hay- 
ford & Gates, publishers; circulation 325, estimated. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Sunday, and 
Wyoming Leader, Saturdays; republican; four pages; 
size 22 X 32; subscription — daily $16, weekly $2.50; 
established 1867; H. Glafcke, editor and publisher; 
circulation — daily 260, weekly 300, estimated. 

EVANSTON Age: every day except Sunday, and weekly 
Fridays; four pages; size — daily 18 x 26, weekly 26 x 


40; subscription — daily $10, weekly $3; established — 
daily 1874, weekly 1872; William E. Wheeler, editor 
and publisher; circulation — weekly 439; weekly co- 
operative; sample copies free; the Weekly has the 
largest circulation in the Territory; also has a large 
circulation in Southern Idaho. 

LARAMIE CITY Sentinel; every evening except Sunday; 
republican; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription $10; 
established 1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hayford & 
Gates, publishers; circulation 453. 

LARAMIE CITY Sun: every evening except Sunday; four 
pages; size 24 x 36; subscription $10; established 
1871; Slack and Bramel, editors and publishers; cir- 
culation 280, estimated; contains more reading mat- 
ter than any other daily in the Territory. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Monday and 
weekly, Thursdays; republican; daily; four pages, 
weekly, eight pages; size — daily 24 x 36, weekly 30 
X 44; subscription — daily $10; weekly $2.50; estab- 
lished 1867; H. Glafcke, editor and publisher; cir- 
culation — daily 517, weekly 897; official paper of city, 
county, Territory and United States; the "Leader" 
reaches all the mining camps in the Black Hills of 
Wyoming and Dakota. 

CHEYENNE Sun: every morning except Sunday; repub- 
lican; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription $10; es- 
tablished 1876; E. A. Slack, editor and publisher; 
circulation 700, estimated. 

EVANSTON Age: tri-weekly, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays; independent; four pages; size 24 x 36; 
subscription $5 ; established 1874 ; William E. Wheeler, 
editor and publisher; circulation 344; the "Age" is 
the only paper published in western Wyoming; is the 
official paper of Uintah and Sweetwater counties, and 
has a circulation in every city, town, station and min- 
ing camp in the Territory; advertising contracts made 
with responsible parties, or through Geo. P. Rowell 

*There was no regular volume published in 1876. Instead was 
issued a pamphlet comprising brief listings of all United States 
newspapers exhibited by Rowell at the Centennial Exposition held 
that year in Philadelphia. 


& Co., at low rates; send ten cents for sample copy. 
Postal card orders "don't go". 

LARAMIE CITY Laramie Chronicle: every evening except 
Sunday; independent; four pages; size 22 x 32; sub- 
scription $10; established 1876; C. W. Bramel, editor; 
Webster, Johnson and Garrett, publishers. 

LARAMIE CITY Laramie Sentinel: every morning, and 
weekly, Mondays; republican; four pages; size 24 x 
36; subscription — daily $10, weekly $3; established 
1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hayford & Gates, pub- 
lishers; circulation — daily 800, weekly 400, estimated. 


CHEYENNE Gazette: every morning except Sunday; 
democratic; four pages; size 22 x 32; subscription $10; 
established 1877; Webster, Johnson & Garrett, edit- 
ors and publishers. 

CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Monday, and 
weekly, Thursdays; republican; daily four pages, 
weekly eight pages; size — daily 24 x 36, weekly 30 x 
44; subscription — daily $10, weekly $2.50; established 
1867; H. Glafcke, editor and publisher; circulation — 
daily 517, weekly 897. 

CHEYENNE Sun: every morning except Sunday; repub- 
lican; four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription $10; es- 
tablished 1876; E. A. Slack, editor and publisher; cir- 
culation 700, estimated. 

EVANSTON Age: tri-weekly, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays; independent; four pages; size 24 x 36; 
subscription $5; established 1874; William E. Wheeler, 
editor and publisher; circulation 344. 

LARAMIE CITY Laramie Sentinel: every morning, and 
weekly, Mondays; republican; four pages; size 24 x 
36; subscription — daily $10, weekly $3; established 
1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hayford & Gates, pub- 
lishers; circulation — daily 700, weekly 400, estimated, 


CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Monday, and 
weekly, Thursdays; republican; daily four pages, 
weekly eight pages; size — daily 26 x 40; weekly 30 
x 44; subscription daily $10, weekly $2.50; established 
1867; H. Glafcke, editor; Leader Printing Co., pub- 


lishers; circulation — daily exceeding 500, weekly not 
exceeding 1000, 

CHEYENNE Sun: every evening except Sunday and 
weekly, Saturdays; four pages; size — daily 24 x 36; 
weekly 28 x 44; subscription — daily $10, weekly $2.50; 
established— daily 1876, weekly 1877; E. A. Slack, 
editor and publisher; circulation, daily not exceeding 

EVANSTON Age: Saturdays; independent; four pages; 
size 26 x 40 ; subscription $3 ; established 1874 ; Shaffer 
& Wheeler, editors and puMishers; circulation exceed- 
ing 500. 

GREEN RIVER CITY Rocky Mountain Courier: Thurs- 
days; four pages; size 26 x 40; subscription $3; es- 
tablished 1878; Shaffer & Wheeler, editors and pub- 

LARAMIE CITY Laramie Sentinel: every morning, and 
weekly, Mondays; republican; four pages; size 24 x 
36; subscription — daily $10, weekly $3; established 
1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hayford & Gates, pub- 
lishers; circulation — daily exceeding ,500, weekly not 
exceeding 500. 

RAWLINS Carbon County News: Saturdays; four pages; 
size 26 X 40; subscription $3; established 1878; Shaf- 
fer & Wheeler, editors and publishers. 


CHEYENNE Leader: every morning except Monday and 
weekly, Thursdays; republican; daily four pages; 
weekly eight pages; size — daily 26 x 40, weekly 30 x 
44; subscription daily $10, weekly $2.50; estalDlished 
1867; H. Glafcke, editor; Leader Printing Co., pub- 
lishers; circulation — daily exceeding 500, weekly not 
exceeding 1000. 

CHEYENNE Sun: every morning except Monday, and 
weekly, Saturdays; four pages; size — daily 26 x 40, 
weekly 28 x 44; subscription — daily $10, weekly $2.50; 
established— daily 1878, weekly 1877; E. A. Slack, 
editor and publisher; circulation — daily not exceed- 
ing 500, weekly not exceeding 1000. 

EVANSTON Age: Saturdays; independent; four pages, 
size 26 x 40; subscription $3; established 1874; W. E. 


Wheeler, editor and publisher; circulation not exceed- 
ing 500. 

EVANSTON Uinta Chieftain: Saturdays; four pages; size 
26 X 40; subscription $3; estabhshed 1879; Wilham T. 
Shaffer, editor and publisher; circulation not exceed- 
ing 500. 

GREEN RIVER CITY Rocky Mountain Courier: Thurs- 
days; four pages; size 26 x 40; subscription $3; es- 
tablished 1878; W. E. Wheeler, editor and publisher; 
circulation not exceeding 500. 

LARAMIE CITY Times: every afternoon except Sunday; 
four pages; size 24 x 34; subscription $10; established 
1879; L. D. Pease, editor and publisher; circulation 
not exceeding 500. 

LARAMIE CITY Laramie Sentinel: Fridays; republican; 
four pages; size 24 x 36; subscription $3; established 
1869; J. H. Hayford, editor; Hayford & Gates; pub- 
lishers; circulation not exceeding 500. 

RAWLINS Carbon County Journal : Saturdays ; four pages ; 
size 24 X 36; subscription $3; established 1879; John 
C. Friend, editor; Rawlins Printing Co., publishers. 

RAWLINS Carbon County News: Saturdays; four pages; 
size 26 X 40; subscription $3; established 1878; W. E. 
Wheeler, editor and publisher; circulation not exceed- 
ing 500. 


Mr. Wm. H. King, and Mr. Metcalf, of the theatre of 
Julesburg, are making preparations to offer the Cheyenne- 
ites first class entertainments in the histrionic art. They 
will open soon, and we shall be pleased to note a splendid 
success to their endeavors, which we know they must re- 
ceive.— (The Cheyenne Leader, Sept. 28, 1867.) 

9n Meifuo^iain 


1858 - 1943 

John Eugene Osborne was born in Westport, Essex 
County, New York, June 19, 1858; graduated from the 
University of Vermont in 1880, where he studied medi- 
cine; came to Rawhns, Wyoming, in the early '80's; ap- 
pointed surgeon for the Union Pacific Railroad at Raw- 
lins ; established a wholesale and retail drug house in 1882 ; 
he entered the livestock industry in 1884, and in a few 
years had the reputation of being the largest individual 
sheep owner in the Territory; elected to the House of 
the Territorial Assembly in 1883, but resigned, as cir- 
cumstances took him out of the Territory; chairman of 
the Territorial Penitentiary Commission in 1888; elected 
second mayor of Rawlins in 1888; alternate Democratic 
National Convention in 1892; elected governor of Wyo- 
ming, 1893-95, renominated in 1896 but declined; dele- 
gate to the Democratic National Convention in 1896; 
elected to the House of Representatives of the 
Fifty-fifth Congress in 1896; unsuccessful candidate for 
the United States Senate in 1898; member of the Demo- 
cratic National Committee, 1900-1920; soon after the in- 
auguration of the Wilson Administration he was appointed 
First Assistant Secretary of State, an office he held from 
April 21, 1913, to December 14, 1915; in 1918 received the 
nomination in the Democratic primaries for the United 
States Senate, defeated at the general election; chairman 
of the board of the Rawlins National Bank; a resident of 
Rawlins for over 60 years. Died April 24, 1943 at Raw- 
lins. Interment at Princeton Kentucky, where Mrs. Os- 
borne is at rest. 

Married 1907 to Miss Selina Smith of Princeton, Ken- 
tucky, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John P. Smith. One 
daughter was born to this union, Jean Curtis (Mrs. John 
W. Todd, of San Antonio, Texas) at Princeton, Kentucky, 
December 6, 1908. 

John Eugene Osborne served his adopted state well; 
the betterment of Wyoming being his one thought. 

By John C. Friend* 

The building of the Union Pacific up the eastern slope 
of the Continental Divide, during the summer of 1868, 
marked the first permanent settlement on the site of what 
is now the most prosperous and active commercial center 
in Wyoming. 

Early in the spring of 1868, the graders reached this 
point and established their camp at the old springs a 
half mile west of town which at that time flowed a large vol- 
ume of water. These springs were called Rawlins' Springs, 
after an early time hunter and trapper in this section. 
The postoffice which was established during the summer 
and the railroad station that was located when the track- 
layers reached this point in July, 1868 also appropriated 
the name. Subsequently the name of the station was 
changed to Rawlins, in honor of General John A, Rawlins, 
then secretary of war. 

*John C. Friend, born at Chandlerville, Cass County, Illinois, 
July 16, 1847, was the son of Leah and Ezekial Friend, of Illinois. 
He spent his early life on the home farm in Illinois; when sixteen 
he enlisted at Benton Barracks in 1863 as a member of Company 
G, Eleventh Ohio Cavalry, with which he served three years; his 
regiment was sent to Wyoming in 1865 to help quell Indian troubles; 
was the last of the Civil War veterans of Carbon County. In 1869 
he settled in Rawlins; became very active in all activities " for the 
betterment of Rawlins and Carbon County. He served in the sec- 
ond, third and fifth Territorial Assemblies, first representing Carbon 
County as a member of the House in 1871; represented Carbon and 
Sweetwater counties as a member of the Council in 1873; and as 
member of the House for Carbon County, in 1875. He with others 
opened the Rawlins paint mines; was identified with mining interests 
for many years; established, with associates, the Rawlins Metallic 
Paint Company; in 1874 sold one carload of paint to the president 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, and this was the first paint used on 
the Brooklyn bridge. With W. L. Shaffer he published the first 
paper in Carbon County, 1878, called the Carbon County News. In 
1879 he purchased the Carbon County Journal, of which he was 
editor and manager until 1892. In 1893 he went to Casper and was 
manager and editor of the Derrick for three months; returned to 
Rawlins where he was employed by the Union Pacific Railroad from 
1897 to 1903; held a number of county offices; was in the insurance 
business for many years. Married Miss Leah Welch of Ogden, Utah; 
they had five children. Died January 18, 1922. Interment at Raw- 
lins, Wyoming. John C. Friend holds an outstanding place in cen- 
tral Wyoming history. 



In August of the same year it was announced that 
Rawhns would be made a division point. Large quantities 
of material for the depot building, shops and hotel began 
to arrive. Men were employed to get out rock for founda- 
tion and the shops. Business houses from Benton and 
other points were moved to the new town, and Rawlins 
became a lively, bustling hive of industry. The new-com- 
ers refused to purchase lots, having been fooled too often, 
some having paid as much as a thousand dollars for lots 
at Benton. They pitched their tents and erected their 
temporary shacks along the creek on the south side of 
the track. 

Smith and Wills were given a contract to cut fifty 
thousand cords of wood. Nearly all the locomotives then 
in the Union Pacific service being wood burners. Hun- 
dreds of men were employed to chop cord wood. The 
hills north of town were stripped of cedars and all the 
small canyons south for twenty miles which would afford 
a few cords of quaking aspen were occupied by wood 
choppers. Wert P. Noble now a well known business 
man of Lander and Salt Lake, was book-keeper for the 
contractors. Only a small portion of the wood was ever 
delivered, as the mining of coal at Carbon and Rock 
Springs furnished the railroad company with all neces- 
sary fuel. 


Among the early settlers who have resided here since 
1868, are P. L. Smith and wife, John F. Foote and wife, 
Mrs. L. Hays, and Frank Blake, the latter having served 
as foreman of the car repair shop during his long resi- 
dence here. 

Of the '69ers left are: Ex-Mayor I. C. Miller, Hon. 
J. P. Keller, who is now serving as quartermaster's agent 
for the department of the Platte, Jno. C. Friend, and Mrs. 
Mae Franklin, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Foote, the 
first white child born in the town. 

The early part of the winter of 1868 was an open one 
and track laying progressed rapidly, passing Bryan, 13 
miles west of what is now the town of Green, before 
spring. Bitter Creek, 75 miles west of Rawlins, was made 
another freight division point, but has since been aban- 


doned. Mr. Timothy O. Baily, lately deceased, was the 
first master mechanic at that point. 

As in all new western towns there were several shoot- 
ing scrapes in Rawlins during the winter of '68-9, but no 
one was ever arrested or tried for murder. The victims 
were generally quietly buried on the hill just south of 
the Snake river road near the springs. 

Heavy snows fell in February and March, 1869. Some- 
thing like a thousand men were employed between Bitter 
Creek and this point to keep the track open. The rail- 
road company had no snow plows that were of any use, 
the cuts were narrow and the sand and snow had to be 
shoveled out to keep the line open. 

The railroad hotel was opened early in the spring 
of 1869 by Swain & Co., who failed in less than a year. 
Mr. Swain was one of the members of the first board of 
county commissioners. 

Indians were more or less troublesome. In the fall 
of 1868 Lieuts. Young and Spence followed up a party 
which had made a raid on the government stock at Fort 
Steel and overtook them at what is now known as Young's 
pass, in the Ferris range, where they had a sharp en- 
gagement lasting several hours. They recaptured some 
of the government stock, the Indians, however, managing 
to get away with the larger portion. Several soldiers were 
slightly wounded, 


In the spring of 1869, H. C. Hall & Co. erected the 
building now known as the Brunswick House. It was lo- 
cated on the lot where the France stone block now stands, 
and was the first building erected by a business firm on 
the north side of the track. The business houses in town 
at that time were: H. C. Hall & Co., general merchandise 
and liquors; Jerry Sheehan, general merchandise and li- 
quors. Sheehan occupied the building where Magor's sa- 
loon is now located. Hunt & Smith, meat market and 
coal; J. Dyer, stationery, tobacco and cigars. Mr. Dyer 
was also the first postmaster. His place of business was 
a small frame building just south of the track and in 
front of Magor's store. Dawson Bros., liquors, Wm. Baker, 
manager; M. T. Lockridge, saloon, billiards and barber 
shop; Donnelly & Brennan, saloon; Larry Hayes, res- 


taurant; Chas. Good, shoemaker; John O'Brien, saloon 
and Fenian headquarters. 

Mr. E. Hunt of the firm of Smith & Hunt, conceived 
the idea that there were miUions in raising hogs and 
fattening them upon game. He sent east for several 
carloads of hogs, hired hunters and started out to range 
them about the country, similar to the way sheep are 
now handled. Antelope, deer and elk were plentiful, so 
he found no difficulty in securing hog food. The enter- 
prise was, however, not a success and was abandoned 
after a couple of years. 

The first church erected was the Morris Presbyterian 
which stood upon the ground the handsome stone edifice 
now occupies. It was erected during the winter of 1869 
and dedicated in March 1870 by Rev. Sheldon Jackson. 


The first term of court held in this county was in 
June, 1870, in a large tent that stood in the street just 
west of Magor's warehouse. Justice J. W. Kingman pre- 
siding; Smith Foote, sheriff; Chas. E. Wilson, prosecut- 
ing attorney, and Frank B. Edmunds, clerk. Frank, bv 
the way, was the "Poobah" of the county as he also held 
the office of county c^erk, treasurer, probate judge, iustice 
of the peace. United States court commissioner and dep- 
uty United States revenue assessor. No important cases 
were ever tried. 


During the summer of '70, Capt. Thos. B. Dewees' 
company of the second cavalry were stationed here. They 
were camped just west of town about where Magor's 
blacksmith shop now stands. Earlv in April 1870 a party 
of a half dozen Indians made a raid around by the slaugh- 
ter pens and up through the bottom on the other side 
of the creek, shot into John Foote's house near the 
springs and attempted to drive off Walter Towse's cows. 
Towse then lived where the Starzell mansion stands. Wal- 
ter mounted his old gray horse and started through the 
cut, recaptured his cows and succeeded in killing one of 
the Indians which he brought down and threw on the 
depot platform. Every man, woman, and child went to 
see that Indian during the afternoon. Towse afterward 


scalped, threw the body up on a coal car and sent it down 
to the post surgeon at Fort Steele, 

Along in the summer Sam Parkin and several others 
came in one Sunday saying they had been attacked by 
Indians near Bull canyon. Lieut. Young with the soldiers 
and several citizens started out after the Indians. They 
overtook them out on Sage creek. After a day's desult- 
ory fighting the Indians during the night made their es- 
cape over the range, going south. They were thought to 
be Ute for this reason. There were numerous alarms 
during the season but fortunately no whites were killed. 


Carbon County was segregated from Laramie by the 
legislature during the session in the winter of 1869 and 
organized as a separate county. Wm. M. Masi made the 
first assessment of the county in 1870. In September 
the first county election was held. The campaign was a 
hot one. Judge Wm. Jones was the Republican candidate 
for delegate to Congress and Stephen F. Nuckols the 
Democratic candidate. The Democratic county ticket with 
the exception of one commissioner was elected, as follows: 
Peter Lemon, sheriff; E. B. Martin, treasurer, and pro- 
bate judge; J. P. Keller, clerk; Frank Blake, M. Mooney 
and Chas. G. Bingham, (Republican) county commission- 
ers; Chas. E. Wilson, prosecuting attorney; Robt. W. Bax- 
ter, superintendent of schools. The new board of com- 
missioners organized by the election of Frank Blake chair- 


Early in the winter of '70 another term of court was 
held. Judge J. W. Kingman again presiding. Lockeridge's 
billiard hall was secured, the bar and billiard tables being 
moved out. The building consisted of two rooms, between 
which there was a single board partition, with cracks be- 
tween the board through which you could have run your 
fingers if a sheet of thin muslin had no^ been tacked over 
the partition. This too prevented a person from looking 
through and seeing what was going on in the next room. 
Early in the term a jury was secured in a felony case, 
wherein the defendant was charged with assaulting the 
prosecuting witness, hitting him over the head with a 
revolver and threatening to kill him. About noon the 


case was given to the jury and they retired to their room. 
Several ballots were taken and the case iully argued, 
without being able to arrive at a conclusion, the jury 
being nearly equally divided as to the guilt or innocence 
of the defendant. There were several card tables in the 
jury room, in the drawers of which were cards and checks. 
Uncle Bobby Reid, an honest-heatred, sturdy old Scotch- 
man was the foreman of the jury and first to discover 
the cards. Being very fond of the game of cards known 
as "Old Sledge" he exclaimed: "Come, boys, bide a bit 
wid the voting; we will have a game of cards." The 
judge's chair set close to the partition between the court 
and jury rooms, which enabled him to hear everything 
that was said in the jury room. Card playing went on 
continuously during the afternoon with an occasional in- 
terruption when a ballot was taken — with Uncle Bobby's 
usual objection: "Bide a wee till game's out." In his 
broad Scotch accent he would invariably claim "High, low, 
jock," and "Sammy Parkins, de'il take ye, ye stole the 
jock, gi'e me low." There was but little business in the 
court room that afternoon. The judge, however, did not 
leave his seat. About half past six in the evening the 
sheriff was ordered to bring in the jury. They filed into 
the court room and answered to their names, when the 
judge without asking them if they had agreed, turned 
to Hon. L. D. Pease, of Laramie, the clerk, saying: "Mr. 
Clerk, enter up a fine of two dollars each against this 
jury for trying to arrive at a verdict by playing cards. 
Mr. Sheriff they will stand committed until the fine is 
paid. This court stands adjourned until ten o'clock tomor- 
row morning." He then clapped on his hat and was out 
of the court room in three strides. (The writer was one 
of the victims). The case was continued and subsequently 

A man named Kelly was tried at this term charged 
with murdering a man at Benton a couple of years before. 
Tom Street, of Cheyenne, assisted in the prosecution. W. 
H. Miller, W. R. Steele and W. W. Corlett, of Cheyenne 
were for the defenjge. Kelly was acquitted. 

The building on the south side of the track known 
as the old court house was built in the fall of '70 by John 
Doty who opened it up as a saloon and billiard room. The 
next summer it was purchased by the county commission- 
ers for a court house. 



Early in the spring of 1871 Lieut. R. H. Young of 
Fort Steele, had an assay made of a piece of galena ore 
which a couple of prospectors had given him some time 
before. It was known that the specimens came from 
the Ferris range of mountains. The returns from the as- 
say was a great surprise to everyone, showing over 4,000 
ounces per ton in silver and a good percentage in lead. 
There was great excitement at Fort Steele and this place 
over the discovery. It was, however, dangerous on ac- 
count of Indians for small parties to go out to prospect 
for the new Eldorado. A military expedition was organ- 
ized at Fort Steele consisting of two troups of cavalry 
under Capt. Thos. B. Dewees and Major Burt, Gen'l. Thos. 
J. M. Thayer of Nebraska, subsequently governor of Wy- 
oming territory, and later governor of Nebraska, Frank 
and Boney Ernest. Several Nebraska and Upper Platte 
people accompanied the expedition. 

Mr. Friend wrote the above article for the Republican Bulletin, 
Carbon County newspaper; it was published June 9, 1927. 


A want much felt by business men of this place is now 
supplied by H. J. Rogers, esq., of Denver, who has opened 
a temporary office, at Cornforth Brothers' place, on Eddy 
street, for the transaction of the banking busmess here. 
Mr. R. informs us that he will immediately commence 
the erection of a fine bank building on the corner of Six- 
teenth and Eddy Streets.— (The Cheyenne Leader, Sept. 
28, 1867.) 

£. Ti/iUand B*nUU, 1S39-1SU0 * 

By J. Nielson Barry 

August 6th, 1839 the party started from Independ- 
ence, consisting of 32 persons, four more joined on the 
16th. The leaders were Vasquez and Sublette. With them 
was a Mr. Thompson who had a trading post on the west- 
ern side of the mountains. Also two half-breed hunters, 
one of whom was Mr. Shabenare, (Charboneau), "A son 
of Captain Clark, the great western traveler and com- 
panion of Lewis. He had received an education in Europe 
during seven years." There were four wagons, drawn 
by six mules each. "The men were French, American. 
Spanish and half breeds." 

August 15th passed a grove called Council Grove. 

August 17th reached the Arkansas River, and traveled 
parallel to it. (Details of daily routine, hunting, and de- 
scriptions usual in such journals are omitted.) "We stand 
guard by turns, each one being on duty three hours. We 
had several moonlight nights to cheer the guard." 

August 21st, (Began to see buffalo, with much de- 
scription of hunting). 

August 23d. "We passed a great number of buffaloes, 
the prairie being actuallv alive with them. They extended 
probably four miles, and numbered nearly two hundred 

August 26th. "Encamped on the banks of the Ar- 
kansas." We shall continue to travel along the Arkansas 

*Mr. E. Willard Smith was born in Albany, New York, 1814 
and became an architect and civil engineer in Washington, D. C 
where he died. He married Miss Charlotte Lansing, of Lansing, 
Michigan. Their daughter, Margaret, married Edwin Forest Norvell. 
son of Senator John Norvell of Michigan. This journal was most 
courteously loaned by her daughter, Mrs. Oliver Belt, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. It was printed in full in the Oregon Historical Quarterly, 
September 1913, 26 pages. This abstract gives the more important 

Note: For J. Nielson Barry's Autobiography see ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 117-118. 


for ten or twelve days. The river here is the boundary 
between Mexico and Missouri Territory." 

August 27th. "We are getting along rapidly, traveling 
about twenty-five miles a day." "During the last week 
we passed several places where men belonging to former 
parties had been killed by Indians. The other day we 
passed a place where Mr. Vasquez had a narrow escape," 
from Pawnees. 

August 30th. Overtook Mr. Lupton, a mountain trad- 
er, on his way to the trading post on the river Platte. 
"He had six wagons drawn by oxen. They had started 
about twelve days before us." 

August 31st. "Mr. Lupton encamped with us to- 
day as well as last night. He is trying to keep in com- 
pany with us, but probably will not succeed, as our mules 
can travel much faster than his oxen." 

September 1st. "Today we came in sight of what is 
called Big Timber, sixty miles from Bent's Fort on the 

September 2d. "Today we left Big Timber at noon." 
"We had a view of the mountains this afternoon, but they 
are still one hundred and fifty miles distant." 

September 3d. "Today we passed Bent's Fort, which 
looks quite like a military fortification. It is constructed 
of mud bricks after the Spanish fashion, and is quite 
durable. Mr. Bent had seventy horses stolen from the 
fort this summer." By Commanche Indians. 

September 4th. "To day we passed a Spanish fort 
about two miles from Bent's. It was also built of mud, and 
inhabited by a few Spanish and French. They procure 
flour from Taos, a town in Mexico, eight days' travel from 
this place. They raise a small quantity of corn for their 
own use. We shall continue along the Arkansas River." 

September 5th. "Today we came in sight of Pike's 

September 6th. "We are still approaching the moun- 
tains, which have a very fine appearance. The peak is 
very high." 

September 7th. "We ate our dinner beside a stream 
called Fontaine qui bouille, boiling spring, called so on ac- 
count of the manner in which it boils from the moun- 


tains." "The traders have houses here for trading in win- 
ter," with the Arapahoes and Shian Indians. 

September 10th. "Today and yesterday we passed 
through some strips of pine timber, the first I have seen 
in this part of the country." Mr. Vasquez smoked with 
some Arapoos Indians. 

September 12th. "In the evening we arrived at the 
Platte river and encamped." 

September 13th. "We passed Mr. Lupton's Fort." A 
httle more than an hour later, "We reached the fort of 
Messrs. Sublette and Vasquez, the place of our destina- 
tion." "A great many free trappers are here at present. 
The fort is quite a nice place, situated on the South Fork 
of the River Platte. It is built of adobies, or Spanish 
bricks, made of clay baked in the sun." "The fort is 
opposite Long's Peak, and about twenty miles distant. 
We slept all night at the fort." 

September 14th. "Today I moved my quarters to 
Mr Thompson's camp, a mile and a half from the fort." 

September 16th. "Today we left our encampment, 
and started to cross the mountains. Our party consisted 
of eight men, two squaws and three children. One of the 
squaws belonged to Mr. Thompson, the other to Mr. 
Craig. They are partners, and have a trading fort at 
Brown's Hole, a valley on the west of the mountains." 

September 17th. "Crossed a branch of the Platte 
river. Camped on a small stream cache la Poudre." 

September 19th. "Today we began to travel among 
the hills at the foot of the mountains." "The road we are 
traveling now is surrounded by hills piled on hills, with 
mountains in the background." 

September 20th. "Today the road became more 
rough. We had some very high and steep hills to climb." 
"Messrs. Thompson and Craig went before us and killed 
three buffaloes." 

September 21st. "We have been climbing more hills." 
"We are encamped in a beautiful valley. It is probably 
more than sixty miles long, as far as the eye can reach. 
The view from the surrounding mountains is grand. The 
valley is surrounded by high hills, with mountains in the 
background." "There is a large stream flowing through 


it, called Laramie's Fork, tributary to the North Fork 
of the Platte." "In this plain there is a very large rock, 
composed of red sandstone and resembling a chimney. 
It is situated on a fork of the Laramie called Chimney 

September 23rd. "This morning the road was very 
rough. At noon we entered a very large valley, called the 
Park, at the entrance of which we crossed the North Fork 
of the River Platte, a very fine stream." 

September 24th. "Today we are still traveling in the 

September 25th. "Today we have had a very rough 
road to travel over, and at evening encamped on a ridge 
called the divide." 

September 27th. "We passed a place where the Whites 
had encamped a few days previous, for the purpose of 
killing buffalo and drying the meat. From the signs 
around us, we thought they must have had a fight with 
the Indians." "We saw the skeletons of four bourses, 
killed in the fight. The Whites had thrown up a breast- 
work of logs for a defense. Tonight we put our horses 
in an old horse-pen we found at our camping place, which 
is on Snake River, a tributary of the Colorado of the West." 

September 28th. "Today we had a good road and got 
along well. We are still on Snake River." 

September 29th. "Today we left Snake River." 
"We encamped at some sulphur springs." 

September 30th. (Mr. Smith's horse gave out, and 
he had to walk, and camped by himself on the Vermilion.) 

October 1st. "I left my lonely camp and walked 
rapidly over the gravel and prickly pears that lay in my 
path." "After traveling two miles" (he reached the party) 
"Encamped by a small lake in a valley. My pleasure can 
easily be imagined. They were just eating breakfast of 
which I partook with delight, having eaten nothing the 
day before. At evening we arrived at Brown's Hole, our 
place of destination. This is a valley on Green River in 
which is a fort." 

October 2d. "Today I heard from Kit Carson the 
particulars of the fight at the breastworks at Snake 
River." (Seven men and two squaws went from Brown's 


Hole and were drying buffalo meat when they were at- 
tacked by twenty Sioux Indians.) "The attack was made 
toward morning while it was yet dark. The Indians fired 
principally at one man, named Spillers, as he lay asleep 
outside of the horse-pen, and they pierced him with five 
balls, without wounding anyone else. This awakened the 
rest of the men, and they began to strengthen a horse- 
pen they had made of logs, to form it into a breastwork. 
They digged some holes in the ground for the men to 
stand in, so as to protect them as much as possible. As 
soon as it became light, they commenced firing at the 
Indians, of whom they killed and wounded several. After 
exchanging several shots the principal Indian chief rode 
up toward them and made offers of peace. One of the 
white men went out, and induced him with several others 
to come toward them, when they were within shooting dis- 
tance, he fell back behind some trees, and gave the signal 
to his companions, who fired and killed the head chief. 
The Indians kept up a firing for a short time and then 
retreated. When the chief was shot he jumped up and 
fell down, the others were very much excited, and raved 
and tore around. He was a distinguished chief." 

October 3d. "Still at the fort which is situated in a 
small valley surrounded by mountains, on Green River, 
a tributary of the Colorado. This is quite a stream, about 
three hundred yards wide. It runs through a narrow 
passage or canyon in the mountains, the rocks forming 
a perpendicular wall on each side, five hundred feet high." 

October 6th. "I had intended to go to Fort Hall . . . 
but the party disappointed me." 

October 10th. (A party went on a buffalo hunt on 
Snake River at mouth of Muddy. They killed 100 buf- 
falo and dried the meat, also killed six grizzly bears qufte 
near the camp.) November 1st they returned to the fort 
and remained until the 8th. "On the evening of the first 
there were one hundred and fifty head of horses stolen 
from the vicinity of the fort by a party of Sioux." "A 
party of twelve men went over to Fort Hall, belonging 
to the Hudson's Bay Company, and stole several horses 
from that company, notwithstanding they had been well 
treated by the man who had charge of the fort. On their 
return they stopped at a small encampment of Snake In- 
dians, consisting of three lodges. One of them belonged 
to a very old man who invited them to eat with him and 
treated them with great hospitality. At evening the whites 


proceeded on their journey taking with them all the old 
Indian's horses. On returning to Green River, the trappers 
remaining at the fort expressed their displeasure so 
strongly at this act of unparalleled meanness that they 
were obliged to leave the party to go to a trading post 
of the Eutaw Indians. The whites in the valley, fearing 
that the Snake Indians might retaliate for the loss of 
their horses pursued the thieves and compelled them to 
restore the stolen property." 

November 8th. "We moved up the river a short dis- 
tance to a log cabin, built by some young man, who had 
come to the mountains last spring, intending to remain 
there until the following spring. 

December 20th. (Visit of twenty lodges of Snake 
Indians, trading skins.) "There is a large salt lake in 
the mountains about four days travel from Brown's Hole. 
This lake is a hundred miles long from north to south 
and thirty miles wide . . . There are several fresh water 
streams running into this lake, one of which is Great 
Bear River . . . Near the headwaters of the Missouri is 
a valley filled with mounds, emitting smoke and vapor, 
the ground composing this valley is very soft, so much 
so that a horse will sink to his girths in the ground. On 
the west side of the mountains are streams that segun 
to ebb and flow like the tide. In the mornings their banks 
are overflowing, at noon they are perfectly dry, the next 
morning flowing again. The country around the head- 
waters of the Yellowstone, a tributary of the Missouri, 
abounds in natural curiosities. There are volcanoes, vol- 
canic productions and carbonated springs. Mr. Vasquez 
told me that he went to the top of one of these volcanoes, 
the crater of which was filled with pure water, forming 
quite a large lake. There is a story told by an Arapahoe 
chief of a petrified buffalo standing in the lake on the 
east side of the mountains. It was in a perfect state 
of preservation, and they worship it as a great medicine 
charm. There are also moccasin and buffalo tracks in 
the solid rock along the side of the lake. Nothing would 
induce this Indian to tell where this sacred buffalo is to 
be found. Great presents were offered to him in vain. 
There is a party, going in boats from this valley in the 
spring down Grand River, on the Colorado of the West, 
to California. They will be led by Mr. Walker who was 
with Bonneville in the mountains. They intend trapping 
for beaver on the way." 


"We intended to spend the winter in the valley of 
Brown's Hole, but soon had reason to fear an attack from 
the Sioux. The party before mentioned, w.'io lost their 
chief in an encounter with some whites, had returned to 
their principal tribe and intend coming in numbers to 
attack us in the spring. We therefore thought it unsafe 
to remain until then." "We left the valley of Brown's 
Hole on the 24th of January, 1840 . . . Our party con- 
sisted of twenty persons, fourteen men, four squaws, wives 
of the trappers, and two children. There wert two traders 
in the company, one, Mr. Biggs, who was a trader for 
Sublette and Vasquez, the other, Mr. Baker, a trader for 
Bent and St. Vrain. There were also three free trappers. 
The others were men hired to the two traders." 

January 27th, 1840. "We arrived at Snake River 
and remained there four days. While there the snow fell 
two feet deep. We had three Indian lodges with us, in 
which we slept at night." 

February 2d. "We encamped at a creek called Muddy, 
we found considerable difficulty in traveling through the 
snow during the day." 

February 4th. "The snow became very deep, and in 
a few days . . . six feet deep . . .our stock of provisions 
was nearly exhausted." 

February 17th. "We encamped on a high hill, and 
one of the horses gave out, being unable to cany the load 
any farther. Here we encountered one of the most severe 
storms I ever witnessed. Considerable snow fell, and the 
wind blew for two nights and a day. During the night 
one of the lodges blew down, and its occupants were ob- 
liged to remove to one of the others to prevent being 
frozen. We started with thirty-nine horses and mules, 
all in good order. Some of them were now dying daily 
for want of food and water. We traveled but three or 
four miles a day, on account of the depth of snow. By 
this time many of us were on foot and were obliged to 
go before and break the way for the horses. Our prov- 
isions were being exhausted, we were obliged to eat the 
horses as they died. In this way we lived fifteen days, 
eating a few dogs in the meantime. In a few days we 
were all on foot. We suffered greatly from want of wood. 
We were obliged to burn a shrub called sage . . . We ob- 
tained no water except by melting snow. During this 
time we had some very severe storms of wind and snow 


. . . We were obliged to make a scaffold of some trees 
which we found, and leave our beaver skins on it, with all 
the furs we had collected." (All the horses died) except 
two, and they were so weak as to be almost unable to 
drag the tents." 

February 23d. Our hunters killed a buffalo which 
was very poor, the meat, however, was very pleasant to 
us, after having lived so long on poor horse meat." 

February 24th. "The hunters killed three fat buf- 
falo, which was the first fat meat we had seen for twenty 
days . . . On the afternoon of this day we encamped on 
the North Fork of the River Platte, which runs through 
a small valley surrounded by mountains. At this place 
there was scarcely any snow to be seen, and the weather 
was quite warm. We were still one hundred and fifty 
miles from the trading fort. This valley was filled with 
herds of buffalo. After remaining here four days, three 
of us started on the 29th of February to go to the fort 
for horses. We traveled until noon the first day without 
finding any snow. In the afternoon we met pretty deep 
snow, and toward night it was two feet deep, covered with 
a very hard crust." (They went fifteen miles that day) 
"About dark we stopped on the summit of a hill." (It 
was a wind-swept, but there was no fue": for a fire.) "We 
were very wet, having traveled through the snow all dav. 
We were obliged to lie down on the bare .\iound, with 
only a blanket aDiece to cover -us, and were unable to 
sleep from the severe cold. Next morning we started 
by daylight and found the snow deeper than the day before, 
the crust was hard but not sufficiently so to bear one, 
which made walking verv fatiguing. Notwithstanding the 
difficulty we traveled fifteen miles that day. At sun- 
down v/e came in sight of a stream, the banks of which 
were covered with timber." (They saw fresh tracks of 
Indians. One of the three men had been attacked and 
robbed by Sioux at this place.) "My companions being 
both afraid to proceed, we were obliged to return to our 
party on the North Fork of the Platte . . . We were near 
what was called Medicine Bow Butte, which takes its name 
from a stream running at its base, called Medicine Bow 
Creek." (They started to return that same night) "We 
traveled all night and stopped just as daylight was ap- 
pearing, made a fire and rested half an hour. The next 
night we found ourselves quite near the encampment on 
the Platte. Our party was very much disappointed to see 
us return." 


March 7th. "Mr. Biggs and a half breed started to 
the fort by another route . . . They took a horse with them 
to carry their blankets and provisions. In the meantime 
the party on the Platte were hunting daily, and supplied 
themselves abundantly with provisions." (Transposed) 
"When Mr. Biggs started for the fort . . . we built a fort 
of logs on the Platte to protect us from Indians." "On 
the forty-second day from the time of his starting." "Mr. 
Biggs and Mr. Vasquez arrived, bringing with them 
horses sufficient to carry the furs, but not enough to 
furnish saddle-horses for all the party, consequently some 
were obliged to walk. They also brought some men with 
them, increasing our number to twenty-two. Mr. Biggs 
immediately started to return for the beaver that had 
been left some distance back, and was absent five days." 

April 14th. "They left their fort on the North Fork 
of the Platte." 

April 16th. "We ate dinner at the Medicine Bow 

April 19th. "Arrived at Laramie Fork, a tributary 
of the Platte. At the junction of this stream with the 
North Fork the American Fur Company have a large 
trading fort, called Fort Laramie. 

April 24th. "In the afternoon, we crossed the South 
Fork of the Platte with considerable difficulty, as the 
water was very high. After travelling six miles we ar- 
rived at the Fort of Sublette and Vasquez. We remained 
at the fort nearly two days." 

April 26th. "We started in a mackinaw boat which 
had been made at the fort at the foot of the mountains. 
This boat was thirty-six feet long and eight feet wide. 
We had seven hundred buffalo robes on board and four 
hundred buffalo tongues. There were seven of us in 
company. The water of this river was very shallow and 
we proceeded with difficulty, getting on sand bars every 
few minutes. We were obliged to wade and push the boat 
along most of the way for about three hundred miles, 
which we were forty-nine days traveling. We had to un- 
load the boat several times a day when it was aground, 
which was very hard work." 

May 12th. "We killed the first buffalo we had seen 
since we left the fort." 


May 13th. "We arrived at the camp . . . of Shian In- 
dians . . . They were headed by a chief called the Yellow 
Wolf. His brother was of the party having a name Many 

June 12th. "We arrived at the fork of the Platte. 
The water in the North Fork of the Platte was pretty 
high, and we were able to proceed quite rapidly. We some- 
times traveled fifty miles a day." 

June 14th. "We met five buffalo, the last we saw, 
as we left the country in which they range." 

June 20th. "We passed the Loup Fork and also Shell 

June 21st. "We passed Horse Creek . . . also Saline." 
"In the evening we arrived at a missionary station, about 
fifteen miles from the mouth of the River Platte . . . We 
went to the missionary houses . . . and were much dis- 
appointed at finding them deserted, the missionaries hav- 
ing removed to another place." 

June 22d. "We arrived at the mouth of the river 
Platte ... In the afternoon we stopped at a log house on 
the bank of the river. Here we saw the first whites who 
had gladdened our eyes since leaving the mountains." 

June 23d. "In the evening we arrived at a settle- 
ment, where we procured some fresh meat, bread and 

June 24th. "We stopped at another settlement in the 
State of Missouri, Buchanan county. On the south side of 
the river is Missouri Territory, and on the north side the 
State of Missouri . . . We now traveled rapidly, sometimes 
eighty miles a day. 

July 3d. "We arrived at St. Louis, having come two 
thousand miles from the mountains in sixty-nine days." 


There is a mention in an appendix-note, of "Mr. Sha- 
benare" being with the party in the mackinaw boat, which 
indicates his movements from August 6th, 1839 to July 
3, 1840. He was a son of Touissant Charboneau of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition. Rufus B. Sage, in his 
Rocky Mountain Life, edition 1847, page 206, tells of meet- 
ing a party in the employ of Bent and St. Vrain, August 


30, 1842, on an island of the Platte. They had attempted 
to navigate and were stranded because of low water. 
Their "camp was under the direction of a half breed, named 
Chabonard, who proved to be a gentleman of superior 
information. He had acquired a classic education and 
could converse quite fluently in German, Spanish, French 
and English, as well as several Indian languages. His 
mind, also, was well stored with choice reading, and en- 
riched by extensive travel and observation. Having visited 
most of the important places, both in England, France, 
and Germany. He knew how to turn his experience to 
good advantage." There was a quaint humor and shrewd- 
ness in his conversation, so garbled with intelligence and 
perspicuity, that he at once insinuated himself into the 
good graces of listeners, and commanded their admiration 
and respect." 


The most prevalent mode of finishing buildings for 
winter occupancy in Cheyenne is to wall up the spaces be- 
tween the studding with adobes, or sun dried brick, follow- 
ing this by a coat of plastering. These buildings must 
prove to be very comfortable. — The Cheyenne Leader, Sept. 
28, 1867.) 

WifOmUtq. 9*1 'k/<vtU Wa^ II 

According to a report compiled from official sources 
by Wyoming's U. S. Senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney, 217 
Wyoming men have been reported killed, injured, captured, 
or missing during American operations on foreign fronts 
before the Sicilian invasion (July, 1943). 

This report includes a complete list, and shows where 
the men are from, as well as the branch of the service 
they belong. 

According to the Senator's report 10 army men and 
33 navy and marine corps personnel are dead, 43 army 
men and 18 navy and marine corps men are prisoners, 16 
army and 33 of the navy and marine corps are missing, 
14 army men and 24 of the marine and navy personnel 
are wounded. 

In addition seven civilians are missing and 18 are 
reported as internees. 


Bandemer, Harold William, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Bauer, Victor C, Corporal, USMC, Garland 

Benson, Robert Gerald, Signalman, third class, USN, 

Buckner, Albert D., assistant cook, USMC, Lander 

Carlson, John A., Private, USMC, Casper 

Chase, Guy Laverne, Seaman, second class, USN, Cas- 

Christensen, Elmer Emil, Machinist's Mate, second 
class, USN, Buffalo 

Davis, James Bradley, Fireman, first class, USN, 

Button, William C, Sergeant, USMC, Cody 

Eisele, George Raymond, Seaman, second class, USNR, 


Fisher, Delbert Ray, Seaman, first class, USN, Laramie 

Hanson, George, Machinist's Mate, first class, USN, 

Harmon Frank Subert, seaman second class, USN, 

Japp, Edwin Henry, Seaman, second class, USNR, 

Jones, Charles William, Metalsmith, second class, USN, 

Jones, Irvin Eugene, Seaman, second class, USN, 

Lane, Edward Wallace, Coxswain, USN, Cheyenne 

Larson, Joseph Ernest, Fireman, first class, USN, 

Linton, George Edward, Fireman, second class, USN, 

McGauran, Raphael R., Sergeant, USMC, Laramie 

Moore, Ray A., Private, first class, USMC, Powell 

Morgareidge, James Orries, Fireman, second class, 
USN, Ten Sleep 

Murphy, John, Jr., Private, first class, USMC, Worland 

Musgrave, Francis Dewey, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Offenbacher, R. L., Second Lieutenant, USMC, Casper 

Phillips, Harold Gordon, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Schmidt, Herman, Gunner's Mate, third class, USN, 

Steele, Charles Aron, Ship's Cook, second class, USN, 

Stein, Walter Claud, Seaman, first class, USN, Chey- 

Thompson, John Scott, Aviation Radioman, third 
class, USN, Worland 


Wallenstein, Richard Henry, Seaman, first class, 
USN, Rawlins 

Wolney, George James, Coxswain, USN, Monarch 

Wood, Jack S., Private, first class, USMC, Rock 


Byrd, Robert G., Private, USMC, Laramie 

Chaney, Clarence C, Private, USMC, Casper 

Davis, Clenroe Willard, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Davis, James O., Private, first class, USMC, Casper 

Edwards, Billy R., Private, USMC, Rawlins 

Fraley, Harold D., Jr., Private, USMC, Casper 

Gill, Glenn G., Private, USMC, Moorcroft 

Gillespie, Albert Calloway, Shipfitter, second class, 
USN, Rock River 

Grovum, Elden F., Private, USMC, Casper 

Hardee, Charles S., Corporal, USMC, Casper 

Hoel, Gene D., Private, USMC, Gillette 

Manias, Theodore J., Private, first class, USMC, Cas- 

Merrill, Arthur Curtis, Aviation Radioman, second 
class, USNR, Lovell 

McCarthy, Daniel P., Private, USMC, Casper 

Myers, Roy Alfred, Gunner's Mate, third class, USNR, 

Myhre, Leonard Marvin, Seaman, second class, USNR, 

Nichols, Frank Wilson, Electrician's Mate, third class, 
USN, Encampment 

Sheltren, Walter Allen, Chief Firecontrolman, USN, 


Smith, Arthur Loran Jr., Radioman, first class, USN, 

Stewart, Jesse L., Technical Sergeant, USMC, Green 

Trujillo, Joe H., Private, first class, USMC, Rock 

Tyrelle, Elwood Lee, Private, USMC, Gillette 

Vanderpas, Charles W., Private, first class, USMC, 

Vesey, William K., Corporal, USMC, Casper 


Clark, Jesse Neilson, Boatswain's Mate, first class, 
USN, Mountain View 

Corsberg, Howard C, Private, first class, USMC, Lar- 

Cusack, Ralph Roger, Radioman, third class, USN, 

Davis, Howard Earl, Yeoman, second class, USN, 

Dicken, Marion Upton, Seaman, second class, USN, 

Dugger, Harold Wayne, Seaman, second class, USNR, 

Flesher, Stanley Russell, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Gunnerson, Carl Fredrick, Fireman, second class, USN, 

Harrison, Morse Grant, Aviation Radioman, third 
class, USN, Wamsutter 

Henetz, Michael, Private, first class, USMC, Rock 

Hunter, John Stevenson, Torpedoman, first class, 
USN, Kemmerer 

Kinnison, Willis Leroy, Seaman, second class, USNR, 


Lawson, Raymond Paul, Chief Machinist, USN, Chey- 

Lindsey, Kenneth C, Private, first class, USMC, Gil- 

Marceau, Wilfrid Louis, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Mariette, Maxwell Albert, Pharmacist's Mate, second 
Class, USN, Foxpark 

McFarland, John Arthur, Seaman, first class, USN, 

Miller, Fred James, apprentice seaman, USN, Rock 

Montgomery, Robert Allen, radioman, first class, USN, 

Nebel, Alma Rex, Corporal, USMC, Lovell 

Oelke, Clayton Lavelle, machinist's mate, second class, 
USN, Sheridan 

Osborn, Arthur Raymond, radioman, second class, 
USN, Pine Bluffs 

Piasecki, Alexander L., Corporal, USMC, Acme 

Robertson, Robert Nehls, fireman, first class, USN, 

Smith, Raymond E., mess sergeant, USMC, Recluse 

Stetz, Frank Charles, apprentice seaman, USNR, 

Stout, Roy Albert, signalman, third class, USN, Farson 

Valhusky, Arthur John, aviation machinist's mate, 
second class, USN, Hudson 

Vesey, Kenneth L., Private, USMC, Casper 

Vospahl, Arthur Henry, Lieutenant, USN, Laramie 

Walker, Harry Orville, Coxswain, USN, Sheridan 

Whitehead, Wallace Albert, storekeeper, second class, 


Wollam, J. P., Private, USMC, Powell 


Prisoners of War 

Basye, Frank David, Chief Quartermastei , CJSN, Jask- 

Bissett, Everett A., Private, USMC, Casper 

Christensen, Alfred Bennett, Private, first class, 
USMC, Kaycee 

Dickeson, Truman M., Private, first class, USMC, 

Dillman, Frank H., Corporal, USMC, Lander 

Frost, Lynn Wm., Private, first class, USMC, Casper 

McCoy, Clarence William, Boatswain's mate, first 
class, USN, Newcastle 

McDowell, Jack W., Sergeant, USMC, Casper 

McVay, William A., Private, first class, USMC, Ther- 

Miller, Jack "Z", Private, first class, USMC, Rock 

Murphy, Robert Bruce, Private, first class, USMC, 

Reed, Clifford Milton, Private, first class, USMC, Story 

Salsbury, Richard LeRoy, Pharmacist's mate, USN, 

Sohn, Rosse E., Field music corporal, USMC, Rock 

WinterhoUer, John, First Lieutentnt, USMC, Lovell 

Stewart, Jesse L., Tech. Sgt., USMC, Green River 

Kirkpatrick, Edward L., Private, first class, USMC, 

Crichton, Clint Millard, Private, first class, USMC, 

Civilian Internees 

Ft. Warren — Ritenour, Charles 

The following twenty-five men were employed at Walje, 
Guam and Cavite, by Pacific naval air base contractors, 


at the time of Japanese occupation of those areas: 

Casper — Fisher, Marvin C, interned, and Unger, Lewis 
O., missing 

Cheyenne — Bainster, Raymond E., internee 

Cody — Christler, Elmer J., internee; Cooper, Robert 
P., internee; Fenex, Jack A., (also of Glenrock), missing; 
Freestone, Wm. F., missing; Jernberg, Andrew D., internee; 
McDonald, Jos. T., internee; Murphy, Gerald L., internee; 
Patterson, Howard C, internee 

Douglas — Esmay, Wayne E., missing 

Fox Park — Herndon, Pat H., internee 

Jackson — Johnson, Lee, Jr., internee 

Lovell — Schmidt, Henry J., internee 

Manderson — Johnson, Axel R., internee; Robertson, 
Chas. B., internee 

Midwest — Pease, Gordon H., missing 

Rock Springs — McTee, John R., internee 

Sheridan — Scott, Lawrence R., internee 

Sundance — Graham, Lyle E., missing 

Wapiti — Simpers, Wm. T., missing 

Worland — Groshart, Jay A., internee; O'Neal, John H., 

Wheatland — Nelson, Edward A., internee 

Army Personnel 

Adon — Christenson, Alvin C, Pvt., prisoner 

Afton — Hale Blair, 2nd Lt., missing 

Aladdin — Giachino, Martin, Pvt., prisoner 

Bairoil — Hamilton, Duke L., Jr., Tech. Sgt., missing 

Basin — Rosenberry, Harry, Cpl., prisoner; and Rus- 
sell, Roland W., 2nd Lt., wounded 

Buffalo — Scott, Richard, Pvt., prisoner 

Byron — Johnson, Keith E. Staff Sgt., prisoner 


Carpenter — Schliske, Elmer E., Cpl., prisoner 

Casper — Barhaug, Raganar, 2nd Lt., missing; For- 
sythe, Donald B., Pvt., prisoner; Goldtrap, John C, Maj., 
prisoner; Helton, Virgil M., Pfc, wounded; Musfelt, Roy 
W., Pfc, prisoner; Spalding, Jack A., 1st Lt., dead. 

Cheyenne — Brevdy, Oscar L., Sgt., prisoner; Calder, 
Wm. H., Pfc, prisoner; Colvin, Wayne W., Pfc, prisoner; 
Defreese, Norman E., 1st Lt., dead; Hill, Allen S., Staff 
Sgt., wounded; Holsteda, Robert E., 1st Lt., wounded; 
King, Garrett C, 1st Lt., dead; Kline, Allan T., Pvt., 
wounded; Kozel, Walter, 2nd Lt., missing; McSorley, Ray- 
mond A., 2nd Lt., missing; Orr, James S., 2nd Lt., dead; 
Schmidt, John J., Pfc, prisoner; True, Joe W., Staff Sgt., 
prisoner; Weppner, John J., 1st Lt., wounded; Yonkoff, 
John, Tech. 5th Grade, wounded; Zubiri, Leslie B., 2nd 
Lt., missing 

Clearmont — Vaughn, Floyd N., Sgt., wounded 

Divide — Moore, Carol C, Cpl., prisoner 

Dixon — Pacheco, Reginald, A., Pvt., prisoner 

Douglas — Mitchell, Leland E., Pfc, prisoner; Schilling, 
Wm., Pfc, prisoner 

Dwyer — Bowman, Joseph N., Jr., dead 

Fort Washakie — Burnett, Finn G., Tech. Sgt., missing 

Foxpark — Suazo, Tito C, Pvt., wounded 

Gillette — Birdsall, Robert B., Tech. Sgt., prisoner 

Greybull — Hankin, Howard H., Pfc, prisoner; Hoover, 
Chester L., 2nd Lt., missing 

Keeline — Deitchler, Floyd J., Pfc, wounded 

Laramie — Brown, Elmer B., Sgt., missing 

Lovell — Hessenthaler, Chas. F., Tecii 5th Grade, 
wounded; Leach, Albert L., Sgt., prisoner 

Lyman — Slagowski, Clyde L., Staff Sgt., missing 

Manville — Cramer, Bruce O., Pvt., prisoner 

Monarch — Perry, Arthur Jr., 1st Lt., dead 

Piedmont — Degman, John Thos., 2nd Lt., missing 


Powell — Dawson, Stanley W., Pfc, prisoner; McDon- 
ald, Jas. Samuel, Capt., prisoner; Roney, Donald R., Pvt., 
wounded; Young, Jas. M., Pfc, missing 

Reliance — Telk, John F,, Pvt., missing 

Riverton — Beedle, Clyde E., Sgt., prisoner; Clements, 
Robert R,, Pfc, dead; Griebel, Robert E., missing; Logan, 
Malcolm H., Tech., Sgt., prisoner 

Rock Springs — Cornford, Russell V., dead 

Sheridan — Bolinger, Fred J., Pfc, prisoner; Boyle, 
Albert W., Pfc, prisoner; Jesser, Robert E., Pvt., prisoner; 
Kelly, Gerald F., Pvt., prisoner; Livingston, Raymond P., 
Pvt., prisoner; Wall, James R., Pvt., prisoner; Olson, Mar- 
vin J., Staff Sgt., prisoner 

Story — Chalfant, Rex C, Pvt., wounded 

Superior — Sampi, Kenneth C, Pvt., prisoner 

Ten Sleep — Rosetti, Louie, Tech. Sgt., missing; Yost, 
Clifford H., Tech. Sgt., prisoner 

Thermopolis — Brunk, Willis L., Cpl., wounded; Stan- 
ley, James W., Pfc, prisoner; Todd, Roy A., Master Sgt., 
died in Japanese prison camp 

Torrington — Kieffer, Warren J., Pfc, prisoner; Sharp, 
Gerald W., Pfc, prisoner 

Veteran — Anderson, Marly n B., Pfc, dead 

Wendover — Miller, Rolland E., Pfc, prisoner 

Wheatland — Randall, Chas. E., Sgt., prisoner; Wilson, 
Francis E., 2nd. Lt., missing 

Worland — Bower, Rodger D., Capt., missing; Chen- 
oweth, Rolland E., Pvt., prisoner; Johnson, Jas. S., 1st 
Lt., missing. 


to the 

Wyoming Historical Department 

June 1, 1943 to August 1, 1943 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Gordon, Thomas, 420 E. 20th St., Cheyenne, Wyoming- 
donor of Railroad Pass, Union Pacific System, issued 
to Thomas Gordon and wife, October 6, 1897. 

Stanley, Mrs. S. J., 2713 Ames Court, Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming — donor of an Edison Phonograph, horn, seven 
disk records, and other accessories. 

Hart, Merril F., Cheyenne, Wyoming — donor of "Wyo- 
ming: Bibliographical List." 

Spaulding, Payson W., Evanston, Wyoming — donor of "A 
Statement supported by Proofs and Affidavits, 1877." 

Todd, Jean Osborne, donor of the John Eugene Osborne 
Collection, Letters and Manuscripts — 60. 

Deming, W. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — donor of Picture 
of "Cowboy Reception to Dr. Crane;" "History of 
Lincoln Highway," Manuscript by E. Emery. 

Wetmore, A., Assistant Secretary, U. S. National Museum, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, donor of 
seven photographs: one of Fort John, Laramie River 
near the Platte 1844 ; six of Indians taken from George 
Catlin's original paintings in the U. S. National Mu- 

Baker, A., Casper, Wyoming, donor of a map. Territory of 
Wyoming, 1876; Father De Smet map, 1851. 


Life Magazine, July 5, 1943. 



This collection consists of letters, newspaper clippings, 
photographs, manuscripts, etc., as listed below, which were 
donated to the State Historical Museum, by Mr. Osborne's 
daughter, Mrs. Jean Osborne Todd. 

Letters to Mr. Osborne from: 


Woodrow Wilson 4 

Thos. R. Marshall 1 

John C. Gale 1 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, N. Y. Gov 1 

Robert Lansing 1 

Frank Polk 1 

W. F. McCombe 1 

D. R. Tillman 1 

William C. Liller 1 

Charles C. McChord 1 

Comptroller of the Currency, Washington 1 

(Name not discernable) 

A. S. Burleasm, Postmaster General Washington 1 
Treasury Department, Office of Commissioner 

of Internal Revenue 1 

(Name not discernable) 

John Burke, Treasurer of the United States 1 

C. C. Hamlin 1 

Including two manuscripts: 

Sugar Tariff by Trueman G. Palmer 1 

Sugar Beet Industry in the United 

States, Tariff, etc 1 

Warren G. Harding 1 

W. J. Bryan 12 

Roger C. Sullivan 1 

Washington G. Valentine 1 

Copies of Letters from Mr. Osborn to: 

The President, The White House 1 

Woodrow Wilson 1 

Letters to Hon. William J. Bryan from: 

Woodrow Wilson 2 


Miscellaneous Letters: 

Democratic National Committee, Rawlin, Wyo., 
November 20, 1912. Unsigned letter in- 
cluding list of members of the Democratic 
National Committee 1 

Letter to: 

Mr. William F. McCombe (Unsigned letter) 1 

Photographs : 

Andrew Jackson, with autograph 1 

Mr. and Mrs. William J. Bryan 1 

Home of Bryan 1 

"Big Nose George" One photo with negative 2 

"Big Nose George" Two views of the death Mash.. 2 

"Big Nose George" With shoes 2 

Speech of Hon. Robert L. Owen 1 

Invitations : 

President and Mrs. McKinley request company 

of Hon. J. E. Osborne to receptions 3 

Certificate of Election, State of Wyoming, Execu- 
tive Department, John E. Osborne 1 

Telegrams : 

John E. Osborne from Emiliano Chamorsro, 

Presidente De Nacaragua 1 

John E. Osborne from Josephus Daniels 1 

Public Papers, Message and Proclamation 
Hon. John E. Osborne, Governor of 

Wyoming, 1893-4 1 

Newspaper Clippings: 

Osborne quits Post as aid to Lansing 1 

Department of State, Press Release for Publication 1 

Vol. 15 October, 1943 No. 4 


MORTALITY OF THE U. S. ARMY, 1819-1860 315 

Compiled by Marie H. Erwin. 



Reminiscences of Civil War Days 377 

By Judge Gibson Clark. 

Letter to W. E. Chaplin from Henry Wagner 386 



Laramie Weekly Sentinel, May 5, 1883 396 


Red Cloud's Prayer 403 

By Judge Gibson Clark. 

The "Magic City", Cheyenne, Dakota Territory, 

1867, (Concluded) 405 


By Dee Linford. 


INDEX for Vol. 15 419 


LANDER Front Cover 

MAP, 1849-1858 375 


J. Abney and F. G. Burnett. 


Printed by The Douglas Enterprise, 
Douglas, Wyoming 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any 
statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presenta- 
tion of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manu- 
scripts of Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observa- 
tions of those familiar with important and significant events in the 
State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of 
Wyoming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical 
magazine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which 
the Department seeks to gain this objective. All communications 
concerning the ANNALS should be addressed to Mary A. McGrath, 
Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Historical Board 
members, the State Historical Advisory Board, Wyoming County 
Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, $1.50 per year; single copies, 45c. 

Entered as second-class matter September 10, 1941, at the Post Office in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, under the Act of August i.i, 191.2. 

Copyright, 1943, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Lester C. Hunt, President Governor 

Mart T. Christensen Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Earl Wright State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Mary A. McGrath, Secy. . State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 
Frank Barrett, Lusk 
George Bible, Rawlins 
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 
Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Giiggs, Buffalo 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 

Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green 

P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 


State Museum 

Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 
Marie H. Erwin, Co-Editor Assistant Historian 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Build- 
ing in Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, 
the Museum provides for the preservation and display of 
the prized possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they 
may be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thou- 
sands of visitors. 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is num- 
bered, labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring 
permanent identification. 

Hed^ and Afo^tcUitif. 0^ tUe An.4ftif. 
01 the United Stated, 1819-1860 * 

Compiled by Marie H. Erwin 

According to the requirements of medical regulations, 
medical officers were required to prepare a paper on the 
medical history of their respective posts. They were re- 
quested to describe the geographical position of their re- 
spective posts, the physical aspect of the surrounding 
country; the geological formations; its flora; its fauna, 
(the animals, trees, and plants belonging to it) ; the 
characteristics of climate; the nature and causes of the 
diseases prevailing at the posts and their vicinity, and 
how far these diseases could be traced to general and local 
causes; how far to habits and modes of life, to water, 
diet, etc. They were also requested to collect as many 
facts as possible concerning the vital statistics of the in- 
habitants in the vicinity of their respective posts, particu- 
larly of the Indian tribes; to give a brief but clear account 
of their several diseases, etc., embracing all types of in- 
formation calculated to prove useful or interesting to the 
War Department and the medical world. 

Statistical reports on the sickness and mortality of 
the United States Army were compiled by the Surgeon 
General of the United States Army from the reports made 
by the medical officers; the reports in compliance with 
resolutions of the Senate of the Congress in which these 
reports appeared were printed. 

The military posts of tne United States were arranged 
in geographical divisions and these divisions into regions, 
thereby rendering greater convenience and accuracy in 
securing statistical and topographical details of the mili- 
tary posts in geographical divisions and regions having 
similar climatological features. 

*This article is compiled from various reports made by the 
Surgeon General of the United States Army, contained in the United 
States Congressional Documents. 


The first "Statistical Report on Sickness and Mor- 
tality in the Army of the United States" covered a period 
of twenty years, from January 1819 to January 1838, and 
was published in 1840. There were no military posts in 
that part of the Northern Division from which Wyoming 
was carved at the time this report was made. 


The Second Report embraced a period of sixteen years, 
from January 1839 to January 1855, compiled under the 
direction of the Surgeon General of the United States 
Army, was published in 1856, by order of the United States 

Fort Laramie was the only military post in that part 
of the Northern Division from which Wyoming was carved 
when this report was made. This Division included all 
that part of the United States north of the 40° N. Latitude 
and east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Second Report on the Sickness and Mortality Among 
the Troops at Fort Laramie, 1839-1855.* 

In the absence of any special topographical report 
respecting this military station the following brief state- 
ment has been collated from Captain Howard Stans- 
bury's report of his "Exploration of the Valley of the Great 
Salt Lake" in 1849-1850. 

"Fort Laramie, formerly known as Fort John, was 
one of the posts established by the American Fur Com- 
pany for the protection of their trade. Its walls are built 
in the usual style of such structures, of adobe or unburnt 
brick. The soil in the vicinity appears to be sterile, owing, 
no doubt, to the extreme dryness of the air and almost 
total absence of dews. The great quantity of coarse con- 
glomerate, too, which, by its disintegration, leaves the 
surface covered with gravel, must operate as a great im- 
pediment to cultivation. The rocks, however, contain the 
elements of fertility, being composed of limestone, clay, 
and sand ; and, with the aid of irrigation, the bottom lands 
of Laramie creek might be made to produce most abund- 
ant crops. Hay is cut, about eight miles up the stream, 
in quantity sufficient for the wants of the garrison." 

According to Assistant Surgeon G. K. Wood, the fort 

*U. S. Congressional Documents, 34th Cong. 1st Sess. S. Ex. 
Doc. No. 96, pp. 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82. [Serial 827.] 


is elevated about twenty feet above the plain immediately 
surrounding it, which is enclosed by hills at a distance of 
about a mile, except on the north and southwest. The 
latter direction is occupied by the valley of the Laramie 
river, through which the wind sweeps almost constantly 
with great violence; in summer, raising clouds of dust so 
dense as to obscure vision for hours; and in winter, the 
snow, perfectly dry, is similarly raised; and lives are fre- 
quently lost on the plains about the post, from the inability 
of the traveller to discover the direction to pursue. 

As regards the geographical position of Fort Laramie, 
it is in latitude 42° 12' 38", longitude 104° 31' 26", as de- 
termined by Captain Stansbury. Its altitude, 4,519 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

The mean annual temperature is 50°. 6, having an ex- 
treme range of 123°; rising in summer to 102°, and falling 
in winter to -21°. The mean annual precipitation is 19.98 

The only military stations in this region visited by 
cholera were Forts Kearney and Laramie. It is well known 
that in the summer of 1849 the emigrants crossing the 
western plains suffered with this disease. The garrisons 
at the above mentioned posts, on the line of emigration, 
escaped; but two cases being reported — one at each post. 
Assistant Surgeon William Hammond, jr., at Fort Kearny, 
states that the case of cholera, included in his report for 
the quarter ending June 30th, 1849, was brought to that 
post. No case originated there. The case included in the 
report for Fort Laramie, really occurred on the march to 
that post from Fort Leavenworth. 

Taking the quarterly reports from Fort Kearney in 
due order, it is found that in June, 1850, Assistant Sur- 
geon Wm. Hammond, jr., reports the health of the troops 
good, but adds that "the California emigrants, between 
Forts Leavenworth and Laramie, have suffered a good 
deal from a disease called by them cholera, and which, 
in its sometimes rapid and fatal course, very much re- 
sembled that malady; but which was nothing more than 
an acute form of diarrhoea, brought on by excessive im- 
prudence in diet, and exposure to many hardships on the 
plains, to which they were entirely unaccustomed at home. 
The universal use of quack nostrums, called cholera mix- 
tures, composed principally of brandy and Cayenne pepper, 
has tended to aggravate the disease when formed. I have 


seen a great many cases among the emigrants, all of which, 
when fairly treated with calomel, opium, and astringents, 
have readily yielded. I do not think there has been any 
true Asiatic cholera upon the plains this summer." 

The quarterly report of this officer for June, 1851, 
contains the following remarks: "The case of cholera re- 
ported above occurred in a recruit, just arrived from Fort 
Leavenworth, who had been suffering with diarrhoea sev- 
eral days before reaching this post. When brought to the 
hospital, at 11 o'clock A. M., June 28, he had all the symp- 
toms of Asiatic cholera — constant and profuse rice-water 
discharges from the stomach and bowels; violent cramps 
in all the limbs; pulse almost imperceptible; skin cool and 
shrunken. Gave calomel, 15 grains; opium, I grain; and 
applied blister to abdomen. At 1 o'clock P. M. gave cal- 
omel, 30 grains; soon after which, vomiting and purging 
became less frequent, and ceased about midnight, at which 
time the pulse had increased in volume, and the skin was 
slightly warm." This patient recovered. 

In transmitting his report for the quarter ending 
June 30th, 1852, Assistant Surgeon Hammond makes the 
following statement: "The two cases of cholera reported 
in June are the first that have occurred among the troops 
stationed at this post. The men had been on detached service 
at the village of the Pawnee Indians, on the Platte river, 
about thirty miles from the State line. One of them was 
drunk several times on the road. They both had diarrhoea 
while absent, which continued after their return to Fort 
Kearny, but did not report sick until the rice-water dis- 
charges and cramps of cholera announced the gravity of 
their complaints. When I first sav/ them, all the violent 
symptoms of cholera were present, large and repeated 
doses of calomel were immediately resorted to, and prompt- 
ly arrested the disease. I have seen some five or six cases 
of Asiatic cholera among the emigrants ; all of which proved 
fatal. In these cases, there had been premonitory 
diarrhoea of several days, and even weeks' standing. I 
have had frequent occasion to treat this diarrhoea, and 
found it to yield readily under the use of calomel with a 
very small portion of opium. The treatment which I have 
found most beneficial, in fully developed cholera, was large 
and repeated doses of calomel. This remedy has seldom 
failed to produce a prompt and decided alleviation of the 
symptoms, when given in doses of from 20 to 60 grains, 
before the total prostration of the state of collapse." 


The reports from Fort Kearny for June and Septem- 
ber, 1854, show, that while the troops continued healthy, 
cholera prevailed among the emigrants. The reports for 
the summer of 1853 make no mention of this disease. 

The case of cholera reported in the abstract for the 
second quarter of 1850, and the thirty cases in the third 
quarter of that year, occurred at Fort Laramie. Respect- 
ing this disease, Surgeon S. P. Moore makes the follow- 
ing remarks, in transmitting his report of sick at that 
post, for the third quarter of 1850: 

"The Asiatic cholera, one of the most formidable and 
destructive pestilences the world has even known, made its 
appearance at this post during the past season. I do 
not intend to give more than a brief sketch of the epidemic, 
and to trace its 'progress to this station. In the spring of 
1849, the cholera appeared among the emigrants, in their 
encampments at or near the towns on the frontier, from 
whence they took their departure for California and Ore- 
gon; the prevalence of the disease hastened the departure 
of many companies, they believing the extensive and 
healthy prairies would dissipate all traces of the de- 
stroyer; but for a time they were mistaken, for cases of 
cholera continued to occur to within fifty miles of this 
post. Three soldiers, forming an escort from Fort Kearny, 
arrived here in July, 1849; one was attacked with cholera 
about the end of the same month, and another the first 
of August, as will be seen by my quarterly report for that 
period. These were the only cases at the post. This year, 
the progress of the disease has been somewhat different; 
it attacked the emigrants after they had left the frontier 
towns. The disease was prevailing, however, on the 
Missouri river, and may have prevailed among the emi- 
grants before they took up the line of march for the land 
of promised riches. The emigrants were healthy when 
they left; it was after the emigration had been on the 
route many days that the disease appeared, about the Big 
Blue, thirty miles from Fort Kearny; from this point to 
the upper crossing of the Platte river, a distance of about 
four hundred and seventy miles, the emigrants suffered 
severely. Beyond the crossing, the disease disapoeared. 
Recruits for this post left Fort Leavenworth last spring, 
perfectly healthy, and continued so until their road met 
the one from Independence on one side, and the St. Joseph's 
on the other, and then they were in the midst of the 
emigration; on the Big Blue the cholera broke out among 


the men. This fort is one mile south of the road to Cah- 
fornia and Oregon, and overrun by the emigration. The 
first case of cholera was on the 21st of June. From the 
healthy state of the troops, I had hoped we should escaiDe. 
It was not so; diarrhoea became quite prevalent, showing 
some atmospheric influence at work; and on the 4th of 
July another case occurred; the last case was on the 20th 
of the same month. Much has been written as to whether 
this disease is communicated from the sick to the healthy, 
in the manner of a contagion, or not. From the foregoing 
short description, it appears to depend upon a peculiar 
condition of the atmosphere; that all are liable to it, 
when under its influence, and in this way predisposed to 
the disease. The cholera was confined to the road, and 
among the emio-rants. Many Indians remained on the road 
through curiosity, and for the purpose of begging; they 
paid a terrible penalty. Other bands of Indians, wiser 
than the above, left the road so soon as they learned there 
was disease among the whites, and escaped. Of the thirty 
cases in July, nine only were of the soldiers, who had 
arrived here the previous year; the other cases were from 
the recruits just joined, and who had journeyed with the 
emigration, and consequently were subjected to the cholera 
atmospheric influence. The hospital at this post is very 
small; all the patients were sent to it; yet in no instance 
did it attack those attached to the hospital, or the other 
patients. The two cases that occurred in July and August, 
1849, were alone; the command continued healthy. Not 
a single case of cholera occurred at the post; but many 
persons were necessarily exposed, and, if the disease is 
contagious, it is incredible that so great a number of 
persons exposed should escape. It appears difficult to 
account for all the phenomena connected with the spread 
of this disease, without the existence of another agency 
than contagion. Many hypotheses have been raised to 
explain this influence, but they do not rest on facts, and 
we must admit our ignorance of the nature of this agency. 
If epidemic influenza is contagious, so is Asiatic cholera. 

"With regard to the meteorological phenomena of the 
past quarter, there was nothing to be observed. The post 
was kept in good and strict police; the diet consisting 
principally of fresh meat and rice, I presume I saw and 
prescribed for every sick emigrant passing the fort, and 
many were necessarily left under my charge. Stimulat- 
ing emetics, in the forming stage, were prescribed with 
the happiest effect. It is known that active vomiting ex- 


cites the action of the heart and arteries, and impels the 
blood from the central vessels to the surface, and should 
give a health}^ impulse to the circulation in this disease. 
In the stage c»f collapse, I am disposed to think that the 
ordinary rem(;dies of the materia medica are not suffic- 
iently powerful; the patient may be considered as lost; 
the remedy is yet to be discovered; and I have nothing to 
offer which can elucidate the treatment of this disease. 
More extensive trials should be given to the inhalation 
of chloroform and oxygen gas." 

Respecting this disease, as it prevailed in the vicinity 
of Fort Laramie in 1852, Assistant Surgeon G. K. Wood 
makes the following statement: "In the summer of 1852, 
the number of emigrants crossing the plains from the 
Missouri to California was very large, and cholera ap- 
peared among them from the commencement of their 
march. About one thousand deaths occurred on the 
Platte river. The disease, although affecting all classes 
of the emigrants — those furnished with every possible 
comfort, as well as the mendicant begging his way to El 
Dorado — was not in a single instance communicated to 
those living in the country, or returning on the road from 
California. At Fort Laramie, the military hospital was 
constantly crowded with the sick; they were lying about 
the garrison and in tents in the surrounding country; were 
waited upon by the hospital attendants, visited by the 
soldiers, and treated by the medical officer on duty. Al- 
most all had the disease severely; nearly all died; yet, not 
in a single instance was the disease communicated even 
to those of the garrison in most immediate contact with 
the sick." 

With reference to the diseases of the respiratory sys- 
tem at Fort Laramie, Assistant Surgeon G. K. Wood sub- 
mits the following remarks: 

"The climate of those broad and elevated table-lands 
which skirt the base of the Rocky Mountains on the east, 
is especially beneficial to persons suffering from pul- 
monary disease, or with a scrofulous diathesis. This has 
been known to the French inhabitants of the upper Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri for many years; and it has been 
their custom, since the settlement of that portion of the 
county, to send the younger members of their families, 
who showed any tendency to diseases of the lungs, to pass 
their youth among the trappers of the plains and moun- 
tains. The beneficial result of this course, no doubt, de- 


pends, in a great measure, upon the mode of life led by 
these persons — their regular habits, constant exercise in 
the open air, and the absence of the enervating influences 
incident to life in cities; but that more is due to the cli- 
mate itself, is shown by the fact, that among the troops 
stationed in this region (whose habits are much the same 
everywhere), this class of disease is of very rare occur- 
rence. The reports from the line of posts stretching from 
the upper Platte, through New Mexico, to the Rio Grande, 
give a smaller proportion of cases of pulmonary disease 
than those from any other portion of the United States. 
The air in this region is almost devoid of moisture; there 
are no sudden changes of temperature; the depressing 
heats of the eastern summers are never felt; and, although 
in the north the winters are extremely cold, a stimulant 
and tonic effect is the only result of exposure in the 
open air. * * * * 

SCURVY. — This disease manifested itself among the 
troops at Forts Kearny and Laramie in the first and sec- 
ond quarters of 1849 and 1850. Surgeon S. P. Moore's 
report for the first quarter of 1850 has the following re- 
marks : 

"The scurvy has increased to a much greater degree 
than was anticipated. Thirteen of the cases were very 
severe, attended by great lassitude; stiffness of the knees 
and feet; respiration difficult upon the slightest exer- 
tion ; the countenance exhibiting a pale, sallow, and bloated 
appearance; maculae first on the legs, then thighs and 
arms; oedematous swelling of the legs, and extensive 
anasarcous effusions; the gums spongy and tender, and 
apt to bleed on the slightest touch; the urine turbid and 
dark colored; the muscular power much prostrated; the 
blood dissolved. Indurations of the muscles, and severe 
pain in the thighs, back, and knees, were frequent. In 
some of the cases, pain in the intestines, and constipation; 
extensive sub-cuticular extravasations of blood on the 
extremities and other parts of the body; passive haemorrh- 
ages from the gums and nose, the gums separating from 
the teeth, and the teeth becoming loose in their sockets. 
In the fatal case, extreme prostration occurred, with 
anxious and oppressed respiration, dysenteric discharges, 
and convulsions. The habitual use of salt and unwhole- 
some food, conjoined with fatiguing labor, were the excit- 
ing causes of the disease. In treating the disease, the 
causes have been removed as much as possible; fresh ani- 


mal food was given in conjunction with vegetable acid 
drinks. During convalescence much benefit was derived 
from tonics, particularly the mineral acids. The solution 
of nitrate of potash in vinegar, so highly spoken of, failed 
to produce any beneficial results; on the contrary, it 
caused pain in the intestines and diarrhoea." In a sub- 
sequent report. Surgeon Moore observes that the almost 
entire exemption of the troops from scurvy is due to the 
liberal supply of anti-scorbutics furnished by the Sub- 
sistence Department. 


The third report embracing a period of five years, 
from January 1855 to January 1860, was published in 
June 1860. This report includes forts and camps in the 
Northern Division and the Division of Utah. 

The Northern Division was subdivided into regions; 
the region we are interested in was the Northern Interior 
Region, which included all that portion of the United 
States between the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains 
and north of the 40° N. Latitude. Fort Laiamie, Camps 
Platte Bridge and Walbach, were in this region. The 
Division of Utah included Fort Bridger and Camp Scott. 

Third Report on the Sickness and Mortality of the 
Troops at Fort Laramie, Camps Walbach and Platte Bridge 
in the Northern Division, and Fort Bridger and Camp 
Scott in the Division of Utah, 1855-1860. 



Assistant Surgeon E. W. Johns: December, 1858 

There is but little of interest to report, with the ex- 
ception of what relates to scorbutic disease, the tendency 
to and practical development of which was observed last 
quarter. The condition of the entire command during this 
quarter was scorbutic, although only fourteen fully develop- 
ed cases were recorded on the report. So strongly pro- 
nounced was the scorbutic condition that I deemed it ad- 
visable to recommend to the commanding officer the ad- 
ministration to the command not on the sick report of 
the same preparation of the cactus used in the hospital. 

*U. S. Cong. Docs. 36th Cong. 1st Sess. S. Ex. Doc. No. 52, pp. 
45-47. [Serial 1035.] 


The desiccated vegetables seemed unavailing, though 
most useful otherwise as additions to the food of the men; 
no other vegetables could now be provided, and a long 
winter was to be passed through. 

For the information of the department, and to show 
what measures I have taken and recommt^nded, I re- 
spectfully inclose the following copies of communications 
made by me to the adjutant's office of this post. 

With respect to the use of the juice of the cactus, 
(made by cutting the leaves in slices after slightly cook- 
ing the outside by holding them a brief period over fire, 
and then steeping the pieces in water until a thick green- 
ish-brown mucilaginous mixture is obtained,) I would re- 
mark that great benefit has attended its administration, 
as at the end of the quarter all the cases were convales- 
cent. No other remedy appeared to have the slightest 
effect upon the disease. 

I have long since ceased to place any reliance on 
citric acid, and have seen no good results from the pre- 
parations of potash. All the cases were proceeding from 
bad to worse, until I commenced the use of the cactus, 
which I had previously employed in Texas. 

But amendment was soon apparent under the use 
of the cactus, though not so rapid as was desirable; still, 
in the abscence of the potato, (the best antiscorbutic,) 
the cactus was most useful. 

In consequence of my recommendation, the command- 
ing officer caused to be procured also, in the last week 
in December, a supply of wild celery, growing twelve miles 
from this post, superintending the search for it himself. 
It is contemplated to make the celery a regular article 
of diet for the companies during the winter, should it be 
found in sufficient quantities for the purpose. In the 
hospital I intend using both the juice of the cactus and 
celery, and look for good results. I have omitted to men- 
tion that the dose of the juice of the cactus is nearly a 
tumblerful mixed with half a gill of whisky, (bought 
from the commissary department out of hospital funds, 
as the hospital liquors would otherwise be expended,) and 
flavored with extract of lemon. 

My observation of scorbutus leads me to conclude: 

I. That the primary cause of scurvy is the absence of 
material furnished to the blood by fresh vegetable matter. 


II. That from the primary cause the disease is developed 


1. Depression from exposure to cold, particularly 

during guard duty at night, and the long continued cold 
of winter. 

2. Depression from fatigue. 

3. Insufficient ventilation, and crowding a number of 
men in a restricted place, whether in company quarters 
or on shipboard. 

4. Too great a preponderance of salted food. 

III. With respect to prevention and treatment. 

1. That citric acid alone has but little effect upon 
the disease, and the same with respect to potash. 

2. That the first step is to procure fresh vegetable 

3. To issue stimulant and tonic remedies. 

4. To supply a sufficient number of cubic feet of 
pure air for respiration, and the avoidance of the radiated 
and confined heat and air of rooms heated by stoves. 

5. The diet should be full, nutritious, digestible, and 
chiefly of fresh meat, and boiled meat, if possible. 

6. To encourage amusements and counteract the 
mental depression attendant upon the disease. 

In conclusion, officers do not have the disease de- 
veloped, because they have more pure air to breathe, 
much less exposure, better diet and clothing. 

The mountain men of this country do not have scurvy, 
because they are not crowded, have plenty of fresh air, 
are subjected to no continued labor or exposure, being 
strongly inclined to lead a lazy Indian life, and live chiefly 
on unsalted fresh meat. 

The quartermaster's employes do not have scurvy, 
because they are not exposed to night duty; their pay 
being better than that of the soldiers, they can afford 
more luxuries in the way of diet, and their daily duty and 
exposure are not excessive. 

On the other hand, I have seen a command liberally 
supplied with fresh venison, and saving their meat ration, 
yet have scurvy badly, vegetables being entirely wanting; 


I have also seen a bad case of scurvy occurring in the hme 
groves of Florida, though it was the only one. 

After nearly two years' observation of scurvy, I 
have come to the conclusion that scurvy is a blood dis- 
ease with certain alteration of tissue, consequent, depend- 
ant primarily upon the absence of certain principles (to 
me unknown, nor does any writer seem to be particularly 
clear on this point) furnished by fresh vegetable matter. 
That this disease exhibits different grades, from a positive 
development to what might be called only, apparently, a 
tendency, or rather a scorbutic condition or predisposi- 
tion. That the primary condition may proceed at once 
to full development, but that ordinarily it receives its most 
rapid and favorable development from the circumstances 
mentioned above, and principally from bad ventilation and 
insufficient respiration, exposure to long continued and 
depressing cold, depressing fatigue, and loss of regular 
nightly rest, and insufficient and badly-cooked food. 

The communications referred to by Assistant Surgeon 
Johns are two in number, dated November 27 and Decem- 
ber 29, 1858. In the first, he reports the presence of 
scurvy among the troops, and recommends the daily issue 
of desiccated vegetables; the issue four times in each week 
of pickles, dried apples, molasses, and vinegar; attention 
to ventilation of the men's quarters, especially at night; 
personal cleanliness of the men; good cooking; and mental 
and physical amusements and recreations. 

In the second. Assistant Surgeon Johns recommends, 
in addition to the measures above stated, the daily admin- 
istration of the juice of the cactus to all the companies, 
and the use of watercresses. He also expresses the opinion 
that desiccated vegetables will not remove or cure scurvy, 
and that to prevent it, they should be issued daily and in 
much larger quantities than at present. Assistant Sur- 
geon Johns also animadverts upon the action of the Com- 
missary General of Subsistence in declining to furnish 
the potatoes called for by the commanding officer at Fort 
Laramie, and states that they were brought to that post 
by private individuals after the time when it was deemed 
impossible to do so by the Subsistence Department. 

This report was referred to the Commissary General, 
with the following abstract of the cases of scurvy that 
had occurred among the troops stationed at Fort Laramie, 



Camp Walbach, at Platte Bridge, and in Utah, in 1857 
and 1858: 

Abstract of cases of sickness from "scorbutus," in 
Utah forces, Fort Laramie, Camps Walbach, and Platte 
Bridge, in 1857 and 1858. 



Month w > 

<D U 

m 3 
05 o 

1857, November 2 

December 3 

1858, January 3 

February 3 

March 6 

November 1 

December 2 


1858, November 4 


w oU 



o >> 

Month w > 

m 3 


1857, November 

December 2 

1858, January 6 

February 13 

March 21 

November 4 

December 6 


1858, November 

December 2 

M oU 



Assistant Surgeon E. W. Johns: March, 1859 

The health of the command, as contrasted with its 
state in the preceding quarter, shows a marked improve- 
ment, and is now, at the end of the quarter, remarkably 
good. The measures detailed in my last report as adopted 
to redeem the command from the scorbutic condition in 
which it had fallen, were attended with success. The ef- 
fect of remedies was most marked and satisfactory. 

The juice of the cactus leaf, as prepared for the cases 
of scurvey, proved particularly well adapted to their 
treatment, as, under its use, the first set of scorbutic 
patients were convalescing before other remedies were ad- 
ditionally employed. Afterwards, in consequence of my 
recommendation to that effect, the commanding officer 
caused, weekly, six or eight barrels of water-cresses (im- 
properly called here wild celery) to be obtained from a 
point twelve miles from the post. These were put in 
charge of an officer, and issued to the companies as part 
of their daily food. 

*Ibid. pp. 47-51. 


In most cases it was relished by the men, and its use 
in this way (although the cases in hospital were all con- 
valescing under the use of the cactus, before the cresses 
were obtained) prevented the development of further gen- 
eral scorbutic diathesis in the command. Individual cases 
of slight importance, particularly towards the end of the 
quarter, occurred; but in each instance the disease was 
the result of the carelessness of the patient to his own in- 
terests, in the neglect of the vegetable matter thus pro- 
vided for him. 

These cases rapidly recovered under the combined 
effect of the cactus treatment, cress diet, and exhortations 
to do all duty they could find to do. 

In conclusion, I would remark upon the satisfaction 
felt from the readiness of the Colonel commanding to 
listen to, and act in general accordance with, the official 
and professional suggestions made with regard to meas- 
ures to be adopted for the removal of the scorbutic dis- 
ease so prevalent last quarter. In addition to other means, 
two new wards have been added to the hospital. These 
are worthy of remark from the excellent working of the 
arrangement for ventilation which I requested might be 
made, and which are exceedingly simple, believing, with 
Mr. Calvert Vaux, architect, "that one quarter of the whole 
secret (of ventilation) lies in the hole in the bottom, and 
the remaining three quarters in the hole in the top." 

Into these new wards fresh air is introduced by a 
wooden pipe, six inches square in capacity, carried from 
the outside of the building, under the floor, to the side 
of the chimney, from which it enters the roorn just above 
the floor, the bottom of the opening resting on the floor. 

This inner opening of the pipe can be reduced to an 
inch in diameter when a wind storm on that side of the 
building renders it necessary. 

In the center of the ceiling of each ward another 
wooden pipe of the same capacity springs up and projects 
through the roof several feet. There is an arrangement 
at the top by which the wind, striking a slanting surface, 
according to its direction, pumps, as it were, the air from 
the room below. 

The opening in the ceiling is never contracted, and 
there is always a sufficient upward draft to carry up any 
light object placed at the opening, while there are no ob- 


jectionable drafts with respect to the results of this 

The difference between the old and new wards is 
most marked. In the new wards there is a total absence 
in the morning of that indescribable, stale, matutinal odor 
which neither care nor cleanliness will prevent, when, as 
is the case with the old wards, there is no proper ven- 
tilating apparatus. 

In speaking of these means of ventilation, as to their 
manner of working, it should be understood that the 
period just after the completion of the new wards is the 
one referred to, as at that time the walls and windows 
were much more impervious to external air than at the 
present, when, from the shrinking of green timber, addi- 
tional ventilation is obtained, and more than is desirable. 
There was not the proper material for filling in the walls, 
which, at present, are only composed of the frame-work, 
boarded and battened externally. 

As soon as the season shall be sufficiently advanced, it 
it proposed to finish the walls by filling in with adobes. 

Surgeon General's Office, 

March 23, 1859. 

Sir: I am instructed by the Surgeon General to in- 
form you that your sanitary report for the fourth quarter 
of 1858 has received his special attention, and has been 
referred to the Commissary General, a copy of whose re- 
ply is herewith transmitted for your perusal. 

While the Surgeon General approves and commends 
your official course in relation to the prevalence of scurvy 
among the troops at Fort Laramie, he directs me to in- 
vite your attention to a few points connected with the de- 
velopment of that disease, concerning which more specific 
and detailed information is desirable to give completeness 
to your report. Your report states that the officers and 
quartermaster's men at the post, and the mountain men 
of the adjacent country, are exempt from scurvy. Mak- 
ing due allowance for the different conditions, as to diet, 
clothing, &c., &c., of officers and enlisted men, and con- 
fining the comparison to the three classes, mountain men, 
quartermaster's men, and soldiers, the conclusion, from 
the data in this office, is that in all respects, except 
fresh air, and perhaps the mode of cooking food, the soldiers 
should be the least liable to scurvy; that is, provided they 


used the means which the officers could command for 
them. It is usually the case that quartermaster's men, 
at military posts, have harder work, and are more con- 
stantly exposed in the open air than the soldiers, and 
that they dwell in tents, while the troops are comfortably 
housed. The only duty of the soldier in garrison which 
would constitute an exception to this rule, is guard duty at 
night. On referring to the commissary's abstract of is- 
sues to the troops at Laramie for the fourth quarter, 
1848, it is ascertained that the issues of fresh meat to 
quartermaster's men, was much less in proportion than 
to the troops, and that while desiccated potatoes and 
mixed vegetables were issued to the soldiers, in what 
might be considered large proportions, none were issued 
to the quartermaster's men. 

Your report states that the mountain men subsist 
"chiefly on unsalted fresh meat." If they do not eat the 
"wild celery," or pulp of cactus, or other vegetable food, 
how is their condition, as regards scurvy, better than that 
of the troops at a post where the commissariat had 526 
head of beef cattle; 7,138 rations of mixed desiccated 
vegetables; 8,706 rations of desiccated potatoes, and large 
quantities of dried apples, pickles, vinegar, sugar, and 
molasses ? 

The impression left by a careful perusual of your re- 
port is, that the scurvy at Laramie is due chiefly to the 
following causes: 

1. To want of sufficient ventilation of the quarters 
allotted to the troops. 

2. To want of a due proportion of regular exercise 
in the open air. 

3. To the manner in which their food is cooked. 

These impressions may be erroneous. You, however, 
have the opportunity for stating facts of much value in 
relation to the tiology of scurvy, and it is expected that 
you will cheerfully respond to this call for information. 
You are, therefore, requested to report upon the follow- 
ing subjects: 

1. The kind of buildings occupied by the troops at 
Laramie; the dimensions of their dormitories; the num- 
ber of men occupying them; the mode of heating those 
rooms; the manner of cleaning them, whether by scrub- 


bing with much or Httle water, or with dry sand; how 
often cleaned; the provision made for ventilation, and if 
the ventilators can be or are closed by the soldiers at 

2. The manner of cooking the food; whether the 
fresh beef is ever broiled, roasted, or baked; whether the 
desiccated vegetables are first soaked in cold water, and 
then slowly boiled in the same water. 

3. The duties of the troops; the average period of 
guard duty for each soldier; the length of time on post 
at night. Is coffee saved from the company kitchens, and 
served to the guard at night? 

4. The duties of the quartermaster's men; their 
habits as to clothing, exercise, food; whether living in 
tents or in quarters; if the latter, the size of the rooms 
and the same particulars as requested concerning the 
dormitories of the soldiers. Do the quartermaster's men 
live upon their rations, or do they habitually buy other 
kinds of food? 

The object of these inquiries is to arrive, if possible, 
at the true cause or causes of this disease in troops at 
Laramie, for there would seem to be some local cause 
operating to produce scurvy at that post. In five months, 
from November 1, 1857, to March, 31, 1858, there were 
only seventeen cases of scurvy reported in the army in 
Utah, averaging 1,800 officers and men, while during the 
same period forty-two cases are reported at Fort Laramie 
in a command averaging 325 officers and men. During 
that time the troops in Utah were much exposed in tents, 
were without vegetables, and did not have some of the 
component parts of the regular ration with which the 
commissariat at Laramie was fully supplied. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. C. WOOD. 

Surgeon U. S. Army. 
Dr. E. W. Johns, 

Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army, Fort Laramie, Nebraska. 

Washington, February 19, 1859. 

Sir: Herewith are returned Assistant Surgeon John's 
sanitary report from Fort Laramie for the fourth quarter, 
1858, and the abstract of sickness from "scorbutus" in the 


Utah forces, Fort Laramie, Camps Walbach and Platte 

Inclosed, also, is a copy of a letter from this office 
to Brevet Major Waggaman, declining to send potatoes to 
Fort Laramie, in compliance with a requisition from Lieu- 
tenant Mendenhall, acting assistant commissary subsis- 
tence, at that point. The date of Lieutenant Mendenhall's 
requisition is unknown at this office. 

The comparison of the number of cases of scurvy 
in the Utah forces and Fort Laramie in the winter of 
1857 and 1858 presents a remarkable contrast, and when 
taken in connection with the far greater exposure of the 
Utah forces, and their want of several of the articles of 
food furnished by the commissariat at Fort Laramie, 
would lead to the belief that other causes than exposure 
and want of fresh vegetable food had produced so much 
of this disease at Fort Laramie. 

The fact that the mountain men, officers, and quarter- 
master's employes at the post have been free from scurvy, 
would go far to show that the use of fresh potatoes was 
not essential to prevent scurvy, and if closely examined 
into might perhaps point out a mode of life by which this 
disease among the troops could be prevented. 

When the approach of this disease was seen at an 
early period of the autumn, it is to be regretted that re- 
course was not sooner had to the fresh vegetables around 
the post, and which could have been procured at so little 
expense, viz: the wild celery, cactus, and perhaps other 
plants; and the use of fresh meats instead of salted pro- 
visions, with other attention to the ventilation, &c., as 
pointed out in Assistant Surgeon John's communications 
to the commanding officer, of December 29, 1858. 

Attempts have on several occasions been made by 
this department to forward potatoes (fresh) to Fort 
Laramie from Fort Leavenworth, but the loss and decay 
has been so great as to make the expense for the benefit 
conferred, very heavy. On this occasion it was deemed 
the less necessary, as that post was liberally supplied with 
desiccated mixed vegetables, and desiccated potatoes. 

Herewith is also inclosed a list of stores on hand on 
the last of December, 1858, at Fort Laramie, which will 
show the varieties of food at that post. 


Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 


Acting Commissary General Subsistence. 

Brevet Brigadier General T. Lawson, 

Surgeon General. 


Washington, August 31, 1858. 

MAJOR: Yours of the 27th instant, transmitting a 
requisition of Lieutenant Mendenhall, fourth artillery, act- 
ing commissary subsistence at Fort Laramie, upon the 
commissary of subsistence at Fort Leavenworth, for po- 
tatoes, is received. 

Under the circumstances of the case, particularly the 
fact that it will be almost an impracticability to furnish the 
matured potato at Fort Laramie, except in a frosted con- 
dition, and that an ample supply of desiccated vegetables 
are at that post, it is deemed unadvisable to comply with 
this requisition. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Captain, Acting Commissary General Subsistence. 

Major G. G. Waggaman, 

Commissary Subsistence, St. Louis, Missouri. 
Return of provisions on hand at Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory, 

December 31, 1858. 

Beef cattle number 526 Candles pounds 2,916 

Bacon pounds 85,543 Soap pounds 15,560 

Bacon hams pounds 9,588 Salt bushels 454 

Flour pounds 185,254 Vinegar gallons 3,587 

Hard bread pounds 271,561 Coffee pounds 20,073 

Tea pounds 737 Sugar pounds 53,170 

Rice pounds 5,928 Molasses gallons 653 

Beans bushels 624 Pickles gallons 110 

Whisky gallons 203 Apples pounds 12,462 


Mixed, rations 7,138 

Potatoes, rations 8,706 

Assistant Surgeon E. W. Johns: December, 1859. 

The reinforcement of the command at this post by 
the two companies from Cheyenne Pass and the two com- 

*Ibid. pp. 51-59. 


panies from Platte Bridge, ordered here upon the breaking 
up of the posts at those points, brought to my hospital an 
additional number of cases of scurvy: eight cases from 
Camp Walbach and six cases from camp at Platte Bridge. 
A new command, with the exception of one company, was 
also to form the garrison during the coming winter, and new 
circumstances in the history of scurvy might arise to 
throw light upon some of the perplexities attending the 
subject. It therefore seems proper to have deferred re- 
porting until the result of these additional cases should 
be known, in order that further information, if any of 
interest should be developed, might be obtained. The 
last two cases, nearly recovered for duty, left the post 
with their companies, which was one of the four companies 
en route for Fort Randall, under Colonel Monroe's com- 

Before particularizing the points upon which I am 
directed to report, I would premise that in the comparison 
between the three classes, mountain men, quartermaster's 
men, and soldiers, that, while the gravest point of dis- 
tinction in the commemorative circumstances of soldiers 
and of quartermaster's employes is the guard duty of the 
soldier at night, there is also, I think, another derived 
from the guard duty during the day; and this opinion is 
formed from an analysis of guard duty and its influences, 
physical and mental, and from contrasting it with the 
mental and physical conditions of the quartermaster's men. 

In the topography of a sentinel's post the chief 
characteristic is the "bee line." This is the straight and 
narrow path — from it there is turning neither to the right 
hand nor to the left. Longitudinally "thus far and no 
further" is the fiat; and thus, for two mortal hours, or 
any given more or less mortal time, according to the 
exigencies of the service or thermometer, the military 
pendulum vibrates his monotonous existence until the 
twice-blessed "relief" releases him from the effort to keep 
his falx cerebri in and parallel to the same plane of direc- 
tion as that of his post. 

Thus, there is necessarily a monotony of mental ac- 
tion, depressing in its character, too, from this very mo- 
notony affording no stimulus to resist the morbific ef- 
fect of exposure. Of course, I particularly refer to the 
garrison duty of a peace establishment, when there is 
little to put the soldier on the qui vive of mental and 


physical vivacity — and in ten years I have never known 
a sentinel but twice to have a good excuse even to cry 

Now, add to this hopeless mental monotony the ef- 
fects of depressing cold, particularly at night, after a 
day of monotonous penduiisUc fatigue, and it would seem 
that no better reagent could be desired for either produc- 
ing diseases characterized by debility, or for developing 
such a disease from a germ derived from other causes. 
This is, of course, as before remarked, more noticeable as 
connected with guard duty at night, but the same causes 
of mental monotony, physical monotony, fatigue monotony, 
are also at work in the day-time, though in a less degree. 

The same holds good as to the other duties of the 
soldier. Drill is also another effort to keep the falx in 
the plane of certain directions and to produce panto- 
graphic results with bodies, limbs, and muskets or other 
weapons. Police duty is a daily funeral procession around 
the garrison with twig brushes instead of cypress boughs 
for the mourners. 

And so with the individual action of the soldier, when 
left to himself, after the various processes above have 
been duly gone through with. Little temptation does he 
seem to feel to do aught but vegetate in his bunk, with 
some occasional spasmodic effort at foot-ball or other 
game — possibly to hunt or fish a little; when, perhaps, 
there is additional inducement in the shape of a cask in 
the bushes somewhere near his garrison, whereby, he super- 
adds to any other bad physical and mental influences 
those derived from the depression attendant upon alcoholic 
stimulants most villainously adulterated. 

The labor of quartermaster's employes is theoretically 
greater than that of the soldier, but it is regular. It is 
not attended by that monotonous routine and confine- 
ment which the soldier is subjected to in the performance 
of his duties. Each quartermaster's man is an mdividiua, 
under general supervision, indeed, but exercising his 
powers, mental and physical, according to the require- 
ments of the particular work he may have to do. Does 
he drive a team? He does not drive it up and down over 
a distance geometrically described as being the shortest 
between two given points, but he has the management of 
his animals and varied scenery to employ his thoughts. 
If he is a carpenter, wheelwright, or blacksmith, his mental 


motives and physical employment are those of 2in individual 
working with forecast, and not by rote. Add to these in- 
fluences, good pay and regular nightly rest, and the 
wholesome conviction that his employment depends upon 
his restraint, to at least a great degree, of whatever 
vicious tendencies he may have, and the sum shows a 
balance greatly in favor of the quartermaster's man. 

The mountain men of the country are even in still 
better commemorative circumstances. They are not at 
all crowded in their accommodations; have plenty of fresh 
air; do but little labor; and just enough to give them 
wholesome, but not fatiguing exercise, and to enable them 
to provide for their families. They have generally domestic 
relations, of not very elevated degree, indeed, but regular 
domestic connections with the Indian women, recognized 
throughout the country. It is true that their diet is 
chiefly unsalted meat, but it is easy for them to procure, 
and many of them do procure from the trading stores, 
many comfortable additions to this diet. And I am credibly 
informed that they have used the cactus and whatever 
greens they can or are not too lazy to get. They can even 
obtain desiccated vegetables from the stores, and have 
been seen to purchase them. Onions are also brought by 
traders occasionally from New Mexico. 

The mountain men then have this favorable conjunc- 
tion of circumstances. They live a free, open Indian life, 
crowded neither as to quarters nor as to communities. 
They have a sufficiently good diet apparently; also suf- 
ficiently mixed and varied. Their employments are such 
as not to fatigue them particularly, nor to expose them, 
except occasionally, to severe weather, for they love a 
lodge fire as much as an Indian, and when they are ex- 
posed they are well protected by clothing of furs, buck- 
skin, blankets, or ready-made clothing. 

With respect to the apparent advantages of the post 
over the mountain men, as to the items of 526 head of 
cattle and the abundant supply of desiccated vegetables, 
the reality is this : that the post cattle (tough and stringy 
as they are) are more than overbalanced by the unnum- 
bered deer and antelope furnished from nature's com- 
missariat. It has also been seen that the mountain men 
can and do procure vegetable matter fresh and desiccated. 
In addition, the desiccated vegetables in the commissary 
department were next to being useless, from the very 
limited quantities allowed to be issued. "To be of any use 


the desiccated vegetables should be used in large quan- 
tities, of daily issue, as prophylactics. Carefully stored 
up in boxes and issued homeopathically the vegetables 
can, and my observation has taught me to, exercise not 
the slightest effect in raising a command from a scor- 
butic condition. They would be most valuable as agents 
for varying the diet of men, which, physiologically, is 
almost as important as the most substantial parts of food. 
It would not seem good policy to store up material until 
the time in which it could be advantageously used shall 
have passed and the good effect be negatived by the ex- 
ceedingly diminutive "portions" issued. The other articles 
of the commissariat, dried apples, pickles, vinegar, sugar, 
molasses, &c., can all be obtained in the country at trad- 
ing stores; and, although the diet of the mountain men 
is "chiefly unsalted fresh meat," it is also possible, and, 
indeed, easy for them to obtain other additional varieties 
to their food, while, also, it has been shown that even 
leaving out of consideration these additions to their food, 
they are still in a better case than soldiers, on account of 
differing and superior conditions, mental and domestic. 
Thus, the condition of the soldier shows little, if any, 
superiority over that of the mountain men as to the 
desiccated vegetables, while at the same time the superiority 
as to the meat is decidedly in favor of the mountain man 
by as much as the difference is between wholesome, fat, 
rich, wild, venison, supported by jerked buffalo flesh; 
and tough, stringy, indigestible beef, followed up with a 
due proportion of the salt provision, furnished by deci- 
mated multitudes of the species "sus scrofa." 

As to this point of difference, the comparative value of 
dried mesit of the Indian or voyageur (jerked meat) and 
the dried meat of the soldier, (salt meat,) it should be 
observed that the jerked meat loses merely the watery 
portions, while, in meat dried by salt or in salt brine, 
in the words of Dr. Ure, "it happens that, as kreatine 
is soluble in brine, but little of this valuable element re- 
mains in the contracted and solidified mass known as 
salt junk, which may either be of beef or pork, and em- 
ployed as food upon much the same principle as that as- 
cribed to alligators, who swallow stones to appease the 
cravings of an empty stomach. 

"Kreatine has evidently a singular connection with 
muscular energy, as it exists in greatest quantities in the 
flesh of animals most remarkable for muscular power 


and activity. To exclude it, therefore, is to introduce 
an element of weakness in the dietary of our seamen that 
cannot fail, in the long run, to show itself, and hence the 
enormous prostration of strength which accompanies the 

In the Encylopaedia of Chemistry by Booth and Mor- 
fit it is very judiciously observed that "the brine of salted 
meat abstracts and retains all the phosphates, acids, 
kreatine, &c., necessary to the formation of blood, and 
hence its scorbutic action, owing to a partial reduction 
by this process to a mere supporter of respiration; and 
hence, also, its inability to effect the perfect replacement 
of the wasted organism," 

And the same and more with respect to "land-scurvy," 
which is the same thing, with this shade of difference, 
that land-scurvy is said to be, by Dr. Wood, (page 243, 
vol. 2,) "more obstinate under treatment, probably, be- 
cause the constitutional tendency must be stronger to 
have led to the disease under circumstances so much less 
favorable." And again, "when the causes upon land are 
as powerful as at sea (and there is great approximation 
to these in garrison) the ravages of the complaint are 
not less fearful." 

The conflicting commemorative circumstances in the 
history of scurvy seem to me to be better understood by 
regarding this disease as being a blood disease, dependent 
upon both lesion of nutrition and lesion of respiration, re- 
sulting from imperfect supply, in a natural or recent state, 
of the nitrogenous compounds of the starch group, and 
of the saline and earthy m^atters entering into the tissues 
of the body and rejected by various outlets. 

This imperfection of supply is not only with respect 
to quantity, but also to the ratio of the supply afforded 
by the components derived from each class. 

Two great divisions of the kingdom of nature, the 
animal and the vegetable, furnish, in their respective 
quotas of food-material, components analogous, if not 
identical; as, for instance, gluten corresponding with 
coagulated albumen; vegetable albumen with albumen of 
the egg; casein with avenaceous and leguminous forms of 
vegetable casein. Both supply nitrogenous food, and it 
is by many physiologists thought that both furnish ma- 
terial for respiration, "that the carbon given off is partly 
derived from the gluten or flesh of the food as well as 


from the starch or fat." (Johnson's Elmts. Ag. Chemistry, 
p. 340.) 

The way in which food furnished from the animal 
kingdom in, as it were, a preserved state, by salt or other- 
wise, is insufficient for the purpose of renewal of tissue, 
and thus tends to the development of scurvy, has been 
already indicated. 

Food furnished by vegetables in the winter season is 
also more or less prepared vegetable food destitute, to a 
great degree, of what the human organism evidently needs 
to repair its waste and rebuild tissue. That is to say, 
that while the main principles of sustenance are furnished 
some of the components of vegetable food in its natural 
state are necessarily, from the course of preparation, lost; 
as, for instance, in the desiccation of vegetables, the ex- 
tracting of lime-juice from the fruit, the alteration from 
fresh to dried peas, beans, apples, or other fruits. Then 
the way in which the food is presented seems all important. 
It may seem to some very practicable to arrive at such 
a pitch of knowledge as to be able to extract proximate 
principles to meet certain supposed conditions; but why 
should death ever put a term to existence, animal or vege- 
table, or to such reasonings? The human organism is 
not alone a crucible for producing purely chemical results; 
nor, as Surgeon Tripler justly remarks, in his pamphlet 
on scurvy, is lemon-juice all citric acid; nor are potatoes 
all potash. And Dr. Carpenter, with equal justice and 
great delicacy, suggests, with reference to Dr. Garrod's 
theory for the cure of scurvy by the use of alkaline rem- 
edies alone, that "a, much larger induction is necessary 
for the establishment of this position." 

Thirty-six parts of carbon by weight, with forty-five 
of water, ought apparently to form one and the same sub- 
stance; yet, how different are the starches, cellulose, 
gums, mucilages, and sugars from each other, though be- 
longing to the same group, and, in composition, identical. 
And in household chemistry every matron knows, though 
not able, perhaps, to explain why, that given certain 
cupfuls of this and tablespoonfuls of that, it will not do 
to mix them indiscriminately, but it is necessary to be 
"sure" and first "beat up" and then "ad" and then "stir", 
as the case may be, in a certain definite order of sequence ; 
sometimes even carrying this particularity of prescrip- 
tion to the apparently superfluous direction of "serve 
while hot." 


I believe that were animal and vegetable food re- 
solved into their ultimate components, and these applied 
individually, or even in combination of many of them, to 
produce results such as are aimed at in attempting to 
remove scurvy, or any disease depending upon lesion of 
nutrition whether respiratory or digestive, that nothing 
satisfactory would be established. 

Potash may be given; I and others have found it not 
to be depended upon; "larger induction" is still necessary. 
Citric acid may be prescribed; and, as far as experience 
for several years in Texas and at this post has enabled 
me to observe, it has not the slightest value. Even vege- 
table matter restricted to one form may not prevent scurvy ; 
as in the case of scurvy I saw occurring amongst the lime 
groves at Fort Dallas, Florida, where the parade was 
covered with lemons, limes and oranges. With reference 
to this case, however, as well as my recollection now 
serves me, the troops at that time at Fort Dallas were 
without fresh beef, and the flour was bad. 

It is food in its most perfect adaptation as to quan- 
tity, quality, and the proper ratio of the components — 
in other words, food afforded in its most natural state 
— that is needed in scurvy and to prevent it. 

And herein appears to consist in great measure the 
superiority of the potato in its natural state — ^that is, 
undesiccated. The covering of the potato is cork, and it 
is by this protected in a much greater degree from changes 
that take place in most other vegetable substances put 
away for winter use. 

Now, the imperfection which causes scurvy would 
seem to be found in insufficient ratio of fresh vegetable 
matter to the other constituents of blood and tissue- 
forming substances. Not that deficiency in other depart- 
ments of food is not of great importance; but, primarily, 
scurvy would seem to result from this imperfect ratio 
of fresh vegetable matter to the rest of the diet, much in 
the same way that the excess of albuminous components 
favors the arthritic diathesis, and the excess of farinaceous 
matters tends to the production of the rheumatic dia- 
thesis. (Carpenter's Physiology, page 383.) 

I am not certain whether I so express myself as to 
make my meaning clear, but the view of the subject that 
seems to approach nearest the truth is, that food presented 


to the human economy in its most perfect adaptation to 
the latter in supply, kind, and proportion, is necessary to 
prevent scurvy; but the point de depart of the disease is 
primarily to be found in the deficiency of the vegetable 
components, and with respect to these, not only of the 
materials considered as so many items which they should 
furnish the blood and tissues, but of the vegetable ad- 
mixture as a whole, combined, in all its parts, in a fresh, 
natural, and, as far as possible, recent state. 

This I take as the rule. But it no more follows, given 
the primary condition of the disease that scurvy should 
always result, than that an individual living in a malarious 
district should have periodical fever, or exposed to the 
poison of yellow fever be attacked by it, or unprotected 
by vaccination be necessarily obnoxious to small-pox when 
within the sphere of contagion. 

Thus, generally, nothing further is necessary to pro- 
duce the disease than these primary conditions; but the 
apparently anomalous non-occurence of scurvy when they 
are present in force, seems to me to be explained by the 
existence of developing causes additional. Where these 
are most noticeable, is in the comparison of the classes 
of persons affected with respect to the commemorative 
circumstances in which they respectively stand; and also 
in other cases where scurvy apparently ought to follow, 
but does not. In these, the conditions primary of the 
disease exist; but they are either counteracted by other 
influences, or the developing circumstances are wanting 
— as in the case of officers, of quartermaster's men, of 
the troops in Utah. The first two classes have already 
been referred to; yet I may remark in connection, that 
even officers may sometimes have scurvy, and I have often 
seen among them a scorbutic tendency, showing that the 
primary conditions of the disease were acting to a certain 
extent, and only needed the developing causes to make 
them fully apparent. And it has been seen at this post 
that where the primary causes, which failed to produce 
any result as to the quartermaster's men in the early 
and middle parts of last winter, had become sufficiently 
intensified by long continuance that several cases of scurvy 
occurred amongst them late in the spring. These cases 
did not increase in number, as just about the same time 
the wild onion began to make its appearance. 

In accounting for the absence of scurvy in the troops 
in Utah, mental influence may well be taken into consider- 
ation. These troops went into winter quarters in vigorous 


health from the wholesome march across the plains. As 
to the circumstances going to favor their morale, they were 
in a state of excited expectancy; to vary the dull drudging 
of a peace establishment, with its attendant and harassing 
Indian police duty, they had actually the prospect of 
something like real war in the land of the saints, just 
over the mountain. They seem to have been cheerful; and 
if the songs (as songs are said to show the animus of a 
people) which the muse of the expedition prompted are 
to be taken as indications, they appear to have fully 
adopted Mark Tapley's philosophy, and even to have been 
"jolly." In the history of all armies in all times, their 
safety and exemption from disease and defeat have largely 
depended upon their morale, and under no circumstances 
are mental influence of greater importance than in the 
prevention and cure of scurvy. 

I have now the honor to report upon points indicated 
in the communication from the Surgeon General's Office, 
of March 23, 1859, and in the order in which they occur 
in that paper: 

I. "The kind of buildings occupied by the troops at 
Laramie, &c." These are substantial, but in my opinion, 
too small. For the better information of the department, 
the following plans are given, as they will show at a 
glance the dimensions of the rooms. The quarters were 
cleaned by scrubbing with a moderate supply of water, 
and generally once a week. No provision is made for 
ventilation, except in the adobe buildings, which have the 
windows arranged so as to admit air at the top if desired. 
These were, however, seldom or never opened, and only, 
perhaps, a window occasionally, in fine warm weather, 
so that the ventilation practically amounted to nothing. 

II. "The manner of cooking, &c." This was by cooks 
detailed in turn from their companies, entirely ignorant 
of M. Soyer and his principles. The fresh beef was al- 
ways boiled and never cooked otherwise, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain. The desiccated vegetables were 
first soaked in cold water and then boiled, whether slowly 
or not, I cannot ascertain. 

III. "The duties of the troops" were the usual duties 
of the soldier, guard, police, and when the weather per- 
mitted, drill. The following official statement from the 
Adjutant's office will show the average period of guard 
duty for each soldier, and the length of time on post : 


Statement of the number of guards performed by each private of 
tlie companies of the fourth artillery stationed at Fort Laramie, 
Neibrfaska Territory , from the 1st of September, 1858, to the 31st 
May, 1859. 

s^ Months « >> S 31 Si, e b*" ^ Si,*" 

<a5 <^ <^^B z^^ <a 

1858, September 64 11 5 8 5 

October 64 14 6 8 4 

November 59 14 7 8 3 

December 45 14 9 8 2 

1859, January 50 14 8 8 3 

February 64 14 7 8 3 

March 67 14 6 8 4 

April 84 14 5 8 5 

May 138 18 4 8 6 

*Each relief of the guard remained two hours on post and four off. 


Second Lieutenant Fourth Artillery, Post Adjutant. 

I am unable to state whether coffee was served habit- 
ually to the guard at night. 

IV. "The duties of the quartermaster's men" were 
such as are usual in a quartermaster's depot. Some pf 
the men were employed in the carpenter's shop and in 
the blacksmith's shop, others as teamsters and herders. 
All were well protected from the weather, and none liable 
to injury from excess of fatigue. They had quarters in 
garrison, not as well furnished as those of the soldiers, 
but affording adequate shelter. A large new building 
was erected for them in the course of the winter. Small 
parties may occasionally have been in tents while on 
temporary duties, such as hauling wood or hay, though I 
am not aware of the fact. Their position with respect to 
shelter was no worse than that of the soldiers, while it 
was much better as regards their food and duties. They 
not only had their rations and quarters, but, their pay 
being much better than that of the soldier, they were en- 
abled to avail themselves of other diet which could be 


purchased; and I am informed by the sutler that they 
bought largely and habitually of fresh can fruits, oysters, 
and other luxuries. 

They had a Mormon woman to cook for their mess 
a great part of the time. Their clothing was good, though 
albeit not of the most fashionable cut. In the matter of 
exercise they had decidedly, in my opinion, the advantage 
over the soldiers. I never observed that any of them 
seemed likely to injure themselves by overwork; and the 
more favorable nature of their employment as to mental 
influences I have already commented upon. The great- 
est and most overbalancing point in their favor in com- 
paring their circumstances with those of soldier's is found 
in their exemption from guard or any duty at night. 
Good, wholesome, unbroken nocturnal rest, with better 
pay, better food, and practically as good clothing and 
quarters make the sum of circumstances in their favor, 
circumstances all tending to prevent or retard the develop- 
men of scorbutic disease. It has already been observed 
that later towards spring a very few cases occurred 
amongst the quartermaster's men. 

During the past quarter nothing new as to the char- 
acter of the disease has been observed, and the same meas- 
ures and treatment for its prevention and cure were 
adopted as hitherto. There is one point in the history 
of scurvy this winter, however, of interest. It is, that 
the disease was entirely confined to the two companies 
(D and F) of second dragoons, while the infantry en- 
tirely escaped. 

These two dragoon companies suffered greatly from 
scurvy last winter, the one at Fort Bridger and the other 
at this post, and have had no further benefit from fresh 
vegetables than the wild onions could afford. 

The infantry came here in good vegetable health, hav- 
ing had the benefit of fine gardens at Fort Randall, so 
that their previous good health, together with the means 
adopted in the fall and through the winter, have been 
sufficient to repress, thus far, the development of scor- 
butic disease. 

The troops have not been so crowded as in last winter 
— F company, second dragoons, occupying a new set of 
quarters — and the guard duty this winter has been lighter 
as to the period of time on post, the sentinels having been 
relieved every half hour in severe weather at night, and 


when the mercury was much below zero the sentinels were 
taken off entirely and patrols substituted. 

In the third quarter of 1859 I recommended to the 
commanding officer that the companies should take daily 
the cactus juice, prepared as in hospital. And to obviate 
the difficulty and impossibility of getting the men (as 
was the case the autumn before) to take the cactus juice, 
I recommended that whisky should be given with it, liter- 
ally, as a placebo. The cactus juice thus went down in more 
senses than one, and to this early supply of fresh vege- 
tables matter I ascribe the immunity of the infantry, 
their previous good health largely assisting to prevent 
the development of the disease. In the case of the dra- 
goons the scorbutic tendency was too strongly pronounced 
to be repressed. It required a more certain antiscorbutic. 
Potatoes would have afforded adequate means, I believe 
from experience, for the preservation of these companies 
from scorbutic disease. 

During the past quarter the cases in hospital have 
been treated entirely with the wild cress given at meal 
time as a salad, and by half a tumbler full of cactus juice, 
flavored with citric acid and sugar. Whisky was added 
when it could be obtained without making a draft upon 
the hospital liquors. 

The cases are all convalescent, and unless the supply 
of cress fails, the sick report bids fair soon to be nearly 
a blank. 

The companies have had every week also a supply of 
the above fresh vegetable matter issued to them. 

But there is difficulty to be apprehended from the 
probable failure of this supply, as it is even now obtained 
with difficulty. Last year I did not commence using the 
cress until the middle of winter, and the supply gave out 
before the onions came. 

And in this connection, before concluding, I am led 
to a consideration of the communication of the Acting 
Commissary General of Subsistence in his letter to the 
Surgeon General, dated February 10, 1859, wherein he 
regrets that recourse was not had earlier in the autumn 
(of 1858) to the cactus and. wild celery. 

An acquaintance with the resources of this post as 
to the supply of this vegetable matter will show this to 


have been impracticable. It was impossible to get the 
companies, as such, to use the cactus juice. I had no 
power to control this matter in the company, and all I 
could do was to administer it when the men became sick 
and came on my report. It was then only a remedy, not 
a preventive. And this year it was only practicable to 
get the men in their companies, not on the sick report, to 
take the cactus juice when mixed with whisky. Unfor- 
tunately the whisky gave out, and so yielding up the cac- 
tus except for hospital, I commenced upon the cress, or 
celery as it is locally called, which I had held in reserve 
for fear that there would not be enough fresh vegetable 
matter to last until spring. 

Now the celery was exhausted last year before spring, 
when I did not commence using it until about Christmas, and 
this winter being compelled to use it earlier, the supply 
is reported to be nearly exhausted; and I fear that al- 
though now my sick list is rapidly decreasing, before the 
onions can be had in the spring, scurvy will again increase, 
and will probably not be confined to the dragoons, but 
may extend to the infantry. Now had we a full supply 
of potatoes for winter use, I believe that my sick report 
would exhibit a very happy exoneration from scorbutic 
disease, and would show but few other cases, as the cli- 
mate being naturally very healthy, and the scorbutic 
condition removed, the men would be seldom sick. 

It would seem, at least so it appears to me, that it 
would be less expensive, and indeed better policy, to af- 
ford to frontier posts, such as this, a sufficient supply 
of such an undoubted antiscorbutic as is the potato, when 
it is taken into consideration that, being in the heart of 
an Indian country, the troops at such a post are liable 
any year to engage in expeditions against the Indians. 
Now by just so much as they are affected with a scorbutic 
condition throughout the winter, will they be less able 
to do efficient service. They are liable, I believe, even 
in the summer war-path, to have scurvy developed if their 
physique has been impaired during the winter from this 
cause, and the difficulty in obtaining vegetable food in 
the wilderness remaining about the same as in winter. 
Thus an expedition can be hampered with a large sick 
report, and for the want of a thousand or two bushels of 
potatoes may be shorn of the best results, when, perhaps, 
thousands of dollars may have otherwise been expended 
in preparinng it. I do not mean to say that scurvy re- 


suits from a want of potatoes only, or that nothing^ else 
than potatoes will prevent and cure scurvy; but I desire 
to be understood as meaning that scurvy results primarily 
from the imperfect supply of fresh vegetable matter to 
the human system, although developing conditions may be 
necessary to establish the disease; and the best, the most 
reliable, and eventually the cheapest form in which to ob- 
tain this vegetable matter, is the potato. 

Towards the latter part of last October, being on 
detached service at Fort Kearny, I purchased and sent 
up for my family several bushels (at $1.50 per bushel) 
of potatoes from the market wagons which were frequent- 
ly coming into that post with potatoes, apples, onions, 
and other vegetables. These potatoes, without the loss 
of a single potato from freezing or otherwise, reached 
Fort Laramie very early in November, being on the road 
at a time when the cold was so severe that the Platte 
was frozen over, as I found it when I crossed it. Potatoes 
also purchased and sent to officers and some by the sutler 
were transported at the same time from Kearny in an 
ox-train, and they reached Fort Laramie in good condition, 
and with only a few of the outside ones frosted. 

In conclusion, I would respectfully remark, that I 
hold the proposition to be true that scurvy results pri- 
marily from imperfect supply and ratio of supply of the 
three kinds of material for the body, azotized, non-nitro- 
genous, and earthy — the point de depart being the want of 
fresh vegetable matter; I believe, also, that the greatest 
developing cause, in the case of the soldier, is guard duty at 



In the summer of 1857, a portion of the army that 
had been previously concentrated at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, commenced its long march of over twelve hun- 
dred miles across the prairies for Salt Lake City, Utah 
Territory. This army corps passed the winter of 1857 
and 1858 at Camp Scott and at Fort Bridger, in Utah, 
and in the spring moved on to Salt Lake City, beyond which 
it finally encamped at a point which became known as 
Camp Floyd. 

In the summer of 1858, the troops in Utah were 
largely reinforced by commands moving from Fort Leav- 
enworth across the plains. 


Assistant Surgeon Roberts Bartholow: December, 1857 

Camp Scott lies along Black's fork, in the vicinity 
of Fort Bridger. This camp is the winter quarters of the 
army of Utah. 

Black's fork, a tributary of Green river, is a rapid 
mountain stream of inconsiderable size, but whose water 
of crystal clearness and purity is immensely valuable in 
this arid and thirsty region. The valley has an average 
width of about one mile, and is separated from the higher 
table-land by a range of irregular sand hills. The creek 
is winding, with numerous channels, which at the annual 
rise are overflowed, inundating the whole valley. The soil 
of the valley is a mixture of sand, aluvium, and vegetable 
loam, having but little depth, and interspersed by immense 
quantities of rubble stone; sand predominates. In the 
vicinity of the camp, upon the banks of the stream, mag- 
nesian limestone (dolomite) and slate-rock crop out, A con- 
siderable portion of the valley is covered by a thick 
growth of a species of willow, fSaiix herbacea,) with here 
and there a grove of cottonwood, fPopuius canadensis,) and 
that miserable shrub, the artemisia. The valley during 
spring and summer is covered with an abundant herbage, 
and offers a most striking contrast to the barren waste 
on either side. Cultivation, however, has not produced 
very great results to Mormon enterprise. Besides the po- 
tato and some of the most common of the leguminiferae 
and cruciferae, I am not aware that this people have suc- 
ceeded in their agricultural attempts, and consequently 
the colony established at Fort Bridger procurred their 
principal supplies in the Salt Lake valley. This region, 
as well as the Great Plains, like the Steppes of Tartary, 
is adapted only to herds and grazing, and a nomadic pop- 
ulation of savages or Indian traders, with their squaws 
and cattle, or Mormon freebooters; it can never become 
a nursery of civilized heroes; and thus in the New World, 
may be revived, in somewhat the same form, the ancient 
patriarchal life, now almost extinct in the Old. From 
the very necessity of their position, the wretched inhabit- 
ants must prey upon the rest of mankind, and procure 
by violence and rapine that subsistence not to be wrung 
from the unwilling soil. 

Exclusive of the Mormon population, now gone into 

*Ibid. pp. 288-293. 


Salt Lake valley, there are two classes of inhabitants 
— Indians and traders — of whom the former are infin- 
itely more respectable, humane, and gentle. Two tribes 
belong to this country; the Utah and the Snake Indians, 
long at animosity, but between whom during the present 
winter some sort of peace has been made. There are 
no special differences in these two tribes in habits or 
character, nor do they differ in physical development. I 
was unprepared to witness in mountain tribes, remote from 
civilization, so many evidences of decay. In stature they 
are low, square built, and without symmetry, ungainly 
in gait, and having an appearance of premature age. The 
face is triangular, mouth large, cheek bones prominent, 
forehead low and retreating, hair black, coarse, and very 
thick. As a rule, the squaws are more athletic and vigor- 
ous than the men, but are far from approaching any 
elevated standard of beauty. Both these tribes, so far 
as my observation extends, are very debased, having none 
of the refined sentiments attributed to Indian heroes in 
Hiawatha. In fact, the Indian races are yielding to a 
destiny, not the result of contact with a more vigorous 
race but an immutable law of nature. Having served 
their purpose in the social economy of humanity, they 
are made subject to a process of change, impressed not 
only upon the earth, but its various nations and empires. 

The class of traders, of whom not a few reside in 
this valley and the neighboring valleys of Smith's fork, 
Henry's fork, and Green river, are a peculiar people. 
Having, early in life, fallen out with the restraints of 
civilized society, or exiled by crime, they quickly adapted 
themselves to a careless and indolent life in the mountains. 
They commence their career by taking, in Indian fash- 
ion, a squaw or two, who perform all the labor, whilst 
they hunt game, rob upon the public highway, steal cattle, 
or trade in whisky and tobacco with the Indians. When 
not engaged in these delectable employments they sit in 
listless indolence around the wigwam fire smoking a pipe, 
or lay outstretched upon the ground basking in the sun. 
They manifest extraordinary activity, notwithstanding 
their native indolence, at any prospect of pecuniary gain, 
undergoing, with great intrepidity, danger, suffering, and 
even facing death itself, where the reward is commen- 
surate. Their principal talent lies in romancing, in which 
they greatly excel, very much to the prejudice of a char- 
acter for veracity. By long association with the Indian 
tribes, they have learned much craftiness, and the are of 


lying with so unmoved a countenance that it seems more 
natural than the truth. The Indian wives of the traders 
are models of industry, perform all the manual labor, 
and are very attentive to the wants and wishes of their 
lazy lords. Usually exceedingly prolific, around every 
wigwam may be seen crowds of dirty half-breed children 
playing as noisily and in somewhat the same mode as 
civilized children everywhere. A case of novelty to the 
Indians is the twin offspring of a traders' squaw, now 
wintering at Camp Scott. These twins excite the as- 
tonishment of the most stoical Indian. A similar case 
having never occurred among them, they attribute some 
supernatural virtue to the trader, and style him, in their 
language of compliment, "a medicine man." The squaws 
manifest as much affection for their offspring as the most 
devoted of civilized mothers — an affection tender, sympa- 
thizing, and indulgent. If we form an opinion of the 
mountain men from the reports of poetic explorers we 
would probably accord them many virtues — integrity, 
steady friendship, a noble sense of justice, and high per- 
sonal bearing. I did not find the original of this descrip- 
tion in real life. They have some of the good qualities of 
the Bedouin Arab, many vices to which he is a stranger, 
but not many of the virtues of a good citizen. A country 
like the Great Plains, which has its analogue in the 
deserts of the East, would be incomplete without that 
other characteristic — a wandering people having a strong 
thirst for plunder, and acknowledging no law but the 

lex talionis. 

My observations upon the climatology of this coun- 
try have had but a limited scope, extending through the 
fall to mid-winter. I have been very agreeably impressed, 
thus far, with the comparative mildness of the climate. 
Minus 18° Fahrenheit is the lowest degree to which the 
mercury has yet fallen, and that was during the month 
of November; a degree of cold not since experienced. 

The greater part of the month of October, during 
which the army was encamped upon Ham's fork, the 
atmosphere had that peculiar softness and haziness char- 
acteristic of the Indian summer. At the close of the 
month snow fell to the depth of four inches, but, under 
a warm sun, disappeared in a few days. From the 1st 
to the 20th November the cold became severe and snow- 
storms were frequent; but from this time to the termina- 
tion of the month many of the days were warm and 
pleasant. The month of December was characterized by 


several snow-storms, not severe or protracted. These 
storms were remarkable for their regularity, both as to 
recurrence and duration. They continued usually about 
forty-eight hours, and the fall of snow but seldom ex- 
ceeded two inches. Higher up within the mountain ranges 
snow-storms prevail almost daily, and the snow has al- 
ready fallen to very great depths, blocking up the passes, 
and rendering communication with the States extremely 
difficult if not impossible. Looking up into the moun- 
tains from the valley, some of the most magnificent ex- 
hibitions may be daily witnessed. Whilst the sun shines 
warmly upon the creek bottom, the snow -clouds drift 
along the mountain tops, discharging their fleecy showers. 
Anon, the clouds float away, and the mountain peaks 
glisten in the bright sunshine like burnished silver, con- 
trasting beautifully with the dark green of the pine- 
covered hills far below. 

One distinguishing feature of this climate is its 
equability and dryness. No sudden transitions have been 
observed, and during the winter proper, whilst the cold 
has at no time been severe, the thermometer has rarely 
risen above the freezing point. The absence of moisture 
is well shown by the dryness and contraction of all kinds 
of woodwork, and the freedom of surgical instruments 
and arms from the slightest traces of rust. 

Before going into winter quarters the arrangement 
of proper hospital accommodations was a frequent sub- 
ject of anxiety. Our anticipations of severe weather were 
heightened by reports of the extraordinary severity of the 
two preceding winters. Timber not being sufficiently 
abundant for building purposes, the ordinary hospital tent 
had to be arranged for the winter. I was much surprised 
as well as gratified at the results produced by the means 
at my disposal. With an ordinary sheet-iron stove at 
one extremity, an adobe chimney at the other, and a 
flooring of hides, the hospital of the volunteer battalion 
has a degree of comfort quite beyond expectation. Thus 
far, as singular as it may appear, no difficulty has been 
experienced in maintaining a sufficiently high and equable 
temperature. Wintering in the Rocky Mountains, with 
no other protection from the cold and storms than an 
ordinary canvas tent, would excite the incredulity of any 
one unacquainted with the country except by the reports 
of imaginative travelers. Granting that life might be 
maintained under such circumstances, most men would 


be ready to assert that such an existence would be in- 
tolerable. I do not find that the army of Utah suffer any 
extraordinary hardships. Many of the officers live in 
wall tents, variously arranged, according to individual 
peculiarities of tastes and habits, and heated by sheet- 
iron stoves to a very agreeable temperature; some of 
them in a combination of the wall and Sibley tent. Some 
burrow in the ground; others hide within the ample co- 
verts of the thick growing willow. A great many in- 
genious appliances to comfort have been contrived, not 
only as regards interior use and decoration, but as a 
protection externally against storms. 

Curiously wrought chimneys, unexpected stoves, and 
marvelous chairs and tables, demonstrate how great a 
virtue may be made of necessity. The enlisted men are 
quartered in Sibley tents, an invention suggested by the 
wigwam of the Sioux, and now for the first time used 
in the military service. They are decidedly well adapted 
to the use for which they are designed by the inventor, 
which the severe test they have been subjected to dur- 
ing the present winter sufficiently demonstrates. Twenty 
men may be accommodated in each tent, but if proper 
regard be paid to comfort and convenience, sixteen is 
a large enough number. 

The company kitchens are, I believe, without excep- 
tion, built of logs, and have adobe chimneys, are cleanly 
kept and well arranged. 

Some of the trains containing supplies for the army 
having been stopped by the approach of winter, a neces- 
sity arose for the reduction of the rations, and for a 
limitation to the same standard of the sales to officers. 
It is a favorite theory with chemical physiologists that 
to maintain the animal heat in high and cold latitudes re- 
quires an increase in the amount of carbon consumed, and 
this theory is found to be correct both by observation and 
experiment. It became necessary, however, to diminish, 
in the Rocky Mountains, in winter, an amount of nutri- 
ment not considered superabundant in less rigorous cli- 
mates. With what result? Those who have been accus- 
tomed, habitually, to consume much larger quantities of 
food found that the ration, as reduced, by proper care, 
was sufficient to sustain the body in a state of active and 
vigorous health, even under considerable fatigue and ex- 
posure. I find no one, except some civil functionaires, 
who carry any superfluous fat in the cellular tissues; 


consequently, I opine, none of the military have a super- 
abundance of food and leisure to favor such deposit. The 
deprivation of salt, at first, more than any other article, 
excited bitter complaints, but gradually the desire for its 
use wore off, and when a supply of what before was 
considered a sine qua non arrived it did not arouse so great 
an interest as might be imagined. Entire abstinence from 
salt is not incompatible with the most perfect health, of 
which numerous examples are afforded by the mountain- 
eers, traders, and others, who, though accustomed to its 
use early in life, lose, eventually, all inclination for it. 
Notwithstanding these apparent privations, the army does 
not suffer from any important diseases. Military duties 
are sufficiently numerous to prevent the vices attendant 
upon idleness, and various amusements have been judic- 
iously introduced to give zest and variety to a life which 
might otherwise prove irksome. Balls, concerts, and thea- 
trical entertainments, though not properly subjects for 
a medical report, are, nevertheless, deserving of mention 
as means of employing leisure which an idle soldiery might 
expend in various acts prejudicial to health. 

From all the foregoing statements I conclude that, 
how deficient soever this region may be in the moi;e 
humanizing influences, it has at least the great merit of 
being extremely favorable to health and longevity. There 
are two diseases which occasionally prevail — erysipelas, 
in an epidemic form, and mountain fever, of which I 
shall have something to say in a subsequent part of this 
report. As spring is the season at which the erysipelas 
prevails, I have had no opportunity of observing it. Be- 
sides these, I know of no disease which may be said 
to have characters peculiar to this country. Small-pox 
and syphilis make great ravages amongst the Indian tribes, 
but they do not differ from the same diseases elsewhere. 

A question well worthy of consideration: Is this cli- 
mate adapted to the amelioration and cure of the tuber- 
cular diathesis? As phthisis is annually on the increase 
in the United States, and as the subject of its hygienic 
management proves to be more important than the treat- 
ment by medicaments, the consideration of the climate is, 
necessarily, of the first consequence. In my report for 
the third quarter I remarked the beneficial influence of 
the journey over the plains upon those in whom "a phthis- 
ical tendency was marked and imminent." The purity 
of the atmosphere and the equability and dryness of the 


climate are conditions highly favorable to such improve- 
ment. The entire immunity of the mountaineers from all 
forms of pulmonary disease indicates tke healthfulness 
of the country in this particular. Moreover, the various 
commands stationed at Fort Laramie have been remark- 
ably free from all forms of pulmonary disease, and all 
such as came thither laboring under the incipient or well- 
established symptoms of consumption speedily improved. 
Assistant Surgeon G. K. Wood, in a report from that post 
upon this subject remarks: 

"The climate of those broad and elevated table-lands, 
which skirt the base of the Rocky Mountains on the east, 
is especially beneficial to persons suffering from pulmonary 
disease, or with a scrofulous diathesis; * * * * that 
more is due to the climate itself, is shown by the tact, 
that among troops stationed in this region (whose habits 
are much the same everywhere) this class of disease is 
of very rare occurrence." 

The present superintendent of Indian affairs for the 
Territory of Utah, (Dr. Forney) assures me that the jour- 
ney over the plains and residence at Camp Scott has re- 
lieved him almost entirely from certain alarming symp- 
toms of phthisis with which he set out. To an improved 
hygiene, inseparable from a life upon the plains, may be 
attributed much of the benefit experienced in these cases; 
to the dryness and equability of the climate much more. 
This is no doubt a part, but not the whole of the truth. 
In my recent examination before the Army Medical Board, 
this question was propounded by Surgeon McDougall: 
What influence has elevation upon respiration and pul- 
monary disease? To the latter part of the question, I 
replied, that the improvement in pulmonary disease, was, 
in my opinion, due to improved hygiene; but, as the ex- 
aminer remarked, this did not express the whole truth, 
since at considerable elevations, determination took place 
to the surface, thereby relieving internal congestions — 
a consideration of much importance, and quite as obvious 
as important. From these facts it appears to me evident, 
that to the subject of an hereditary or acquired predis- 
position to consumption, the Great Plains and the moun- 
tains offer more certain relief than any other climate in 
our country. A journey over the plains is not so for- 
midable an enterprise as a few years since; it can be 
made now both with safety and celerity. As the over- 
land route to California, the main roads are being con- 


stantly traveised by parties going and returning, so that 
the invahd would have no difficulty in availing himself 
of the protection afforded by these. 

I conclude my present report with an account of an 
epidemic of periodical fever, mentioned in my report for 
the third quarter, as having commenced soon after our 
arrival upon Ham's fork. To the unusual fatigue which 
the Tenth Infantry had undergone in a highly rarified 
atmosphere, I was disposed to attribute a predisposing in- 
fluence. Several cases had happened upon the march 
along the Platte valley but from Fort Laramie to Ham's 
fork, the poison, if it existed among the command, was 
in abeyance. I also remarked that if we can predicate 
the occurrence of malarial diseases upon peculairities of 
soil, temperature, and productions, then may the Platte 
valley be considered a settled habitat of malaria. The 
valley of Ham's fork, is in many respects similar to the 
Platte valley; the soil consisting of sand intermingled with 
an alluvial deposit and vegetable loam; the banks of the 
stream fringed with the willow and cottonwood, and be- 
ing subjected to periodical overflow. It differs, however, 
in a material respect — in elevation. 

After the termination of the third quarter, we con- 
tinued for some time upon Ham's fork, moving occas- 
ionally a few miles for better grazing. For the first half 
of the month of October, the weather was warm, and the 
atmosphere had all those peculiarities which unite to con- 
stitute "Indian summer." It was during this period that 
the Tenth Infantry suffered so severely from the inter- 
mittent and remittent fevers. The intermittents, if not 
quickly controlled by the heroic administration of quinine, 
passed into the remittent, whilst the remittents tended to 
assume the typhoid type. These fevers differed in no 
respect from the same forms of disease in the low coun- 
try, if I may except this adynamic tendency. The type 
of the fever was usually quotidian, the remission occur- 
ring in the morning. A large proportion of the cases 
commenced by a severe rigor, variable in duration. Dur- 
ing the exacerbation the pulse was full, soft, and some- 
times dicrotic; skin hot and dry; tongue heavily furred 
in the centre, red and dry at the tip and edges; no sordes 
accumulated. There were present, also, intense cephal- 
algia; severe aching in the back and limbs; suffusion of 
the eyes; loathing of food; and sometimes nausea and 
vomiting. At the acme of the exacerbation in some cases, 


I observed delirium, sometimes noisy and violent. In the 
remission the debility was considerable, accompanied by 
listlessness and indisposition to the slightest exertion; 
countenance dull and tinged a peculiar dirty yellow; pulse 
small, quick, and feeble. Diarrhoea was in all cases a 
persistent symptom, requiring astringents. The stools 
were thin, dark brown, greenish, or black, and very of- 
fensive in odor. Large doses of quinine were not only 
borne with impunity, but absolutely required; and I had 
the most satisfactory evidence of the power of the anti- 
periodic in jugulating the febrile action. Ten, fifteen, or 
twenty grains administered at a single dose during the 
remission, manifested all the antidotal power observed 
in malarial regions, except in a few cases, which, uncon- 
trolled, passed into that adynamic condition, by common 
consent denominated typhoid — a state characterized by 
extreme muscular debility, low muttering delirium, subsul- 
tus tendinum, &c. Two of the cases thus protracted prov- 
ed fatal. 

These are the facts: Intermittent and remittent fevers 
occurring at an altitude of 6,240 feet above the sea mani- 
festing all the phenomena of similar or identical forms 
of disease in low countries and controlled by the same 
remedy. In the consideration of these facts three ques- 
tions arise: 

Is this periodical fever a distinct and peculiar dis- 
ease, to be properly designated as mountain fever? 

Is the poison malarial in origin and brought into the 
mountains in a state of incubation and there developed 
by a process of zymosis? 

Is malaria a product of this region? 

A remittent febrile affection, denominated the "moun- 
tain fever," is described by Dr. Ewing, in the St. Louis 

Medical and Surgical Journal, for March, 1855, as a disease 

peculiar to the elevated regions of the Rocky Mountains. 
He considers it as totally distinct from the fever of ma- 
larial origin, but it seems to me upon insufficient grounds. 
He founds his differential diagnosis upon the accident of 
situation and the absence of nausea in the mountain fever. 
Upon a careful consideration of his description, I do not 
find that the mountain fever differs very materially from 
the febrile disease herein described, and I make no doubt 
what Dr. Ewing saw was precisely what it has happened 
to me to see. We differ as to nomenclature and as to 


cause. The term "mountain fever" is in common use 
among the hunters and trappers; but, certainly, rarity 
of air cannot be considered as a cause of disease, as Dr. 
Ewing intimates, in those who have been long halDituated 
to it; nor has this cause in any other mountainous re- 
gion, as far as I can ascertain, produced similar effects. 
Moreover, the coincident occurrence of intermittent fever 
evidently indicates a different origin. The cause must, 
in my opinion, be sought elsewhere than in rarified air. 

A certain fact with regard to the behavior of malaria, 
long known, may be adduced in explanation of this ap- 
parent anomaly. It is well ascertained that the poison 
may be conveyed from a low country, where the usual 
developments may or may not have occurred, to a high, 
salubrious, and mountainous region, where all the phen- 
omena of this species of poisoning are made manifest. 
This circumstance has not unfrequently occurred, it is 
not a matter of opinion, and may explain the occurrence 
of the epidemic herein recorded; but not with absolute 
certainty. Upon inquiring into the previous history of 
the cases of fever, I find some who have been living in 
malarial regions; some residents of the northern States, 
where malaria is unknown; all, however, transiently ex- 
posed to it at Camp Walbach, on the Missouri, and along 
the valley of the Platte. 

The third inquiry — Is malaria a product of this re- 
gion? — may be considered as an altogether absurd in- 
quiry, so antagonistic is it to the commonly received doc- 
trines upon this subject. I have already intimated my 
opinion that many of the conditions usually considered 
necessary to its elaboration exist in these mountain val- 
leys. The constitution of the soil, productions, periodical 
inundations, &c., render the similarity between them and 
the low malarial countries striking. Having these con- 
ditions, let it be supposed that there prevail for several 
months a continuously, high temperature — not improb- 
able either — might not the peculiar aerial substance known 
as malaria become developed? Not, it may be, constantly 
at the ordinary season, but capriciously at long intervals, 
when, as it may but seldom happen, various coincident 
circumstances conspire to develop it. At all events, the 
subject is deserving of some attention. 

The second inquiry, according to present received 
doctrines, explains most satisfactorily the occurrence of 
periodical fever in the elevated regions of the Rocky 


Mountains; but if we deny that malaria can be here ela- 
borated, many anomalous circumstances remain unex- 
plained. Notwithstanding there is much known with cer- 
tainty upon this subject, more continues obscure, and we 
are consequently continually surprised by new phases 
and unexpected developments. 

I have been thus particular in recording in this and 
a preceding report the history of this epidemic, not in the 
vain expectation of adding any new facts to medical 
science, but the rather of exhibiting old facts under some- 
what novel and extraordinary circumstances. 

Assistant Surgeon John Moore: December, 1857. 

Camp Scott, the wintering place of the armp of Utah, is in 

latitude 41° 18' 12" No., longitude 110° 32' 23" W. from 
Greenwich; this is on the authority of observations made 
by Captain Stansbury, in 1849, 1850, at Bridger's Fort, 
an Indian trading post near our camp, and now used as 
a public storehouse. The altitude of our present posi- 
tion, as near as can be ascertained from geognostic pro- 
files, made, I think, by Captain Beckwith in his railroad 
survey, is about 7,800 feet. Distance from Fort Laramie, 
by the emigrant road, over the South Pass of the Rocky 
Mountains, 440 miles; and from Great Salt Lake City 
in a northeast direction, 124 miles. 

Our encampment is in the valley of Black's fork of 
Green river, a tributary of the Colorado of the West. 
The average width of the valley is from one to two miles, 
with a depression below the surrounding plains of eighty 
to one hundred feet. The strata in the surrounding hills, 
so far as they can be seen, are nearly horizontal, consist- 
ing of magnesian limestone, clayey and slaty shales, and 
sandstone. The soil is made up of the detritus of the 
surrounding rocks intermingled with some vegetable mould. 
The stream is one of considerable size, water excellent, 
with a rapid current over a bed of small boulders, com- 
posed principally of metamorphic sandstone. It has its 
source in the Uintah Mountains, a lofty chain some fifty 
or sixty miles to the south, and whose summits — in plain 
view from our camp — reach the altitude of perpetual snow. 

Clumps of Cottonwood, willow, hawthorn, black and 
white currant, fringe the borders of the stream, and 

*Ibid. pp. 293-297. 


scrubby cedars grow on the escarpments of the hills, some 
three or four miles distant. It is said that coal has been 
found in the neighborhood, but none has been seen since 
our arrival. It is not improbable, however, that it exists, 
as the red sandstone of the carboniferous period, has been 
seen cropping out within a day's march of this place. The 
plains in our vicinity are in no respect different from 
those extending for hundreds of miles on every side 
of us. They are utterly barren; covered with artemisia, 
(Artemisia tridentata,) asters, and cacti, interspersed with 
occasional clumps of grass. 

Our arrival here was in the midst of winter: and as 
the ground has been almost constantly covered with snow, 
but limited opportunities have been afforded for geological 
investigations. No chemical analysis of the soil has been 
made, because of the want of necessary chemicals. 

In the absence of topographical details, some observa- 
tions of a more general character may not be without in- 
terest. We are encamped in the midst of the "Great 
Basin" of Fremont; in speaking of which, it is perhaps not 
generally known that the term "Great Basin," is applied 
to one of the most remarkable plateaus on the surface of 
the globe; being greater in area and almost if not equal 
in altitude to the table-lands of Mexico. In a direction 
east and west, it extends from Fort Laramie, which is 
at an altitude of 5,300 feet, to the Wahsatch range of 
mountains some fifty miles to the west of our camp; and 
in a course north and south, from the thirty-fourth to the 
forty-fifth parallels of latitude. 

From Fort Laramie to the South Pass, there is a 
gradual but constant swelling of the ground to the "divor- 
tia aquarum," or culminating ridge, where it attains an 
altitude of 7,490 feet. The distance between these two 
points is about 300 miles. Although this is an elevation 
greater than that of the famous passes of the Simplon, 
(6,576,) of the St. Gothard, (6,865,) and but little short 
of that of the Great San Bernard, yet the ascent is so 
gentle as to be scarcely perceptible, and, without artificial 
improvement, to afford a beautiful road for every descrip- 
tion of wheeled carriage. In thus offering an easy com- 
munication between the valley of the Mississippi and the 
growing States on the Pacific, it exerts an important in- 
fluence on the social progress of the country, and there 
can be little doubt that a region so elevated and so ex- 
tensive in length, corresponding to the distance from 


Maine to Georgia, and in altitude varying from 5,000 to 
8,000 feet, must exert an important climatic influence 
on the portions of the continent to the east and south of it. 

FLORA. — Of the botany of this locality I am unable 
to add anything to the few specimens already mentioned 
as skirting the stream or covering the plains. 

FAUNA. — Animals, with the exception of the large 
and small prairie wolf, rabbits, and hares, are not numer- 
ous during the winter. The black and grizzly bear are 
occasionally met with in the mountains. In the more pro- 
tected valleys to the north and south of us the common 
and black-tailed deer, elk, and antelope are found. The 
following, though not abundant, are sometimes seen, viz: 
Rocky mountain sheep, red fox, grey fox, mink, ermine, 
badger, muskrat, beaver, prairie squirrel. Few birds have 
been seen since our arrival, except the crows, ravens, and 
turkey-buzzards attracted by the offal of the slaughter- 
ing pens around the camp; but in summer I am told that 
wild geese and ducks of various kinds, among which are 
the mallard and the greenwinged teal, with other migra- 
tory birds, are numerous. 

Any attempt to enumerate either the flora or fauna, 
from such limited observations as could be made in a few 
weeks in the rigor of winter, must necessarily be incom- 
plete. Any ommissions in this respect can be supplied 
by some future observer, as measures are being taken 
to establish a permanent military post in this neighborhood. 

From the old hunters I learn that the buffalo 
fBos americanufi) has not been seen west of the Rocky 
Mountains within the last thirty years, although, prev- 
ious to that time, this country was one of his favorite 
feeding grounds. This is attested by the numerous skulls 
and other portions of his skeleton found bleaching on the 
prairie in every direction over the valley included between 
the Rocky and Sierra Nevada mountains. The fact is 
familiar, that he has retreated before the advancing set- 
tlements from Virginia and Kentucky, to his present 
habitat on the plains of the Missouri and Arkansas rivers. 
But it would be interesting to know why he has aban- 
doned the plains west of the Rocky Mountains in advance 
of civilization. The only explanation I have heard of a 
phenomenon so singular, is, that about thirty years ago 
they were all killed by an unusually sever winter, and 
that subsequent to that time they have never been seen 


INDIANS. — When Bridger's Fort was used as a trad- 
ing post, it was frequented by the Shoshones or Snakes, 
whose wintering place is some hundred miles to the north 
of our camp; and by the Uintahs and Utahs, about the 
same distance to the south. Owing to the scarcity of 
provisions, they have not been encouraged to visit us; 
in consequence I have rarely seen them, and so know little 
of their customs or diseases. In regard to the Snakes, 
I have been assured by old hunters, who have spent a 
considerable portion of their lives among them, that 
within thirty years past, they have been reduced by epi- 
demics of small-pox, from 900 lodges to a fourth of that 
number. Their treatment for this as for almost every 
other disease, consists of hot vapor baths, foPowed im- 
mediately by plunging into cold water. The result in al- 
most every case was fatal. They believe that the disease was 
designedly introduced among them by the Hudson's Bay 
Company. Syphilis is a very common and destructive 
disease among them; but whether of domestic origin or 
foreign importation, seems uncertain. 

From these same hunters I learn another interesting 
ethnological fact, which is, that their language is iden- 
tical with that of the Camanches, inhabiting Northern 
Texas, except in reference to the names of such animals 
or implements, as have been introduced among them since 
their contact with the white man. Thus proving beyond 
question, that prior to this event, these two tribes, now 
so far removed from each other, with other tribes in- 
tervening, were one and the same. 

I have seen it somewhere stated, that the Camanches 
have a tradition that some four or five centuries since, 
their ancestors emigrated from South America; whether 
the Snake have a similar tradition, I have not been able 
to learn. It is not improbable, that this similaritv of 
language between tribes so remote from each other, may 
be well known; but being new to me, I thought it of suf- 
ficient interest to be mentioned. 

I will now speak more immediately of that portion of 
the command, with which I am serving. From the first 
of the present quarter to its close, the Tenth Infantry 
in common with the Fifth, have been exposed to more 
than the usual hardships of active service in the field, in 
a winter climate of unusual severity; and during the first 
part of the quarter, many of the men were poorly clad, 
and furnished with a very limited supply of blankets. 


The vigilance required for the protection of long 
trains of wagons, and large herds of animals, from the 
marauding attacks of Mormons, who were daily seen in 
our neighborhood, made it necessary to mount large 
guards, for a time only allowing the men two or three 
nights in bed in the week. For several days, during the 
early part of October, the thermometer ranged in the 
hottest part of the day, from 80° to 90° in the shade, the 
nights at the same being below 32°. The regiment was 
then encamped on Ham's fork of Green river, at an eleva- 
tion of about 6,000 feet. An encampment of ten days 
was made here. During this time two companies were 
on guard nightly, and the whole command drilled three 
or four hours daily. The great alternations of tempera- 
ture experienced during these hot day, told on the health 
of the men. Fifteen of the twenty cases of malarial fever, 
and two-thirds of cases of diarrhoea, reported for the 
quarter, occurred here. From the previous history of 
those attacked with remittent and intermittent fever, to- 
gether with the nature of the locality in which it occurred, 
I am convinced it was due to exposure on the Missouri 
or other miasmatic regions, before leaving Fort Leaven- 
worth. From men who have lived for fifteen or twenty 
years in this country, I learn that fever and ague is en- 
tirely unknown as an indigenous disease. 

Between the 20th of October and the 10th of November, 
while on the march, we had four or five falls of snow, 
each varying from two to five inches in depth. About 
the latter date, the arrival of a large train with clothing, 
tents, &c., afforded the means of making the men much 
more comfortable than they had been previously. The 
conical or Sibley tent was issued to the whole command 
in place of the one before used, the common bell tent. 
This new tent, in cold weather, will very comfortably ac- 
commodate twelve or fifteen men; and having an aper- 
ture at the top for the escape of smoke, a cheerful fire 
may be built in the centre, either on the ground, or in 
a pot, or in any other method that ingenuity can devise. 

In a climate like this, where men are to winter un- 
der canvas, the Sibley tent I think a great improvement 
over any heretofore in use in our service. 

From the 10th to the 15th of November, the ther- 
mometer, at 7 A. M., ranged from -4° to -16°. Some ten 
or twelve men, while on guard or picket, had their feet 
and toes more or less frozen. All recovered without loss 


of substance, except one. In this the last phalanx of the 
four lesser toes sloughed off. In addition to the remedies 
usually employed, the fresh gall of the ox was used v/ith 
great benefit in all cases where the injury was superficial. 
It was applied as a liniment, or by pieces of lint sat- 
urated with it. 

On the 20th of November the whole body of the com- 
mand had reached this camp, having been sixteen days 
in making the last fifteen miles. The weather was ex- 
cessively cold, and the Tenth Infantry coming up in sev- 
eral detachments, as escorts to ox trains, were often de- 
tained until midnight on the road, and when, half frozen, 
they reached the camp, had to pitch their tents on the 
snow, and seek that rest so necessary after the dav's 
fatigue, and which only the weary can know. As an in- 
dication of the severity of the weather on this last part 
of the march, it may be stated that in makina: the last 
sixteen miles before reaching this camp, more than two 
thousand of our animals died from cold and starvation. 
Notwithstanding all this exposure, the number of sick 
was much less than during the warm weather in the early 
part of October. Since the arrival of the regiment at this 
camp, the soldiers have been as comfortable as it is pos- 
sible for men to be in tents. They are not required to go 
on guard oftener than once a week; but as all our ani- 
mals have been sent to a distant grazing ground, our wood 
has to be hauled by the soldiers from a cottonwood 
grove two or three miles distant. This, with drilling and 
the ordinary police dutv of the camp, keeps them for the 
greater portion of each day in the open air. As the 
weather, although cold, has iDeen dry, bracing, and spark- 
ling, this outdoor exercise has, without doubt, been of 
great advantage. 

No new cases of scurvy have occurred during the 
present quarter, and all those reported in the previous 
one are either well or recovering. This immunitv, I think, 
is probably due, in a great measure, to the desiccated 
vegetables supplied by the commissary department, in 
praise of which, as a wholesome and agreeable addition 
to the ration, too much cannot be said. In consequence 
of the limited supplies on hand, the entire ration has been 
reduced one fourth, with the exception of beef; this has 
been increased to two pounds. It is, however, of a very 
inferior quality, being the flesh of the oxen that was used 
in drawing our train from Fort Leavenworth, a distance 


of one thousand miles. For nearly two months past no 
salt has been issued; but up to this time I have seen no 
bad effects from this reduction of the ration. If scurvy 
should not make its appearance in the spring, the exemp- 
tion will be one of the most remarkable in the history of 
the army. 

For hospital, I have one hospital tent and three Sib- 
ley tents. The Sibley tents I have floored with dry beef- 
hides, which keeps the bedding from the dirt and damp- 
ness of the ground, as well as adding materially to its 
warmth. In one of these tents six or seven men can be 
made more comfortable than in any other method here- 
tofore adopted in the field. 

Assistant Surgeon Aquila T. Ridgely: January, 1858. 

In accordance with existing regulations, I have the 
honor to submit the following remarks, to accompany my 
quarterly report of sick and wounded for the fourth quarter 
of 1857: 

During the whole of the quarter now ended, the Fifth 
Infantry has been engaged in military operations within 
the Territory of Utah. Until November 17 they were 
actively employed in the field. The almost constant 
presence of the enemy, who hovered about our flanks in 
small bodies, endeavoring to cut off stragglers from the 
command and seize upon animals, caused the duty of the 
men to be excessively arduous, and entailed upon them 
much exposure to the elements. In consequence of there 
being no mounted force with our army, until after the 
2d of November, the Mormons, who were upon good 
horses, were very bold, and could only be kept beyond 
the range of our small arms. This rendered it necessary 
to have large guards with the mules and oxen, and to 
post pickets upon commanding heights by night as well 
as by day, in cold weather as well as in warm. The scar- 
city of grass and the consequently large range required, 
made the duty doubly onerous. The long line of our ox 
trains likewise demanded protection, and frequently sev- 
eral companies would not reach their tents until after the 
night was far advanced. Occasionally the morning would 
find them absent from the camp, and more than once, I 
believe, they have passed two consecutive nights upon the 

*Ibid. pp. 297-299. 


road. All this has been performed when the thermometer 
indicated a temperature considerably below zero. 

Since the arrival of the command at its site for a 
winter encampment, its condition has been much amelior- 
ated. Nevertheless, its task continues to be a hard one. 
The sustaining of out-posts and pickets, the maintenance 
of a strong guard, and the procurement of fuel, tax all 
the energies and almost all the time of the soldier. 

The climate of this region is certainly a cold one. 
Never have I seen such severe weather, at the same period 
of the year, as we experienced in October and early in 
November. Upon the morning of October 19 the mer- 
cury stood at 4° Fahrenheit; upon November 5 the mer- 
cury was at Y2° Fahrenheit; upon the mornings of No- 
vember 12 and 14 the mercury stood at -17° and -13° 
Fahrenheit. It may be stated, in general terms, that the 
cold was extreme and unseasonable during the month of 
October and a large part of November, during which time 
we were upon the march. 

The snow commenced to fall early in October, and 
was frequently repeated during the campaign. 

Upon the night of October 17 it covered the earth 
to the depth of about one foot in and around our camp. 
Sometimes it was accompanied with drifting particles and 
a strong cold wind, which were difficult to face; but the 
necessities of our situation admitted no delay, and we 
were compelled to move onward. 

Since our arrival at Camp Scott, contrary to all ex- 
pectation based upon the past, the winter, though regu- 
larly cold, has been moderately so. The mercury has not, 
I think, been lower than -12° Fahrenheit, although fre- 
quently it is but little above zero or somewhat below it. 

The troops are quartered in the Sibley tents. These, 
as they admit of a fire within them, around which their 
occupants can sit and keep warm, and thus forget the 
storm without, are vastly more comfortable than the tents 
previously furnished. Those officers who possess stoves, 
with an adequate supply of stovepipe, almost universally 
prefer the wall tent for their own residence, but, as sol- 
diers are seldom in enjoyment of such luxuries, I deem 
the introduction of the Sibley tent the greatest boon which 
has, of late years, been conferred upon them. It is to be 
hoped that the Quartermaster's Department, with its ac- 


customed liberality, will, at an early date, authorize the 
issue of these tents to laundresses and the servants of 
officers, as the health of these individuals is surely en- 
titled to some consideration. 

The hospital accommodations of the regiment con- 
sist, at present, of one hospital tent and three Sibley tents, 
but will doubtless be enlarged should the number of sick 
render it desirable. 

The clothing of the men has been sufficient, so far as 
my knowledge extends. 

The cleanliness of their persons has not been remark- 
able, in consequence, I suppose, of the difficulties attend- 
ing the performance of ablutions. 

They have usually been temperate, as they seldom ob- 
tained the means of intoxication. 

Notwithstanding the hardships and exposure to which 
the men have been subjected, the health of the command 
has been good. The ratio of sickness is not large, and 
of those reported a very considerable proportion are 
classed under the heads of "wounds and injuries." 

Of the 202 persons taken sick, no less than twenty- 
one suffered from frost-bite, or almost ten per cent of the 
total number treated. The frequent occurrence of di- 
arrhoea during the months of October and November, I 
attribute principally to the deprivation of the men from 
the use of common salt as a condiment, and to the fact 
of the meat ration consisting chiefly of fresh beef. The 
alimentary canal having been accustomed to the stimulus 
of salt, probably required its presence for a due enerva- 
tion of the tissues concerned, and its withdrawal was 
followed by a consequent relaxation. By the month of 
December the system had become reconciled to the new 
order of things, and upon that month the number of those 
affected was only one half as great as upon the previous 

The fewness of the cases of serious thoracic diseases 
may be among the good effects resulting from the em- 
ployment of the Sibley tent. This tent, being open at the 
top, permits the free escape of heated air, the place of 
which must be supplied from without. This produces a 
constant though imperceptible current of air through the 
apartment, and, by preventing it from becoming unduly 
heated, renders the change less great to one upon emerg- 


ing from it into the open atmosphere. It may be, too, 
that the perpetual renewal of oxygen imparts to the lungs 
a healthy tone, which renders them less impressible to 
vicissitudes of temperature and other disturbing causes. 
The absence of scorbutus is a gratifying feature in the 
accompanying report. I have seen a few symptoms of 
this disease among those who were sick from other com- 
plaints, but it has chiefly been in the persons of employes 
of the staff departments. This immunity is probably 
the result of the occasional issue of desiccated vegetables 
to the men. It is to be hoped that subsequent experience 
will confirm this opinion. 

Camp Scott is situated upon Black's fork of Green 
river, one and three quarter miles above Bridger's Fort, 
and about one hundred and ten miles from the city of the 
Great Salt Lake. The stream is a mountain torrent, and 
has a fall of many feet per mile. The water is pure and 
pleasant to the taste. The banks are skirted with a wide 
growth of willow bushes, with here and there a grove 
of the bitter cottonwood, interspersed with a few stunted 
box-elders. The neighboring hills have, in places dense 
groves of cedar within their ravines and upon their slopes. 
The distant mountains are also partially covered with 
heavy growths of timber. I have not been to them, but 
I imagine that the pine and fir predominate. 

The valley of Black's fork at this point does not ex- 
ceed half a mile in width, and, owing to the tortuous 
course of the stream, we are, to a great extent, sheltered 
from the winds by the high hills or bluffs which arise 
immediately from the valley. Beyond these, to the south- 
ward and to the westward, may be seen the lofty peaks 
and elevated ridges of the Wahsatch mountains, nowhere, 
probably less than twelve miles from our camp. 

The dazzling whiteness of their summits, compared 
with the dark green of the forests below, forms a beau- 
tiful and pleasing contrast. Owing to the presence of 
the snow and the inclemency of the season, I have not 
been able to investigate the geological peculiarities of the 

Magnesian limestone has been found in abundance in 
the neighborhood. 


Assistant Surgeon Roberts Bartholow: March, 1859. 

HISTORY. — For many years past Fort Bridger has 
enjoyed some celebrity as a trading station, occupied by 
James Bridger, a famous mountaineer. The fort origin- 
ally consisted of an irregular collection of log houses, sur- 
rounded by a stockade, arranged in part for defense 
against the Indians, in part for the kind of trade here 
carried on. When the Mormons occupied the valley of 
Salt Lake, and grew into a formidable community, the 
fort came into their possession, and was further strength- 
ened by the erection of a quadrangular wall. Upon the 
arrival of the army, in the fall of 1857, nothing remained 
of Fort Bridger but this wall, all the wooden structures 
having been burned by the Mormons when they could no 
longer maintain possession. 

The erection of the necessary quarters for a garrison 
of five companies commenced immediately after the ad- 
vance of the army in June, 1858; but, owing to the scar- 
city of the indispensable materials, the buildmgs, though 
in a state of considerable forwardness, are, as yet, un- 
completed. The hospital was so far advanced toward Qom- 
pletion as to be considered habitible in December last, 
and the company quarters a few weeks later. In this 
half -finished state, the officers' quarters were occupied 
in January. The quarters are built in a substantial man- 
ner of logs. The work of completing them is still going 
on as vigorously as the coldness of the weather will per- 
mit: they make haste slowly. 

MEDICAL TOPOGRAPHY, &c.— For Bridger lies in 
latitude 41° 18' 12" N., and longitude 110° 32' 38" W., and 
in the valley of Black's fork, a mountain stream tribu- 
tary to Green river. The valley of Black's fork has an 
average width of about one thousand yards; wider at 
this point than elsewhere. The transition from the valley 
to the table-lands is much more gradual in the vicinity of 
the fort than at any other point, and consequently this 
part of the valley is more exposed to the prevalent high 
winds. The bluffs which bound the valley consist of 
sand, conglomerate, and shale, and, in some situations, 
magnesian limestone, (dolomite.) The soil of the valley 
is a sandy alluvium, light, porous, and superficial in depth, 
and incapable of sustaining a luxuriant vegetation. Un- 

*Ibid. pp. 306-310. 


der the soil lies a stratum of sand and rubble stone of 
great thickness, through which the water constantly per- 
colates. Numerous ravines and mounds of exposed rubble 
stone attest that the valley is overflowed when the melt- 
ing snows swell the stream. 

The herbage of the valley is sufficiently luxuriant 
to contrast strongly with the barren table-lands covered 
with the wild sage, (Artemisia tridentata. ) The cottonwood 
(Popultis angustifoiia) and an herbaceous willow are the only 
trees which grow in the immediate vicinity of the post. 
On the hills, five miles distant, grow groves of stunted 
cedar trees, from which the fort is supplied with fuel. 
The buildings recently erected are arranged in a quad- 
rangle, the wall of old Fort Bridger forming one side. 
Through the parade ground, and in front of the line of 
officers' quarters, runs one of the numerous branches 
into which Black's fork is divided at this point. 

CLIMATOLOGY.— The mean height of the barometer 
for the five months during which observations have been 
taken at this post, is 23.48 inches. By a recent calcula- 
tion, I determine the elevation to be 6,646 feet. Accord- 
ingly, at an elevation so great as this, and at the forty- 
first parellel of north latitude, the climate of Fort Bridger 
properly belongs to the "upper or cold regions" of meteor- 
logical writers. The mean height of the thermometer for 
eight months, commencing in July last, is 39.22°. The 
proportion of summer months in this estimate is too large 
for the mean of the year, which would be lower. The 
lowest degree of the thermometer since the occupation 
of this post was -22° Fahrenheit. Extreme cold is less 
appreciable to the senses, owing to the dryness of the 
atmosphere; and a less amount of clothing is necessary 
than will suffice in latitudes warmer but moist. The 
most annoying, as the most prominent, feature of this 
climate is the almost constant prevalence of high winds. 
This prevailing wind is from the southwest. Few days 
are without it; and Fort Bridger, unprotected by bluffs, 
is fully exposed. Snow-storms are frequent; in fact, no 
month in the year is exempt from such visitations or 
greater or less intensity. A few miles up the stream, on 
the summit of the Uintah, the domain of "perpetual 
snow" is reached; there great fields of snow lie all summer. 

The barometer, as a weather indicator, may be con- 
fidently relied upon at this post. A considerable fall of 
the mercury constantly portends high winda and a snow- 


storm, whilst a rise, no matter how threatening the ap- 
pearance of the clouds, as constantly indicates fair weather 
and calm. 

HYGIENE. — The foregoing observations, with great 
propriety,, introduce the subject of hygiene. I include, 
under this designation, air, exercise, food, clothing, habits, 
and the duties and employments of the troops in so far 
as these influence their sanitary condition. 

From the preceding account of the situation and cli- 
mate of Fort Bridger, it will be at once perceived that due 
ventilation has been secured by the location and plan of 
that post. The Company quarters now occupied are much 
too small for the full standard of strength; consequently 
additional buildings are in process of construction. By 
crowding the men into too confined a space, sufficient re- 
gard has not been paid to cleanliness. This is more es- 
pecially the case with the dragoons, who, by reason of 
their employments, are more exposed to filth, yet are, 
personally, less regardful of appearances. 

The hospital, built in all respects like the other quar- 
ters, is sufficiently commodious, but sadly defective in 
arrangement. I desire to record that I am in no respect 
responsible for the plan of this building. I was not con- 
sulted by the architect, and, of course, abstained from 
making suggestions which would have met with no at- 

Since the arrival of the present garrison at this post, 
a large portion of it has been engaged in the labor of 
building, and of the necessary police. These employments 
have not influenced the health of the command, except 
by the occurrence of such injuries as happen from the 
use of cutting tools by unskillful hands. 

The water supplied by the branch of Black's fork, 
which runs through the parade, is clear and tree from 
visible impurities. If this were the only beverage used 
by men in this command, my professional duties were 
the lighter. A vile concoction, known as whisky, has been 
from time to time surreptitiously sold to the troops, not- 
withstanding prohibitory orders from the commanding of- 
ficer. Manufactured by traders from alcohol, tobacco, 
and other narcotics, this liquor has, in one instance, pro- 
duced an immediately fatal effect, and more or less alarm- 
ing symptoms in various instances. The only death during 
the present quarter was from this cause; a private of 


company F, Seventh Infantry, having swallowed a con- 
siderable quantity of this liquor, died in a few minutes, 
and before relief could be obtained. 

DISEASES. — I arrange these into two classes: 

I. Ubiquitous diseases, which occur under all cir- 
cumstances of climate and local conditions, including 
fevers, inflammations, and specific diseases. 

II. The diseases belonging more especially to this 
region, including scorbutus, neuralgia, rheumatism, and a 
certain febrile state, known as "mountain fever." Cer- 
tain surgical diseases and injuries may be considered un- 
der this head. 

It has happened me not to meet at Fort Bridger many 
of the diseases included in the first class. During the 
past fall I had under treatment in the hospital several 
cases of common continued fever, (typhoid.) Its behavior 
at this elevated position was, in many respects, anomalous, 
and deserving of consideration. This continued fever con- 
stantly assumed the periodical form, and was not easily 
distinguished from the ''mountain fever," a periodical af- 
fection, which as constantly determined toward the con- 
tinued type. In two instances only was a hesitating di- 
agnosis confirmed by the discovery of the characteristic 
"rose spots." In all were absent, to a great degree, those 
external symptoms, pathognomonic of typhoid fever: 
coma, subsultus tendinum, low muttering delirium, floc- 
citatio. The nature of the fever was recognized by its 
duration, by the impossibility of arresting it by the heroic 
use of quinine, by the mental disturbance and stupor, by 
the epistaxis and cophosis, by the gurgling on pressure 
over the ileo-caecal valve, and the peculiar, greenish- 
colored stools. The only instance of death in the hosDital 
from this cause disclosed a lesion so peculiar as to justify 
the insertion of the note of a post mortem examination. 

Private Hilt, of company "I," Second Dragoons, died 
on the 10th of November, 1858: autopsy, twelve hours af- 
ter death. 

Body much emaciated; numerous bed-sores over the 
sacrum, trochanters, scapula, and left ribs. Left nipple 
and mammary gland inflamed, and containing pus. 

Thorax. — Cavity of pleura contained about six ounces 
of serum. Lung healthy, except post-morten congestion 
in dependent portions; sack of pericardium contained one 


ounce serum; heart normal in size and healthy, and upon 
section about one ounce of dark fluid blood, flowed out. 

Abdomen.— Liiver healthy, weighing four pounds and 
fifteen ounces; spleen friable and enlarged, weighing four- 
teen and a half ounces; stomach healthy, of normal size, 
and containing a small amount of ingesta; not fat in the 
omentum ma jus, very transparent; upper portion of small 
intestine healthy, and distended by some gaseous accumu- 
lation; some dark points of congestion near i^.eo-caecal 
valve; Peyer's patches thickened, indurated, and in some 
places ulcerated, in other healing; large intestine, healthy, 
except a general diminution of caliber; in some places di- 
lated into pouches containing scybala; left kidney, friable, 
enlarged, and upon pressure drops of pus exude from the 
cut surface; left suprarenal capsule, disorganized, pulpy, 
diffluent; right kidney in great part disorganized, and 
occupied by a large abscess, containing about sixteen 
ounces of thick, creamy pus; bladder, healthy; urine 

clear, amber-colored, normal. 

Brain. — Frontal sinuses very healthy — dura mater 
healthy; small quantity of fluid (serum) in lateral ven- 
tricles; sub-arachnoid space filled with serum; substance 
of verebrum, healthy; left lobe of cerebellum softened 
and pulpy; medulla oblongata, healthy. 

There had been no symptom in this case to indicate 
so serious a lesion of the kidney. Beside the lateritious 
sediment common in typhoid fever, the urine afforded no 
evidence of disease. A deposit similar in character and 
amount, was observed in the other cases which proceeded 
to a favorable termination. 

This command has been singularly free from the in- 
flammations; common inflammations as opposed to spe- 
cific. The tendency in high latitudes and considerable 
elevations, is said to be, to thoracic inflammations: mani- 
festly an error as regards this region. No cases of idio- 
pathic pneumonia or pleuritis, have fallen under my ob- 
servation, and but few cases of catarrh. The most inter- 
esting fact, however, with regard to the influence of this 
climate upon the thoracic affections, is the amelioration 
and cure of the pulmonary tubercular disease. Not a 
single case of phthisis has occurred at this post, and those 
who came hither, laboring under the symptoms more or 
less advanced, notably improved. How this change is 
accomplished, other than by the increased expansion of 
the lungs in consequence of diminished barometric pres- 


sure, by the determination to the surface, and by the 
purity of the respired atmosphere, does not appear. The 
same facts are true and apposite with respect to other 
inflammations, except the rheumatic. 

The exanthemata prevail occasionally as epidemics, 
modified, as typhoid fever, by the conditions consequent 
upon elevation. Large numbers of Indians were formerly 
carried off by variola. Syphilitic affections rapidly im- 
proved; at least, the secondary symptoms, which, only, 
I have observed. 

Again, certain diseases manifest for this climate an 
aptitude, whose invariability amounts to a special affinity. 
The neuralgic and rheumatic affections only, belong prop- 
erly to this class. Whilst scorbutus is an ubiquitous dis- 
ease, it may be said to have a special affinity for this re- 
gion. Ten cases are, at present, under treatment in the 

Most usually, the first symptom of an attack of scor- 
butus, is a pain in the popliteal space or calf, with lame- 
ness of the muscles. This pain persists for some days, 
before the appearance of the discoloration and swelling. 
The discoloration is peculiar; like the discoloration of a 
bruise, yet in reverse order, the yellowness preceding in- 
stead of following the dark brown, dark blue, or black 
hues. A general anaemic condition, with sponginess of 
the gums, fetor of breath, and hemorrhages follow the 
pain and discoloration. 

At the head of the causes of this disease, I place 
drunkenness. Filth, despondency, ennui, and an unvaried 
diet from which vegetables are absent, are next in fre- 
quency the producing causes. 

The treatment I have finally adopted, consists of cer- 
tain hygienic means; cleanlinesss, regularity of habits, 
such mental amusements as may relieve the tedium of 
confinement, and the use of an exclusive vegetable diet. 
In but few cases are medicaments administered. The first 
cases of scorbutis it happened me to treat, I put in prac- 
tice the various methods of cure by medicinal agents, but 
with a less satisfactory result than the plan here ad- 
verted to. 

Having, in former reports, discussed the question of 
"mountain fever," it is unnecessary for me to add any- 
thing further, except to declare my unaltered conviction, 


that this febrile disease, is a modified form of periodical 
or malarial fever. 

The surgical diseases included under the class of dis- 
eases belonging to this region, are, the affections result- 
ing from the application of cold. 

PHENOMENA OF FROST BITE.— Exposed to cold, 
a greater or less period according to intensity, the parts; 
usually the feet or hands, lose sensibility; become, in com- 
mon parlance, benumbed. If examined at this stage, the 
integument is found to be white, bloodless, shrunken, and 
insensible to irritants; but yet capable, by very gradually 
applied warmth, of being restored to health. The return 
of circulation under the proper manipulation, is announced 
by severe "stinging pains" in the bitten part, and a gen- 
erally diffused blush or redness. If, however, whilst 
frozen, the hands and feet are thrust before the fire, as 
is usually the case with teamsters and soldiers, the reac- 
tion induced is excessive, and passes sufficiently beyond 
the healthy condition to constitute inflammation. Under 
these circumstances, the parts become covered with large 
vesicles, filled with brownish-yellow serum, and turn blu- 
ish-black. Sensibility for a time is excessive (hyper- 
aesthesia) ; severe nocturnal pains harass the patient, and 
prevent sleep; but these soon subside, and deep incisions 
may then be made, with but little appreciation on the 
part of the patient. The parts, then gradually turn black, 
and shrink, and the line of demarkation is established. 
Where the vis vitae is accomplishing the separation of the 
dead from the living parts a disagreeable odor is exhaled, 
but the. mortified parts are dry and free from odor. 

TREATMENT. — When a frozen part is seen before 
reaction has commenced, it should be rubbed diligently 
with snow, and if this is not at hand, should be immersed 
in cold water, in a room without fire, until the pains and 
redness indicate a restoration of the circulation. If these 
means have not been resorted to, and the part is covered 
with vesicles, I evacuate the fluid and direct the parts 
to be covered with lint, moistened with the following: 01, 
terebinthinae, alcoholis, tinct. camphorae, aa. oz. 1. De- 
pletion by blood-letting or purging, is necessary. When 
the sloughs form, use polutices of flax-seed and elm to 
favor separation. The most important question with re- 
gard to the treatment, is the question of amputation. I 
have acted upon this plan: wait until the line of demarka- 
tion is established; if the separation proceed favorably, 



no interference is necessary, except the section of the 
bones and tendons, or disarticulation, if the line of sep- 
aration is in the vicinity of joints. After the sloughs are 
entirely detached, use water-dressings, until the healing 
process is completed. Under this treatment, the formation 
of pus is prevented, and granulations are never exuberant. 

The "Wyomins' Pioneer Association" first met as "Old Timers Meeting" in 1914, 
during the 10th Session of the Wyoming State Fair at Douglas. 

The above picture of two of Wyoming's oldest pioneers was taken in front of 
the fire place in the Wyoming Pioneer Association's building, at Douglas. The build- 
ing is of logs in keeping with pioneer days, and is located at the State Fair grounds. 

James Abney located in Cheyenne on his arrival in what was then Dakota Ter- 
ritory, later located in Converse County. He was a member of the House of the 
First Territorial Legislative Assembly, 1868. 

Finelius G. Burnett came to Fort Laramie, then Dakota Territory, in 1865 ; later 
located at Fort Washakie. He was present at the hanging of the three Indian chiefs 
at Fort Laramie in 186.5, when Chiefs Little Thunder, Walks-under-the-ground, and 
Two Face were hung by order of General Patrick Edward Connor, in command of 
the Powder River Expedition. 

By Judge Gibson Clark* 

In reply to your request that I give you my military 
history, I have to state, that I was born at Millwood, 
Clarke Countj^ Virginia, on December 5, 1844, the son 
of James H. and Jane A. Gregory Clark. On June 21st, 
1863 I joined as a private soldier, Parker's Battery, Alex- 
ander's Artillery Battalion, Longstreet's Corps, Army of 
Northern Virginia, with which command I served until the 
surrender at Appomattox C. H., April 9th, 1865. On July 
2d and 3d, 1863 I participated in the battle of Gettysburg, 
my battery becoming engaged about three o'clock p. m., 
on the 2d continuing so until about eight o'clock p. m., of 
that day, and again becoming engaged just at dawn on the 
3d and with some few intermissions, so continuing under 
fire until night fall; the gun at which I served retiring 
from the field by its own recoil, having fired over 300 
rounds. Our battalion loss in this battle was 144 men out 

*Upon the close of the Civil War, Gibson Clark returned to 
Virginia, where he remained but a short time; in 1866 moved to 
St. Louis, Missouri, and during that same year left for Fort Laramie, 
arriving December 4, 1866. He was employed as a clerk and 
bookkeeper in the post trader's store until 1872; was a member of 
the Democratic Party; elected to the house of representatives of the 
Territorial Legislative Assembly in 1871; engaged in mining from 
1872 to 1883 in Nevada and Utah; while in Utah he was admitted 
to the bar; moved to Fort Collins, Colorado in 1883, where he 
practiced law^ until 1886, when he moved to Cheyenne and established 
a law practice. In November 1892 elected Justice of the Supreme 
Court serving until September 1894, when he resigned to accept 
the appointment of United States Attorney for the District of 
Wyoming; his term of office expired 1898; he continued in the 
practice of law until his death, his successive partners being Robert 
W. Breckons, William A. Riner, and his son, John D. Clark, and 
later Clark and Clark. He served many years as a member of the 
board of trustees of the Cheyenne school district, and was a member 
of the University Board of Trustees, and a member of the vestry 
of St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Cheyenne. 

Gibson Clark was a very public spirited citizen; one of the 
finest grade schools of Cheyenne, the Gibson Clark School, was 
named in his honor for the loyal service he rendered to the Chey- 
enne schools. 

Married Miss Frances Johnston of Iowa, in 1881; to this union 
was born four sons, James H., Francis G., John D., and Robert G. 

Judge Clark passed away December 14, 1914, in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, where he was laid to rest. 


of a total strength entering the fight of about 300, of this 
loss 139 were killed and wounded and 5 missing. 

In September 1863 the battalion accompanied Hood's 
& McLaw's Divisions of Longstreet's Corps to Tennessee 
to assist Bragg' s Army in opposing the advance of Rose- 
cranz's Union Army. We arrived at the field of Chica- 
mauga one day after that battle, and soon took position 
on the extreme top of Lookout Mountain ( overlooking the 
city of Chattanooga, around which was gathered the Union 
Army, still under the command of General Rosecranz. 
From this position we were frequently engaged in shell- 
ing the Union lines around Chattanooga. We remained 
in this position until about the middle of November, 1863, 
when our Corps was sent to Knoxville, Tennessee; on our 
way there my battery was engaged in sharp skirmishes 
at Concord station and Lenoir station, and upon arriving 
in front of Knoxville about November 22d, 1863 was 
engaged in its siege for four or five days; about the 27th 
or 28th of November the siege of Knoxville was raised 
because of the advance from Chattanooga of a large fed- 
eral force under the command of General W. T. Sherman, 
and we passed around the city and proceeded eastward 
toward Virginia. In this section of east Tennessee during 
the winter of 1863-64, we engaged in a desultory sort of 
campaign advancing upon and retiring from the enemy. 
Early in December 1863, we had a sharp fight with the 
federal troops at Bean's station in which my battery was 
engaged. The winter was exceedingly severe. I recol- 
lect that January 1st, 1864, was the coldest day I ever 
experienced, and that a few days before in marching to 
Morristown, Tennessee, there were four or five inches of 
snow on the ground and to get through it, I had a shoe 
on one foot and rags bound around the other, they were 
good rags and enough of them, so I have no recollection 
of leaving any bloody tracks in the well beaten snow. 
Until about the 15th of January, 1864, we were practically 
cut off from all communication with the south and hence 
had to live off the surrounding country, and often were 
without rations, on one occasion for a week at least we 
lived on parched corn and a little bacon, 2 to 4 ounces 
per day, this we would put in a skillet with the corn when 
parching it. In those days I thought a good quantity of 
parched corn flavored with bacon and a cup of parched 
corn coffee sweetened with sorghum made a very appe- 
tizing menu. During this time I was made a corporal; 
the highest rank I obtained. 


About the middle of January, 1864, we moved from 
Morristown to Dandridge, Tennessee, on the French Broad 
River, and there we were almost in paradise, with abund- 
ance of food about us and obtainable; we had plenty of 
splendid fat chickens, eggs, pork and vegetables, words 
would fail me were I to attempt to describe our delight. 
Early in March 1864, we again moved, this time to near 
the Virginia line within a few miles of Bristol Tennessee. 
Here I reenlisted for the war and was fortunate enough 
to draw the prize of a thirty days furlough which was is- 
sued to me on April 15th, 1864. I spent a few days of 
the time at Abingdon and Marion, Virginia, with relatives, 
and part of the time at New Market in the Shenandoah 
Valley not being able to get nearer my home at Millwood, 
because of the occupation of the country n">rth of New 
Market by the enemy's forces. My father came to New 
Market to see me. I enjoyed being with him verv much 
and indeed my whole stay at New Market. On May 5th, 
1864, I learned that Grant had crossed the Rapidan and 
opened the campaign. Although my furlough had not 
expired by ten days, I at once started back to rejoin my 
command which I reached on the 7th or 8th of May on 
the road between the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court 
House. At Spottsylvania we were placed on the line at 
a point about half a mile north of what was called the 
Block House, as I now remember. Here we threw up 
breast works and remained for five or six days almost 
continuously under fire of more or less severity. One 
afternoon between the 9th and 13th of May the portion 
of the line we occupied was charged by the enemy in great 
force, three or four heavy lines of battle advancing upon 
us. It so happened that several guns of our battalion 
were so placed that when the enemy reached a point 
about 50 yards in front of our infantry, in breast works 
extending for a mile or so to the left of our battalion, 
we of the artillery, had an enfilading fire straight down 
their line; we waited until they reached this point and 
then opened with our guns double shotted with canister; 
the slaughter was terrible, but they were brave men. for 
they were American soldiers of the famous Sixth Corps 
and on they came line after line but not a man ever got 
nearer our breast works, than the point reached by their 
first line of battle, and where it had been swept out of 
existence. After their repulse, I went over the field in 
front of our works, and it seemed to me when I got to 
the point reached by the enemy's lines of battle, that I 
could step from dead man to dead man for more than a 


mile without once touching the ground. It was appalling, 
but such is glorious war. 

We remained at and in the vicinity of Spottsylvania 
until about the 20th day of May, 1864, when Grant re- 
suming his famous swinging movement from his right to 
the left, we entered upon a race with him for the North 
Anna River and beat him in it. We crossed this river 
on what I now remember was called the Telegraph Road 
Bridge, at the north end of which was a small fortifica- 
tion occupied I think by a regiment of Mississippians, as 
gallant men as ever heard the shriek of a shell or the 
whistle of a bullet; after crossing the river, we filed off 
to the left taking position on the line of bluffs situate 
about one hundred yards south of the river and awaited 
the approach of the enemy. In a few hours they appeared, 
debouching from a heavy body of woods situate about a 
thousand yards north of the river and of the fortifica- 
tion mentioned, and advancing upon it. The men in the 
fort, and our artillery consisting of 25 or more guns 
opened upon them and drove them back into the woods, 
this happened three or four times, finally they came 
again, and some general officer attended by a numerous 
staff galloped around the left of his line, seized a regi- 
mental flag, and holding it aloft, with its bright stripes 
gracefully swinging to the breeze, galloped straight up 
to the earthwork, and upon the embankment, and there 
drove the staff down into the sand; of course his men 
followed him, what else could they do? And our men 
scampered out of the work, ran across the bridge and 
set it on fire, as they were ordered to do. While we fired 
upon them as they advanced, as soon as we saw our men 
leave the works and that the man with the flag intended 
to and would take them, we stopped firing, took off our 
hats, waved them and cheered him until he and his men 
were over and into the fortification; as I then thought 
and still think, a beautiful and soldierly tribute from the 
gallant Americans of the South, to the gallant Americans 
of the North, Americans all and soldiers every inch of 

From North Anna River, Grant resumed his swing- 
ing movement and we next found ourselves in front of 
him at Cold Harbor, within a few miles of Richmond. 
Here, on I think, June 1st, 1864, he met with a disastrous 
repulse, losing 12,000 men while our loss was less than 
2,000. He simply sent his men into a slaughter pen, 


against the protest of his corps commanders. We con- 
fronted him at Cold Harbor and White Oak swamp until 
the 15th to 20th of June, 1864, when he moved to the 
James River, crossed it at City point and advanced upon 
Petersburg where he again found General Lee in his 
front; my command with Pickett's Division was not taken 
as far as Petersburg, but placed on the line between the 
James and Appomattox Rivers, in front of Bermuda 
Hundreds, my battery being a few hundred yards in front 
of an old church building and about a mile south of the 
Howlett house, at this point we remained until the night 
of the 2d of April 1865. During the first few months of 
our stay at this point picket firing was steadily kept up so 
that the exposure of one's head above the breast work 
always brought a shot, and the shriek of shells and the 
zip-zip of rifle balls became very familiar music. During 
the fall of 1864, while we were at this point a great wave 
of religious fervor swept over the army of Northern Vir- 
ginia; chapels made of logs capable of seating 300 to 500 
men were built along the whole line, extending over a 
distance of forty miles, and services frequently held; the 
most eminent clergymen of the south giving their serv- 
ices towards the uplifting and comforting of men who 
were in sorrow and distress. The outlook was bad, hope 
had bade farewell to many hearts, it was apparent to all 
of us that the cause for which we had fought so long and 
so hard and suffered so much and which was still so 
dear to us was in desperate straits, and the future was full 
of gloom, and we all felt that our only hope was in God's 
tender mercy, and our only consolation was in the belief 
that He would be a present help in our troubles. Among 
the clergymen rendering us this service, I particularly 
remember, Philip F. August, of the Methodist Church, full 
of eloquence and devoted to his calling, a genuine prophet 
of God, and Dr. Jos. C. Stiles of the Presbyterian Church, 
a profound logician and a most earnest disciple of his 
Master. A series of sermons by the former from that 
wonderful 55th Chapter of Isaiah, and particularlv from 
the verse "Let the wicked forsake his way and the un- 
righteous men his thought," etc., and by the latter on 
the "Doctrine of the Atonement," so impressed me that 
they have remained with me to this day. I remember on 
one occasion that Dr. Stiles in speaking of the patriotism 
and piety of a confederate officer in our Western army, 
suddenly held himself erect, with head thrown back and 
hands held aloft, exclaimed "Patriotism and Piety, the 
one brings the whole power of man and the other the 


whole power of God, to the accomplishment of worthy 
ends." The scene was about as dramatic and the ex- 
pression as epigrammatic, as I have ever witnessed or 

We remained at this place throughout the winter 
1864-65, with little either to eat or wear, but upheld by 
the consciousness that we were doing our duty as best 
we could. 

On the morning of April 2d, 1865, we were quite 
heavily attacked, but succeeded in repulsing the enemy, 
capturing several hundred of them; these prisoners were 
brought within our lines, passing through our battery, 
as they passed by my gun I stopped one of them who 
was well dressed wearing a good felt hat, asked him 
to exchange it for my ragged worn out cap, which he did, 
I then asked him if he had any money, he responded by 
handing me about 75 cents in silver, which I took and 
he passed on with his comrades to what we called the 
bull pen, the place where we kept prisoners of war under 
guard. His face remained imprinted upon my mind, as 
it is to this day, and I began to think about the transac- 
tion, and began to find excuses for it in my own sad 
plight. I was ragged, almost shoeless, dirty, hungry, pen- 
niless and exposed to the storms, my necessities were al- 
most overwhelming but the more I attempted to justify 
my conduct the more ashamed I became, my excuses 
turned into bitter accusations, so that early in the after- 
noon I could stand it no longer. I felt not only ashamed 
and humiliated, but also that we could expect no help 
from God for our cause, if we the soldiers of the South 
did such wicked things. I posted off to the Bull pen, 
found my friend of the morning, told him how much 
ashamed of myself I was, most humbly begged his par- 
don, made all the reparation I could, gave him back his 
hat and money, which he begged me to keep saying that 
as a prisoner, he could easily do without either the hat 
or money, while he knew from my appearance that I 
needed them more than he, and he not only was willing 
but wanted me to keep the hat and money, the hat es- 
pecially. But I could not bring myself to do so. I left 
this man, the only man I ever so wronged, with a warm 
spot in my heart for him which still remains with me. 
This I can assure you my dear madam and through you 
the ladies of your chapter, was the only case of highway 
robbery in which I ever participated. After the repulse 
of the enemy at this point, we lay quietly in our breast 


works the rest of the day, Hstening to the roar of musk- 
erty and artillery at Petersburg, a few miles to our right, 
and to the deafening explosions of fifteen inch shells from 
the Federal gun boats on the James River about a mile 
to our left. During the early hours of that night, I lay 
upon the ground watching with intense interest, the 
flight through the air of the gun boat shells with fuses 
aflame and their brilliant explosions high in the air light- 
ening up the surrounding space, but doing no special dam- 
age, further than making us who were in their line of 
fire slightly uneasy, as the pieces of exploded shells flew 
around carelessly like. It was the most wonderful and 
interesting pyrotechnic display I have ever witnessed. 
About 9 or 10 o'clock on that Sunday night we withdrew 
from the lines so long held by us, and the retreat to Ap- 
pomattox began. We marched all night and reached 
Amelia Court House about noon the next day April 3d, 
1865. Here we expected to find rations of which we were 
sadly in need, but I learned that through the stupid 
blunder of some officers of the Commissary or Quarter 
Masters' Department a train load of provisions which our 
Grand Commander, Robert E. Lee, had ordered to be sent 
to Amelia Court House for his army had been sent on 
through that place to Richmond where it fell into the 
hands of the Union troops, who did not need them, very 
much to the discomfort of us who did need them; so we 
continued our fast which had commenced the previous 
morning. At Amelia Court House, our battery was di- 
vided, two guns in charge of Lieut. Brown continuing the 
retreat and going by a southern route through Farmville 
and by way of Sailors Creek, and the other two guns in 
charge of Captain Parker going by a parallel route, but 
some miles north of the first mentioned route. Nothing 
of interest occurred with our part of the army during the 
next four or five days of the retreat; conditions were 
very unpleasant owing to the rain, mud and lack of pro- 
visions. On the night of the 8th we approached Appo- 
mattox Court House and rejoined the other part of our 
command, with the exception of that part of our battery 
from which we separated at Amelia Court House, it with 
all its men and officers having been captured at Sailors 
Creek; on this night rations were issued to us consisting 
of a little flour to each man. I recollect mixing mine up 
into a dough and cooking it on a spade. It probably 
when cooked in such fashion was not the kind of bread 
which a connoissieur would consider good bread in these 


days, but I am sure that I found it very palatable and felt 
very grateful for it. 

The next morning, that fateful Sunday morning of 
April 9th, 1865, we were formed with the rest of our corps 
in line of battle. The outlook was not encouraging for 
it was plainly evident that the enemy were all around us, 
to paraphrase Tennyson's lines: 

There were Yankees in front of us. 

Yankees to the right of us, 

Yankees to the left of us, 

Yankees all around us. 

As far as the eye could reach in every direction, 

There they were. 

Standards on standards. 

Men on men. 

In slow succession still. 

But so far as I could perceive, every man of us was 
ready for the fray, and the thought of surrender was in 
no man's mind. About nine or ten o'clock one of our 
men, named John Glenn, who had the happy faculty of 
finding out everything that happened, and who had been 
rustling around for something to eat came to the bat- 
tery, and told us that General Lee has surrendered the 
army. I recollect going up to him and telling him in 
language more forcible than polite that his statement was 
not true, adding very grandiloquently like a true son of 
the South, that there were not enough Yankees on earth 
to make the army of Northern Virginia surrender Sir: 
and that he would not be allowed to come on that line 
and say such things, he ought to be ashamed of himself. 
But it soon transpired that John's report was true, and 
we were dumbfounded for what we deemed impossible 
had happened. In a little while General Lee mounted on 
Traveller, rode down the lines and such greetings of love 
and affection and confidence from the soldiers of a sur- 
rendered army to its commander, the world never saw, 
they crowded around him with tears streaming from their 
eyes simply trying to touch the hem of his garments and 
with expressions of "God bless you General Lee, lead us, 
lead us, lead us against the enemy and we will cut our 
way through," they cried, but he simply waved his hand 
and shook his head, for he knew that further blood shed 
would be wicked because it would be useless, and Robert 
E. Lee was made of that stuff that made him believe 
in his very soul, that duty was the sublimest word in our 


language, and he always dared to do it. Then, Robert E. 
Lee the pages of all history record the name of no man 
who stood more erect before his God, and before his fel- 

Then followed the saddest day I ever have exper- 
ienced, it seemed to me that everything making life worth 
living or even endurable was blotted out of existence. 
Henceforth I would no longer be a free man, for free- 
dom with a shriek of despair had bade the world fare- 
well, and liberty was gone. During the afternoon the 
chaplains of the various commands held religious serv- 
ices, which were well attended; at one of them I saw 
strong war worn, smoke begrimed, powder burnt men who 
had faced death without a tremor upon a hundred battle 
fields, lying upon the ground with tears streaming from 
their eyes and crying like little children and praying God 
for help in this their hour of great distress. Later in 
the afternoon I took my bible and left our camp seeking 
a quiet secluded place where I could be alone with myself 
and my Heavenly Father. I found it in the bed of a 
small stream, beneath the frame work of an old dismantled 
saw mill, there I read my bible and prayed for help and 
that God would deliver me from the body of this living 
death, for young as I was I was in the depths of despair 
and I hoped that some of the heavy timbers hanging 
down and above me, would fall upon me and end my 
suffering. I returned to the camp about sun down and 
soon after the Union soldiers came among us and talked 
to us. I now want to record the fact that I never once 
saw the slightest sign of exultation upon the face of one 
of them, I never once heard an expression of exultation 
from one of them, there was not even an intimation of 
boasting, they were soldiers and they were full of sol- 
dierly sympathy for us, and they unhesitatingly expressed 
it, constantly assuring us that while they rejoiced in their 
success, the war was over, the country was reunited and 
henceforth we and they would be fellow citizens, of a 
common country, and that they, the soldiers of the Union 
would see to it that our rights as their fellow country- 
men were fully preserved, and this they did after a long 
struggle, for with few exceptions it was not the soldiers 
we met upon the battlefield who were engaged in the 
horrible doings of the reconstruction days, the perpetra- 
tors of those deeds were those patriots who never bared 
their breasts to the storm of war, men who were valiant 
in peace but were laggards in war. 


About dark, rations were issued to us, kindly fur- 
nished by General Grant, at the request of General Lee, 
and before we went to sleep we learned of the mag- 
nanimous and generous terms agreed upon between Gen- 
eral Grant and General Lee as to the conditions of the 
surrender of the army of Northern Virginia, an army 
whose heroic deeds and steadfast devotion to duty are 
written in imperishable words upon the everlasting pages 
of the World's History. Those terms simply were that 
we should go to our homes and there remain undisturbed 
so long as we observed the laws of the land. I must 
confess that before I went to sleep that night, because of 
the soldierly sympathy of the Union soldiers visiting our 
camps, coupled with the generous terms of our surren- 
der, and the rations (don't forget the rations) so kindly 
furnished us, I began to regard my future with very 
different eyes from those through which I viewed it in 
the afternoon when I kneeled full of despair beneath the 
hanging timbers of the old saw mill. And now more 
than forty seven years after that sad day I thank God 
that I and my children and my people are citizens of 
this great Union, the proudest and freest and best gov- 
ernment that exists or ever existed on God's footstool; 
and I earnestly pray that we soldiers of the Union and 
Confederate armies who still survive and our children 
and their children after us will follow old Glory the flag 
of a reunited country, and love, cherish and protect and 
hand down in all their purity, the things it stands for 
as faithfully, as devotedly, as conscientiously, and with 
as high a sense of duty as the men of the South and the 
North followed their flag during the troubleous days of 
1861 to 1865. 

422 South Penn. 

Denver, Colo. 

Oct. 5, 1924. 
Mr. W. E. Chaplin, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

My Dear Sir: — 

Today while looking over the Wyoming Historical 
Collections I noticed your statement about Bill Nye. I 
wish you to correct the statement made. I arrived in 
Laramie City, Dakota, in January, 1868. CAPT. O'Neil 


sold the town lots. In February, 1868, I bought the corner 
lot where Trabing Bros, later built their store, opposite 
J. W. Connor's log building, and started a store, in cloth- 
ing, hats, caps, etc. Then, later in fall of 1871, I erected 
a two-story frame building next to Brennan & Smith's 
saloon and in 1872 put in the first stock of dry goods 
in the building you called the Kidd Building. The upstairs 
I rented to Albany County for Court and also for a meet- 
ing place for the County Commissioners. Gov. Campbell 
appointed L. T. Wilcox, T. D. Abbott and Henry Wagner, 
County Commissioners when the Territory of Wyoming 
was organized. Every second Sunday the upstairs was 
used by the Rev. Father Kelley of the Catholic Church for 

I corresponded with E. A. Slack, then editing a paper 
in Sweetwater County, and made him a proposition to 
come to Laramie and start a daily paper, guaranteeing 
him one thousand dollars in advertising. I also got other 
merchants to pledge support. He moved here and I gave 
him the use of the old building that I vacated for his paper 
free of rent. Later the Cheyenne people made him a 
better offer, so he moved to Cheyenne. After that I had 
erected the first two-story brick building on the lot I 
purchased of Tom Dillion, next to A. T. Williams and 
moved in it, and sold the two-story building to Mr. Kidd 
afterwards known as the Kidd Building. If you look at 
the Albany County records you will find I am correct. 

Bill Nye was working for the Weekly Sentinel, started 
by Mr. N. A. Baker of Denver. I see him often; he is 
still alive. He put Dr. J. H. Hayford in charge. I was 
President of the Board of Trade and one day asked him 
— this was early in the morning — to write up Laramie 
City and its resources and have it published in southern 
papers and I would give him $10.00 for every paper he 
produced with his letter. He took up my offer. In a very 
short time he brought me ten papers. I called a meeting 
of the Board of Trade and gave him a check for $100. 
The next time he brought me 15 papers and got a check 
for $150. Then I called a halt. One day he came in my 
store and asked me for an ad. I said"None to-day." I 
was very angry, so he passed through. I was piling up 
pants. He went to the dry goods department and when 
he came back he said, *T have a local". I said, "What 
is it?" He would not tell, but when the Sentinel came 
out the local was "Wagner's Pants are Down." One morn- 
ing early he came into my office. We had a chat; I said, 


"Bill Nye, how would you like to start a daily paper?" He 
remarked "That would suit me." This was about 9 o'clock. 
I said, "Come in at two O'clock and I will let you know." 
By that time I had called on A. S. Peabody, Robt. Marsh, 
Trabing Bros., Will Holliday, and others and had raised 
$3,000. I asked him what he was going to call the paper. 
He said, "I will call it after my pet mule. Boomerang." 
When the press came I gave the upstairs over the clothing 
store adjoining the Wyoming National Bank. It proved 
a grand success. Bill Nye's health failed him and he left 
for Greeley, Colorado. 

He got the most of his book in my store as every 
day after closing up we had Bill Nye, Bill Root, Buck 
Bramel, my brother, Charles Wagner, and Charles Bra- 
mel telling jokes sitting around a big base burner stove 
with a large sawdust box around. Bill Nye would take 
down in his book. Before he got married h^ would get 
drunk Saturdays and several times I took him in the 
store to sober up. He married a Miss Smith of Cheyenne, 
a telegraph operator. After that he braced up. When 
he became prosperous he had a beautiful home on Staten 
Island. My wife and children spent the summer at his 
home, after his death, on his farm at Ashville, North 
Carolina. The bank that he had his funds in failed and 
his widow lost all. She died shortly after his death. His 
son, the last I heard of him, was employed on the Kansas 
City Star. I do not know what became of his two daugh- 
ters. My wife and I often played whist at his home in 
Laramie and he and his wife at my house. 

I arrived in Cheyenne, Dakota, July 3, 1867, the day 
they sold lots, and opened a store there. Mr. A. R. Con- 
verse was in business in Omaha next to my place of bus- 

He came into my office and said, "Wagner, let us 
pack up and go to Cheyenne" which we did. I sent my 
wife and children to DeSota, Missouri. Converse was en- 
gaged in the china and glassware business and prospered 
there. He started the First National Bank. He went 
East and hired F. E. Warren at Brockton, Mass., at $125.00 
per month to come to Cheyenne and give him charge 
of the mercantile business. After Mr. Converse's death 
his widow married his cashier in the Bank, Mr. Hicks. I 
could write a great deal more of the early days. I was 
one of the leaders of the G.O.P. was chairman of Albany 
County Convention. Was Chairman of Territory of Wy- 


oming Convention at Point of Rocks, when W. W. Cor- 
lett, Judge W. T. Jones, and Col. J. W. Donnellan were 
aspiring for the nomination for Delegate to Congress; 
Church Howe was U. S. Marshal. Col. Donnellan came 
to me and whispered, "Harry, take a recess for 15 min- 
utes," which I did. When out. Church Howe took me by 
the arm and said, "Mr. Wagner, here is $500.00 vote for 
me." I said, "Church Howe, I would not sell my vote 
for five thousand dollars." He said "For God's sake, 
don't give me away." In these prosperous days I had 
political influence as I had three thousand in my employ. 
I had a U. S. Government contract to carry 10,000,000 
lbs. of freight from Rock Creek to Ft. Fetterman, and 
McKinney; also contract from Rawlins, Wyoming to Fort 
Washakie. General Crook and I rode over the road from 
Rawlins with an odometer to measure the distance, 125 
miles. Had a contract from Rawlins to Meeker, Colorado. 
I could not haul the Indian supplies to Meeker on account 
of the heavy snow, so wired General Crook at Omaha. 
He wired back to turn the Indians in and feed them that 
winter. I also had a contract at Fort Laramie to put 
in 3,000 cords of wood and 1,800 bushels of charcoal and 
the contract for building the Sisters' Hospital and the 
public school. Had Peter Gumry attending to that part. 
I also had 14 stores on the line of the U. P. at Cheyenne, 
Laramie, Fort Steele, etc. We were ordered away so 
moved to Benton, now called Rawlins, Rock Springs, Car- 
bon, Green River, Wasatch, Evanston, Bryan, and Cor- 
rinne, Utah. Pardon for writing at this length, but con- 
sider me a pioneer of Dakota and Wyoming, I also had 
a bank, Wagner & Dunbar, in Laramie. He was drowned 
in Hutton Lake. On my return from the East, J. R. Brophy, 
conductor over the hill from Cheyenne to Laramie, told 
me that Clarence Dunbar was drowned. As I had too many 
irons in the fire, I gave up the banking business. 

Again pardon me for this long epistle. 

Yours truly, 

(Sgd.) Henry Wagner. 



Rawlins first school building. It is interesting to con- 
trast the present large school buildings in the city with this 
school building of the pioneer days. Old timers in the city 
say that this building was situated on the edge of town 
and that the children were afraid many times to attend 
classes on account of the Indians in the vicinity. Mrs. 
Lillie Heath Nelson, Lillie Jungquist, Homer A. France, 
Forest D. Burnfield and Harry B. Jennings, who graduated 
from this school in 1888, are all living. 

Review of Laramie City for 1868-1869* 

Ever as the years roll around, and ever as the first 
of May comes and adds another to the volumes of the 
SENTINEL — the pioneer paper of Laramie — our minds nat- 
urally revert to the past and we desire to review it as 
we plant another milestone in the onward march of our 

With this issue we commence Volume XV of the 
SENTINEL. In this rapidly moving country and age, and 
especially in the continuous mutations of a frontier city, 
this seems almost an age. The present editors and pro- 
prietors of this paper have been its sponsors from the 
day of its birth — fourteen years ago. The little boys and 
girls who were running around our city ragged and bare- 
foot, but many of whose names we find from month to 
month upon the "roll of honor" in our report of the pub- 
lic schools, have now come to be our business men, our 
law makers and officials, our staid matrons with flocks of 
children, the very pillars of the church and state. 

And so it seems as though we had been in Laramie 
through a whole generation. A boy — a son of the editor — 
now sets type in the office and distributes the SENTINEL 
to our subscribers, whose mother came to this country 
a joyous, light-hearted girl, years after we had been pub- 
lishing this paper. And during all these years the same 
names have stood at the head of our columns. No other 
newspaper in this territory, not one west of the Missouri 
river, so far as we know, can boast such a record. It 
has long been the custom of our contemporaries — half in 
earnest, half in jest — to apply to us the honorable sobri- 
quet of Father of Laramie. This cognomen is nothing to be 
ashamed of, surely. It is a healthy, promising child, of 
which any father might feel proud. 

This year as the first of May drew near we conceived 
the idea of making a brief review of the past history of 
Laramie. We thought we would, in a column article, refer 
to its past growth and prosperity and cast the horoscope 

*Laramie V^eekly Sentinel, May 5, 1883. Vol. XV No. 1. 


of its future. As we began to look over our back files 
with this object in view, we found so much of interest 
that the undertaking grew upon our hands. We con- 
cluded we would devote several columns to it; then we 
assigned a full page to this object, and finally the matter 
became so ponderous that we found a full page would 
scarce suffice to review the record of a single year, and 
at last we decided to run this review serially, and try 
to summarize the history of each year of the past for 
each issue of the paper until we caught up with the pres- 
ent time. 

We find even this a Herculean task. A great deal 
occurs in a year. The historical events which we review 
in this first issue are, from the broken condition of our 
files somewhat imperfect and incomplete. For the bal- 
ance of the years our files are perfect, and the review 
will be more in detail. From it everyone in Laramie can 
correct his family record. In this number we confine ourself 
mainly to prominent General Events, and with this intro- 
duction we enter upon our task: 


The survey of the Town of Laramie City was made in 
the fall of 1867. Its location upon the banks of the Big 
Laramie river, with the large spring brook running through 
it, and in the midst of the fertile Laramie plains — the rich- 
est and most productive portion of the territory — sur- 
rounded by mountains on all sides rich in mineral and 
timber, furnished an aggregation of natural advantages 
unequalled anywhere upon the line of the great trans- 
continental railroad. 

The following spring, on the 20th day of April, 1868, 
the Union Pacific Railroad company commenced the sale 
of town lots. Several hundred people had already located 
here beneath their tents and wagon covers, and were only 
waiting to obtain title to lots to commence erecting their 
future homes. Within the first week over 400 lots were 
sold, and in less than two weeks 200 or 300 buildings 
had been commenced, the material for many of which was 
nothing more than rough logs, or condemned ties, from 
which the walls were constructed, and which were cov- 
ered with canvas or cotton cloth. 


On the 9th of May, 1868, the rails were laid to and 
through the town, and on the 10th of May the first train 
of cars came into Laramie, loaded with freight, consisting 
mainly of railroad ties, plows, scrapers, tents, shanties 
and lumber, which had been brought from Julesburg and 
Cheyenne, together with groceries, provisions, peddlers 
with their packs, stores, crockery, etc., wines and liquors 
of all kind and varieties, on top of which, riding on open 
flat cars was piled a motley crowd of men, women and 
children. Within three months from the time the rails 
reached Laramie, it was estimated that the population 
of the place aggregated five thousand souls. Half of 
these people were employees, directly or indirectly, of t^ie 
railroad company; the other half were largely composed 
of adventurers, fully fifty per cent of which were made 
up of desperate men and disreputable women, gamblers, 
thieves, robbers and cut throats, who lived by preying upon 
the community and who depended for their success upon 
robbing the employees of the company. 


Alarmed at the character of this mass of depraved 
humanity, the better element took steps to organize some 
system of government which would secure them protection 
against the desperate characters who flocked in here in 
such immense hordes. 

On the 8th of May there was posted up a call for a 
mass meeting of the citizens for the purpose of organiz- 
ing a provisional local government. This meeting was 
held at Tivoli Hall, and M. C. Brown was named for mayor ; 
John Guerrelle, for marshal; E. Nagle, J. C. Crissman, G. 
P. Drake and M. Townsley, for Trustees, and P. H. Tooley, 
for clerk. An election was held on the 12th day of May — 
at which over 900 votes were polled — and the above- 
named gentlemen were declared elected. It must be borne 
in mind that, at this time, Wyoming Territory was not even 
organized, nor was there any county or municipal organ- 
ization by authority of which any local government could 
be established. These gentlemen, however, made a vig- 
orous effort to put in motion the machinery of this pro- 
visional government, but backed by no legislative authority 
they found it impossible to stem the current, and three 
weeks after Judge Brown, the mayor, resigned his posi- 
tion and declined to head any further effort in that direc- 
tion. For some weeks anarchy ran riot, murder and rob- 
bery were common, and neither life nor property were safe. 



This condition of things gave rise to a general feel- 
ing of insecurity and steps were soon taken to organize 
a vigilance committee. The first organization of this 
kind was effected in August, but not more than twenty- 
five or thirty men were engaged in it. It was not num- 
erous nor strong enough, nor composed of a sufficient 
number of resolute men to meet the emergency. The only 
fruits of this organization was the hanging, on the 27th 
of August, of a young man known as the "Kid", who was 
hung in a partially completed building belonging to John 
Keane. The death of this insignificant individual merely 
sufficed to arouse the ire of the worst element among the 
roughs, and they at once organized a counter association, 
with the avowed purpose of avenging his death. This or- 
ganization was turbulent and defiant, and was headed by 
some of the worst desperadoes in the country, among whom 
were Con Wagon, Asa Moore, Big Ned, Sam Dugan, Tiger 
Bill, Morris Kohn and Dave Mullen. For a time it ruled 
the town and by its acts of outlawry struck terror into 
the hearts of all respectable citizens. Robberies were com- 
mitted in the open streets and in broad daylight, and no- 
body dared to interfere. But this condition of things could 
not long exist. The law-abiding element of the community, 
in which were included the railroad employees, formed a 
defensive alliance and organized a vigilance committee — 
numbering from 400 to 500 men. The organization was 
very thorough and perfect in its details, headed and con- 
trolled by resolute and cool-headed men. An attack was 
planned upon several of the dens of infamy, which was 
to take place on the night of October 18, 1868. This com- 
mittee of safety met on that night at the round house, 
arranged all the details, divided up into several squads, 
and silently proceeded to the localities where these des- 
peradoes had their haunts. It was supposed that the ar- 
rangements and plans were perfect, and at a given signal 
the attack upon all these places was to have been made 
simultaneously, but for some reason the company de- 
tailed to capture a notorious dance house known as the 
"Belle of the West," after surrounding the place, gave the 
signal by the firing of a pistol, before the other compan- 
ies were ready for the attack, and the scheme in a meas- 
ure miscarried. But the company sent to the Belle of 
the West found that place filled with gamblers, pimps 
and prostitutes and made their attack as agreed upon and 
a regular pitched battle ensued, the inmates being all 


well armed, and hundreds of shots were fired on both 
sides. The desperadoes fought Hke wild beasts, and above 
the din of arms was heard the curses of men and the 
shrieks of women. This battle lasted for about fifteen 
minutes, when the place was carried by storm. Con Wagon, 
Asa Moore, and Big Ned were taken from the place and 
hurriedly conducted to the same building where the "Kid" 
was hung and summarily executed by being hung to the 
projecting beams of the building. In the fight three men 
were killed, one of them a member of the vigilance com- 
mittee, one a musician of the hall and the third one of 
the desperadoes. Fifteen men were wounded, some quite 
severely. The next morning another one of the leaders 
of the gang known as "Big Steve" was captured and hung 
to the telegraph pole opposite the railroad house. This 
summary proceeding struck terror into the hearts of the 
desperadoes and many of them fled from the town. There 
was still however, a strong element of this class left, 
and for some time it was a question as to whether they 
or the law-abiding citizens were to control the destinies 
of Laramie. An effort was then again made to organize 
a provisional government and L. B. Chase was elected 
mayor, with a full corps of other city officers. 


Thomas D. Sears was acting as deputy sheriff for 
Laramie county and in that capacity arrested a young 
man by the name of Moritz, and committed him to the 
city calaboose, which consisted of a little pen made of 
telegraph poles and ties driven into the ground and cov- 
ered with cross ties and dirt. This young man was charg- 
ed with being guilty of theft up in the Bitter Creek coun- 
try — whether truly or not, is not known. The vigilance 
committee went and took him from this pen and hung 
him. The committee had by this time degenerated both 
in numbers and character, many of the desperadoes hav- 
ing joined it, partially to divert suspicion from themselves 
and partly to use it as a means to revenge themselves 
upon their personal enemies, and the hanging of this 
man Moritz can scarcely be justified even by the emerg- 
encies of the time. One Lee Griswold was at that time 
acting in the capacity of city marshal, and he was the 
one who led the attack which took Moritz from jail and 
hung him, and it is some satisfaction to know that he was 
afterwards shot and killed by an officer in Denver while 
attempting to escape from jail in that city, where he was 
confined on a charge of murder. 


In December, 1868, the legislature of Dakota organ- 
ized the county of Albany, and framed and passed a bill 
incorporating a city government for Laramie, and filling 
the various offices, temporarily appointing M. C. Page 
as mayor, N. K. Boswell, sheriff, L. T. Wilson and T, D. 
Abbott, county commissioners, and Dr. J. H. Finfrock 
probate judge and treasurer. This is the first effort at 
anything approximating a legal government, and it was 
scarcely more successful or effective than its predecessors. 
Some idea of its character may be formed from the fact 
that the city police one time organized and conducted an 
attack upon their own jail in March, 1869, for the purpose 
of taking out of the jail and hanging one George Hays, 
who had been imprisoned that day for drunkenness. It 
is said that this act was undertaken for the purpose of 
gratifying the personal spite of two members of the po- 
lice — Douglas and Rodapouche. A man by the name of 
Irwin and M. H. Murphy were in the jail as guards, and 
during the attack Irwin was killed and Murphy severely 
wounded. Hays made his escape in the melee. Hays was 
a tie cutter and only temporarily visiting the town, and 
threats were made by his friends, the tie cutters, and ser- 
ious fears entertained that they would be carried into ef- 
fect, to come in and burn the whole town in revenge for 
the indignity offered to their comrade. This affair, headed 
and conducted by the ostensible guardians of the peace, 
under the city government, brought it into such disrepute 
that its usefullness was thereby practically ended. 


About this time an organization of the territory of 
Wyoming was perfected by the appointment of Federal 
officers, and the governor and other officials reached the 
territory in May, 1869, and immediately proceeded to put 
in motion the machinery of government for the new ter- 
ritory. They appointed county officers and instituted 
courts, and the first regular term of a court was held 
in Albany county, in June, 1869, Judge William T. Jones, 
associate justice of the supreme court, presiding, with 
N. K. Boswell as sheriff of the county. This term of court 
was effectual in establishing law and order and gave to 
long harassed people a feeling of safety and security. 


The Laramie SENTINEL was started in this city by 
N. A. Baker, of Cheyenne, proprietor, with J. H. Hayford 


as editor and business manager. The first number was 
issued on the first day of May, 1869. It was a small, 
five column folio paper, printed one page at a time on a 
half -medium Gordon press. Prior to that time, in the 
winter of 1867-68, the Frontier Index, a nomadic little 
sheet which was following the construction gang across 
the continent, was printed at Fort Sanders as a weekly. 
In May, 1868, it was moved into Laramie where it was 
printed for a while and shortly afterward moved on with 
the road to Benton, and soon after from there to Bear 
river, where it was destroyed by a mob, and its editor, 
Fred K. Freeman, narrowly escaped being lynched. This 
sheet was never located here permanently, but had been 
following the construction train from Omaha west. Thus 
the LARAMIE SENTINEL may justly claim to be the 
pioneer paper of Laramie city. Our files of the SENTINEL 
for first year of its existence have been badlv scattered 
or destroyed, and very few of them can be obtained. At 
the end of the first year of the existence of the paper. 
May 1st, 1870, it was purchased by Hayford & Gates, the 
present proprietors, and since that time complete files 
have been preserved and bound. We are enabled, how- 
ever, to gather from the remains of the files of the first 
year many historical events of public interest, but we 
cannot give as detailed a statement of all the personal 
events of Laramie, such as births, marriages, deaths, etc., 
as we would wish, and hence or chronology of that date 
must be confined mainly to the leading events in the his- 
tory of our city, while the subsequent narrative will be 
complete in all those little matters of personal interest to 
the old pioneers. 


The first white child born in Laramie was Patrick 
S. Keane, son of John and Mary Keane, born June 21, 1868. 

The first substantial building erected in Laramie, 
was the small stone block of Dawson Brothers, on South 
A street, now owned and occupied by Charles Kuster, and 
cost at that time about $5,000. It was built in the spring 
of 1869. The next erected, during the summer of 1869, 
was the present Wyoming National bank building, by Col- 
onel J. W. Donnellan, of the firm of H. K. Rogers & Co., 
and cost about $10,000. The third substantial building 
was the fine stone block on Second street, erected by M. G. 
Tonn, for a drygoods and clothing house, and costing about 
$16,000. The erection of these buildings was regarded 


as of great interest to the city, and were the first events 
which inspired the people with confidence in the substan- 
tial permanency and future growth of our city. 

In August, 1869, Captain W. J. Mclntyre, clerk for 
Superintendent Fillmore, was voluntairly tendered and ac- 
cepted a first-class appointment in the treasury depart- 
ment by Secretary Boutwell. We chronicle this event be- 
cause it was the first, and, so far as we know, the last 
appointment ever rendered to a citizen of Wyoming in any 
department of the government at Washington. 

The first public school ever opened in Laramie was 
organized and put in operation, February 15, 1869, by Miss 
Eliza Stewart, now Mrs. E. S. Boyd. 

The first religious services were instituted by Mrs. 
E. Ivinson, Mrs. C. A. Wright and Miss Jennie Wright, 
who started a Sabbath school, July 15, 1868. 


The Episcopal Church was organized by Rev. Joseph 
C. Cook, of Cheyenne, October 2, 1868. This was the first 
church organization in our city. Rev. J. W. Cornell was 
its first rector, and commenced his ministrations on the 
21st of February, 1869. The church building had been 
completed, costing $4,000, and was dedicated on that day 
by Rt. Rev. Bishop Randall, of Colorado, as St. Matthew's 
Episcopal church. 

The Methodist church of this city was organized by 
Rev. G. F. Hilton, in the spring of 1869, the exact date of 
which we have not the means of ascertaining. 

The Roman Catholic church was organized here in 
the spring of 1869, by Rev. Father Kelly, u missionary 
priest from Omaha. Colonel J. W. Donnellan, Henry Wag- 
ner and J. W. Connor were the first trustees. They com- 
menced the erection of their fine stone edifice in May, 
1869, but it was not completed until the fall of 1871. Rev. 
Father Cusson was the first pastor of this church. It cost 
about $7,000. 

The Baptist church was organized on the 8th day of 
January, 1869, by Rev. George W. Freeman, superintend- 
ent of Baptist home missions. Their present church build- 
ing was erected the following summer at a cost of about 
$5,500. Rev. D. J. Pierce was the first pastor. 


Laramie Lodge, No. 18, A. F. & A. M. was organized 
under a dispensation issued by the Grand Lodge of Colo- 
rado, February 14, 1870, with J. H, Hayford as its first 
master, and J. E. Gates, as Secretary. 

The first lodge of I. O. O. F. was instituted in June, 


Immediately upon his arrival here, our first governor, 
John A. Campbell, proceeded to district the territory into 
legislative districts, and issued a proclamation for the elec- 
tion of a legislature. This legislature convened in Chey- 
enne in November, 1869, and remained in session for 
sixty days, and provided the territory with a general code 
of laws for its government. This legislature was composed 
exclusively of democrats in both branches, so that there 
was no opportunity for any political squabbles or con- 
tentions during its lengthy session. As might have been 
expected, while it was composed of men of good, sound 
sense, they were nevertheless generally inexperinced in 
law-making, and many of its acts were necessarily crude 
and ambiguous. 


Among the most important of the acts passed at that 
session, was the one conferring political rights upon the 
women of Wyoming territory. This act was exceedingly 
simple and brief, occupying but half a dozen of lines in 
our statute book, and simply provided that women who 
were citizens of the United States, and of the Territory 
of Wyoming, or had declared their intention to become 
such, were hereby invested with all the political rights, 
duties, franchises, and responsibilities of male citizens. 
This act was approved December 10, 1869. There was 
not, so far as we know, at that time in all Wyoming Ter- 
ritory a single aggressive advocate of women's rights, 
either man or woman. The motives which prompted the 
legislature to lay aside its conservatism and take this 
new departure were, so far as can be judged, an ambition 
to immortalize themselves and out Herod-Herod with the 
spectacle of a democratic legislature manifesting more 
progressiveness and liberality than any republican body 
could boast; and secondly they were influenced by the 
idea that this act would materially serve to advertise our 
young territory, and bring it into notoriety abroad. Sub- 


sequent events demonstrated their wisdom and foresight, 
at least so far as the second motive was concerned, 


The first opportunity that occurred, for practically 
testing the experiment of women suffrage was at the 
session of the court following its enactment and probably 
no court in the history of Laramie awakened so much local 
interest and excitement or created such a sensation 
throughout all the country as this. Inasmuch as Wyo- 
ming had consented to be the first among all the states 
and territories to try the much talked of experiment of 
woman suffrage, the SENTINEL took pronounced ground 
in favor of giving the experiment a fair and thorough test. 
Many had regarded the passage of the act as a mere 
joke, as something which would remain as a dead letter 
on our statutes but the county commissioners were fin- 
ally induced, in selecting the names of jurors, to select 
from both sexes, and the first knowledge the community 
had of the fact was when the SENTINEL came out with 
the names of the jurors drawn for the coming court, in 
which list appeared the names of some twenty of the 
most prominent ladies of Laramie City. 

It would be impossible to describe at this remote 
period the excitement which this event created, and the 
fact was telegraphed, not only throughout the country, 
but over the whole civilized world. The following are the 
names of the lady jurors selected for that term of court: 


Sarah W. Pease Eliza Stewart 

Agnes Baker Mrs. G. F. Hilton 

Mary Mackle 


Nettie Hazen, Retta J, Burnham, Jennie Lancaster, 
Mary Wilcox, Lizzie A. Spooner, Mrs. J. H. Hayford, Mrs, 
Rowena Hutton. 

In addition to this regular panel several were sum- 
moned during the term as talesmen. Some three or four 
weeks were to intervene after the selection of the jury be- 
fore the term commenced and the SENTINEL and its 
editor used all their influence to induce the ladies named 
to serve, and to educate public sentiment up to the point 


of regarding the innovation with favor, and endeavoring 
to give the experiment a fair trial. In this we were ma- 
terially aided by a letter from Chief Justice Howe, who 
was to preside at the term of court, and who, in this letter 
pledged to the ladies, all the support, aid and encourage- 
ment which the court could give them in the discharge 
of these new and novel duties of citizenship. A reluctant 
consent was at last obtained from the ladies to discharge 
their duties as jurors. In view of this interesting event. 
Sheriff Boswell had made special exertions to fit up the 
rough, primitive court house and jury room with neatness 
and taste, in honor of our lady jurors. 

On the morning when this court convened, the jurors 
selected and summoned were all present and without any- 
one demurring or objecting they were duly sworn and 
charged as a grand jury, and empanelled as a petit jury. 
In order that the legality of the question might be tested 
and settled Colonel Downey moved to quash the panel 
upon the ground that the jurors sworn were not all male 
citizens, which motion was argued by Colonel Downey 
for, and W. R. Steel and T. J. Street attorneys, in op- 
position. The court overruled the motion, Associate Jus- 
tice J. W. Kingman, sitting on the bench concurring. This 
settled the validity of the law, so far as it could be done 
by the courts of Wyoming territory. It will readily be 
believed that this term of court was largely attended by 
the citizens of Laramie, who watched the novel scenes 
with intense interest. 


If we had the space to review more minutely the 
history of this term of court at Laramie, the details would 
be of great interest, particularly to the old citizens of 
that time, but we have only room to briefly summarize 
it. The court was a lengthy term, and very many im- 
portant cases, both civil and criminal were tried, in all 
of which we believe women served as jurors. At the 
close of the term the universal verdict was that even- 
handed and exact justice had been done in every instance; 
law and order established; crime punished; persons and 
property protected, and rights enforced effectually, hon- 
estly and impartially. 

Some idea of the interest which this event awakened 
abroad may be gathered from the fact that when this 
jury was empannelled, and sworn and charged by Judge 


Howe, all the material facts together with the judge's 
charge, were telegraphed throughout the country by the 
associated press, and also by cable to all the civilized 
countries abroad, and within twenty-four hours after- 
wards King William of Prussia, sent a congratulatory dis- 
patch to President Grant, upon this evidence of progress, 
enlightenment and civil liberty in America. 


We recall to mind the following names of several of 
the business men of that early period. It does not em- 
brace all of the pioneer business men of Laramie. We 
select some of them mentioned because they have died or 
left the country and many of them are forgotten, and 
we select others because they staid with us, continued in 
business and most of them acquired a competence or in- 

Lawyers — Hurlburt & Brown, M. C. Page and L. P. 

Physicians — J. H. Finfrock, H. Latham and G. F. 

Dentist — J. J, Clark. 

Dry Goods — McMurray Brothers. 

Clothing — Silversten Brothers and Frank & Appel. 

Ladies' Goods — Mrs. A. Hatcher. 

Groceries — Brown & Pattan, E. Ivinson, and Lay- 
cock & Co. 

General Merchandise — Freeman & Wright, M. G. Tonn, 
C. A. Wright and L. T. Wilcox. 

Restaurant — S. A. Rice and J. B. Wands. 

Hardware — Schuler & Spindler, and C. R. Leroy. 

Tobaccos and Cigars — Altman & Co. 

Liquors — Dawson Brothers and Tom Dillon. 

Guns and Ammunition — Freund Brothers. 

Builder — James Vine. 

Bakery and Confectionery — A. T, Williams. 

Lumber— N. T. Weber and W. H. Holliday. 


Written by Judge Gibson Clark, 

For the Wyoming Churchman, January, 1912. 

On the 5th day of October 1870, at Fort Laramie, 
Wyoming Territory, a Council or Conference was held be- 
tween the United States Indian Peace Commission, repre- 
sented by Mr. Felix R. Brunot of Pittsburg, Pa., and Mr. 
Robert Campbell of St. Louis, Mo., and a large delega- 
tion of Sioux Indians headed by Red Cloud (Makh-pi-ah- 
lu-tah) and as I now remember, by Spotted Tail (Scintey 
Tegeliska), for the purpose of making arrangements for 
the concentration of the Indians on a temporary reser- 
vation situated on the North Platte River, at or near the 
east boundary of Wyoming. At this council, which was 
held in a large hall, a half breed French-Canadian and 
Sioux, named Baptiste Pourier, was one of the interpret- 
ers. The writer, at the time, was the book-keeper for 
Seth E. Ward, then, and for many years before, the Post 
Sutler at Fort Laramie. The Council convened in the 
morning of the day stated, with Messrs. Brunot and Camp- 
bell and their Secretary and other assistants and advisers 
sitting behind a long table at one end of the room, while 
the Indian Head Men were ranged around the other three 
sides of the room. Red Cloud being at the end of the 
room opposite Messrs. Brunot and Campbell, others of the 
more influential Head Men being arranged on either side 
of him. 

About an hour or an hour and a half after the open- 
ing of the Council, Baptiste Pourier, the interpreter, came 
into the office of the store where I was engaged in con- 
versation with Lieutenant Edward L. Bailey of the 4th 
U. S. Infantry, and told us this story: 

That upon the assembling of the Council, Mr. Brunot. 
who was a very devout churchman, arose and in a brief 
prayer invoked the blessing and guidance of Providence, 
and finishing stated to the assembly, and particularly 
to the Secretary of the Commission, that the council was 
opened and ready to proceed with its business. 


Thereupon Red Cloud arose and standing erect and 
holding his arm and hand aloft, fully extended, exclaimed, 
"No! No!! the White Man has prayed to the Great Spirit, 
now the Red Man will pray to Him for His help" — and 
then earnestly, solemnly, reverently, trustfully and hope- 
fully offered up the following prayer: 

"O! Great Spirit! I pray You to look at us. We are 
Your children and You placed us first in this land. We 
pray You to look down upon us so that nothing but the 
truth will be spoken in this Council. We don't ask for 
anything but what is right and just. When You made 
Your red children, O, Great Spirit! You make them to 
have mercy upon them ; now we are before You today pray- 
ing You to look down on us and take pity upon Your poor 
red children. I pray You to have nothing but the truth 
spoken here. You are the protector of the people born 
with bows and arrows as well as the people born with 
hats and garments, and I hope we don't pray You in vain. 
We are poor and ignorant. Our forefathers told us we 
would not be in misery, if we would ask for Your assist- 
ance, O, Great Spirit! look down on Your red children 
and take pity upon them." 

After hearing Fourier's recital of the story, it oc- 
cured to Bailey and me that the prayer was worth pre- 
serving, and we got Fourier to carefully repeat it to us 
while we took it down in writing, and as above given it 
is taken verbatim from the written statement taken down 
at the time, by Lieut. Bailey, in my presence, which is 
now and ever since October 5th, 1870, has been in my 

Of course the prayer uttered by Red Cloud was in 
his own language and of course no stenographic notes 
were made at the time, but I have no doubt that the above 
is an accurate and correct translation of it as uttered. 
My experience of six or seven years with such unlettered 
men as Fourier, induces me to believe that the memories 
of unlettered men as in those days, when they trained 
themselves to rely, in their most important affairs, upon 
their recollection, were very accurate and correct. 

Red Cloud was a very handsome man, about forty- 
five years of age, at this time, nearly six feet tall, splend- 
idly proportioned, with a massive, high, broad, protuberant 
forehead; clear, bright, large eyes, finely chiseled nose 
and mouth, and a chin showing great decision of char- 


acter; mentally of great acuteness and ability, a splendid 
orator and faithful and devoted to his people and to their 

Now, when my mind goes back to the days of which 
I have written, and I realize now as I did not then, that 
in those days I was brought daily into contact with a 
dying people, this prayer of the wild Indian of the Plains, 
seems to me to be full of pathos and beauty; its simple 
eloquence, its reverence, its trustfulness, its truthfulness, 
all impress me with the belief that when Red Cloud thus 
poured out the deepest longings of his soul, he felt and be- 
lieved that he was looking up into the very face of Him 
whom men for nineteen hundred years have called "Our 
Father," into the face of his and his peoples' God, the 
ever present Ruler of the Universe. 



Sixteenth street, north side, west from Hill street 
(Capitol Ave.) to Benton street, (Bent) five squares. 

Between Hill to Eddy streets, two squares: 

One story frame, 24x60, billiard hall, Tilton & Co., 
owners and occupants — cost, $3,400. 

One story frame, 18x30, wholesale wine and liquor de- 
pot, F. L, Tilton, owner and occupant — cost, $1,000. 

One story frame, 22x50, furniture house, A. R, Con- 
verse, owner and occupant — also occupied by E. A. Allen 
& Co., druggist — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 2IV2X6O, A. R. Converse, produce 
dealer, owner and occupant — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 22x60, hardware and crockery, A. R, 
Converse, owner and occupant — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 24x105, dry goods and groceries, 
Glenn & Talpey, owners and occupants — cost about $8,000. 

One story brick, unfinished; particulars unknown, ex- 
cept that it is to be occupied by Lowe & Poole, Druggists. 


One story concrete, 22x40, clothing house, S. Bloom, 
occupant, — Baylies owner — cost, $3,500. 

One story concrete, 30x40, clothing house, B. & I. Hell- 
man, owner and occupants — cost, $2,500. 

One story adobe, 20x40, Temple of Fashion, A. B. More, 
owner and occupant — cost unknown. 

One story frame, 20x30, keg house, G. J. Dozier, oc- 
cupant, B. Ellinger, owner — cost, $2,000. 

Two story frame, 24x40, Saloon, C. N. Greer, owner 
and occupant — cost, $5,000. 

One story frame, 14x32, F. School field. Gunsmith, own- 
er and occupant — also occupied by H. Schoolfield, Watch- 
maker — cost, $1,200. 

One story frame, 8x20, Keg House — Bunker, occupant 
— F. Schoolfield, owner — cost, $100. 

Two story frame, 44x132, Rollins House, J. Q. A. Rol- 
lins & Bro., owners and occupants — cost, $20,000. This 
is one of our largest buildings. 

Two story frame, 24x50, first floor, saloon, Wm. Lind- 
enmier, owner and occupant — upper story occupied by 
Chas. Alter's Daguerrean Gallery — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame, 22x36, clothing house, Ruth & Co., 
owners and occupants — cost, $1,500. 

Between Eddy and Benton streets, three squares: 

One story frame, 22x44, ceiling 12 feet high, Kountze, 
Bro's & Co., bankers, owners and occupants — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame, 24x44, ceiling 13 feet high, Rogers 
& Co., bankers, owners and occupants — cost, $5,000. 

One story frame, 12x24, news, stationery, and notion 
depot, L. B. Josephs, owners and occupants — cost, $600. 

One story frame, 16x24, Mr. Corlett, owner, Lowe & 
Poole, druggists, occupants — cost, , 

One story concrete, 22V2x85, Coburn owner, J. H. 
Voorhies & Co., auction and commission, occupants — cost. 

One story concrete, 22x60, J. N. Voorhies owner, Wil- 
liam Wise, proprietor of the U. S. Restaurant, occupant — 


one of the finest and most popular restaurants in the city 
—cost, $2,000. 

Two story concrete, 44x60, J. S. Galbraith, owner and 
occupant of first floor — saloon — first floor also occupied 
by Sternberger, tobacconist — first floor also occupied by 
Lidell, Robertson & Brown — cost, $12,500. 

One story and a half, size unknown, Holman House, 
John R. Waller, owner, O. B. Holman, occupant — cost, . 

One story frame, 20x45, Clothing House, William Lee, 
owner, J. P. Frank, occupant — cost, $3,000. 

Two story frame, 24x80, unoccupied, E. C. Beauvais, 
owner — cost, $6,000. 

One story frame, 22x80, Restaurant, Wolff & Davis, 
owners and occupants — cost, $3,000. 

One story frame, 20x40, additions, 16x24 lumber of- 
fice; A. L. Wait, lumber dealer, owner and occupant — en- 
tire cost, $3,300. 

One story frame, residence, further particulars un- 

This completes the north side of Sixteenth street, go- 
ing westward. 

Sixteenth Street, South side going east from Reed to 
Hill streets, five and a half squares: 

Between Reed and Ferguson streets, four and a half 

One story log, 20x20, City Jail, City, owner — occupied 
by blacklegs— cost, $1,770. 

One story frame, 12x20, Residence, E. Mclanger, City 
Marshal, owner and occupant — cost, $500. 

One story frame, 20x40, Grocery, O. C. McDonald, 
owner and occupant — cost, unknown. 

One story frame, 20x40, Lodging House, Sergt. Mc- 
Donald, owner — W. S. Belknap, occupant — cost, $2,100. 

One story frame, 22x32, unfinished, McDonald & 
Heenan, owners — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 24x50, Saloon, McDonald & Heenan, 
owners and occupants — cost, $3,000. 


One story and a half log, 24x41, unfinished, Mallally 
& Granger, owners — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame, 20x40, Boarding House, L. Hays, 
owner and occupant — cost, unknown. 

One story frame, 25x25, Dexter House, Wm. Nuttell, 
owner and occupant — cost, . 

Two story frame, 25x40, Wines, Liquors, Tobacco, etc., 
— Code, owner — T. A. Kent & Co., occupants — cost, $6,000. 

Two story frame, unfinished, further particulars, un- 

One story frame, 12x20, Office of Judge J. P. Bart- 
lett, U. S. Commissioner, owner — cost, $700. 

Two story frame. 24x72, Saloon, Stevenson & Co., 
owners and occupants — cost, $4,500. 

One story frame, 15x24, J. W. Turril, Druggist, own- 
er and occupant — cost, $1,000. 

One story frame, 12 1/2x24, Barber Shop, Dougherty 
& Smith, owners and occupants — cost, $726. 

One story and a half log, 20x36, Saloon, Chas. Brown, 
owner — G. Singleton, occupant — cost, . 

One story frame, 61/2x191/2, H. S. Coburn, owner — 
Ryan & Co., Tobacconists, occupants — cost, $250. 

One story frame, 16x48, Saloon, S. Deon, owner — J, 
G. Walker, occupant — cost, . 

Two story frame, unfinished, Ford & Co., owners, fur- 
ther particulars, unknown. 

One story frame, 25x100, Restaurant, one of the larg- 
est and finest in the city; B. L. Ford & Co., owners and 
occupants — cost, . 

One story frame, further particulars unknown. 

One story frame, ditto as above. 

One story frame, 15x15, canvass covered, Barber Shop, 
Jno. Bannister, owner and occupant — cost, $130. 

One story frame, 20x45, Boot & Shoe Shop, C. H. Ed- 
wards, owner and occupant — cost, $1,200. 

Between Ferguson to Hill streets, one square. 


One story frame, size (?), J, H. Creighton, County 
Recorder, owner and occupant — also occupied by telegraph 
office — cost, $3,500. 

One story and a half log, 20x40, Willis & Co., grocers, 
owners and occupants — cost, $2,500. 

One story frame, 14x13, canvass covered, lunch house, 
Smith & Kentner, owners and occupants — cost, $100. 

Ferguson street, east side, going north from Fifteenth 
street to Nineteenth street — four squares. 

One story frame, 22x40, lunch house, Cline, owner, P. 
S. Reed, occupant — cost, $2,500. 

One story frame, 14x37, saloon, L. Bresnahen, owner 
and occupant — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame, unfinished, further particulars un- 

One story adobe, 12x14, Restaurant, Coburn owner — 
Charles Siebert, occupant — cost, . 

One story adobe, 20x40, Clothing House, Day & Co., 
owners and occupants — cost, . 

One story frame, 16x48, Bakery, J. Majewski owner 
and occupant — cost, $3,500. 

One story frame, 20x22, Carpenter Shop, Kratz & 
Crookshank owners and occupants — rear addition, 14x20, 
residence, Kratz owner and occupant — entire cost, $600. 

One story frame, residence, further particulars un- 

One story frame, ditto as above. 

One story and a half adobe, 18x36, Restaurant, Castle 
& Co., owner and occupant — cost, $2,100. 

One story frame, 16x20, Boot and Shoe Shop, J. Borges 
owner and occupant — cost, $1,000. 

One and a half story frame, 23x34, Union Hotel, J. 
Borges owner, B. Eppler occupant — cost, $4,000. 

One story frame. Residence, further particulars un- 

Ferguson street, west side, going south to Fifteenth 
street — two squares from Seventeenth. 


One story frame, 12x16, meat market, Heisselberg & 
Co., owners and occupants — cost, $450. 

One story log, 16x18, boarding house with two addi- 
tions in the rear, the first a one story log, 16x16, the sec- 
ond a one story frame, 12x16, owned and occupied by J. 
Victor — entire cost, $1,400. 

One story frame, 9x18, rear addition frame of same 
height, 14x16, storerooms, Heisselberg & Co., owners — en- 
tire cost, $400. 

One story frame, 16x33, Boarding House, J. G. Shoef- 
fer, owner and occupant — cost, $1,200. 

One story frame, 16x24, Grocery, Marks & Fanger, 
owners and occupants — cost, $800. 

One story frame, 16x24, Bakery and Grocery, Wei- 
gold & Co., owners and occupants — cost, $1,200. 

One story frame, 10x16, office of Drs. Irwin & Gra- 
ham, owners and occupants — two story frame, 24x34, in 
the rear. Public and Private Hospital, Drs. Irwin & Gra- 
ham owners — cost, $2,500. 

One story frame, unoccupied, further particulars un- 

One story and a half frame, 18x32, unfinished, P. 
Syme, owner — cost, $1,000 when completed. 

One story frame, 8x19, Grocery, Lorenze & Kulkopf, 
owners and occupants — cost, $250. 

One story frame, 20x32, Boarding House, O. Hinne- 
man, owner and occupant — cost, $700. 

One story frame, 12x14, residence, Mrs. Mitchell, own- 
er and occupant — cost, $250. 

One story frame, 16x48, Sherman House, Jas. Dolan, 
owner and occupant — cost, unknown. 

One story and a half frame, Valley Hotel, further par- 
ticulars unknown. 

One story frame, further particulars unknown. 

One story frame. Keg House, further particulars un- 

One story and a half, 18x24, Grocery, V. Cordelia, 
owner and occupant — cost, $1,000. 


Eddy street, east side, going north to Seventeenth, 
two squares, from Fifteenth street. 

One story adobe, 25x38, unfinished, owner refused to 
give further particulars. 

One story frame, 20x20, Shoe Shop, S. Bon, owner 
and occupant, also occupied by Drs. Bedel & Veirs — cost, 

One story frame, 16x35, Tobacco, Liquors and Wines, 
Dawson & Bro., owners and occupants — cost, $2,000. 

One story and a half frame, 16x24, Grocery, L. Quaint- 
ance, owner and occupant — cost, $800. 

One story adobe, 16x24, Clothing Store and Pawn- 
broker's Shop, M. J. Doherty, owner and occupant — cost, 

One story frame, 15x25, J. Strauss, Boot and Shoe 
Store, owner and occupant — cost, $1,325. 

One story frame, 20x30, Residence, further particulars 

One story frame, 16x40, Saloon, G. Schneider, owner 
and occupant — cost, $1,600. 

One story frame, I8V2X29V2, Pacific Coffee House, 
Grubb & Blythe, owners and occupants — cost, $1,800. 

One story frame, 12x20, Clothing House, Harris & 
Wagner, owners and occupants — cost, $600. 

One story frame, 16x34, Champion Saloon, Riley & 
Co., owners and occupants — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, further particulars unknown. 

One story frame, 16x24, H. M. Cohen, Pawn Broker, 
owner and occupant — cost, $1,500. 

One story frame, 18x50, Clothing House, William Ruth, 
owner and occupant — cost, $3,000. 

One story frame, 22x65, Freund & Bro., Gunsmiths, 
part owners and occupants — Picard & Co., Hardware, part 
owners and occupants — also occupied by John Kupfer & 
Co.— cost, $5,000. 

One story frame, 16x44, City Saloon, Copeland, owner 
and occupant — also occupied by P. H. Lee, as residence 
— cost, . 


One story log, further particulars unknown. 

One story frame, 22x66, Restaurant, Cook & Bro., 
owners and occupants — cost, $2,500. 

One story frame, further particulars unknown. 

One frame building, 20x66, not yet entirely completed 
— addition on the south side, 12x40, — addition on the north 
side, 18x40. This building is occupied as an Art Museum, 
Prof. J. McDaniels, owner and proprietor. It has cost thus 
far, $10,000. It is finely furnished inside with two elegant 
bars, and is the most popular place of amusement in the 

One story frame, 20x30, Keg House, A. C. Harvey 
owner and occupant — cost, $750. 

One story frame, 12x18, Paint Shop, J. Masterson 
owner, Ayers & Cavalli, occupants, cost unkonwn. 

One story frame, 12x30, City Bakery, Boswell & Black, 
owners and occupants — cost, $650. 


The "Army of Utah" upon reaching its destination 
in September 1858, located upon a site designated for 
the permanent camp, which was known as Camp Floyd, 
named so in honor of the Secretary of War, John B. Floyd. 

Adjoining the camp was a small Mormon settlement. 
Near the head of a stream adjacent to this settlement, 
the Mormons had built an acequai, and by means of many 
small ditches, they irrigated their lands. Upon their ar- 
rival the troops found about 1,600,000 adobe bricks, made 
and laid out on the outskirts of the camp; these adobes, 
and many others, were furnished to the troops by the 
Mormons, and used in the construction of many of the 
camp buildings. [U. S. Cong. Doc. serial 1035, p. 299.] 

WifMfUnXf, Stnexim J\lawje4. 

Dee Linford 


For record of the nomenclature of streams in the Yel- 
lowstone River system, the student of place names must 
rely almost entirely on the journals of Lewis and Clark. It is 
therefore especially unfortunate that those portions of the 
journals which deal with the Yellowstone are disappoint- 
ingly brief and inadequate. 

Lewis and Clark did not explore the Yellowstone on 
the outbound journey, beyond dispatching a single ob- 
server to a distance of eight miles above the mouth. On 
the return journey from the Pacific in 1806, however, the 
explorers separated near the present Montana-Idaho State- 
line, Lewis retracing the expedition's west-bound route of 
the year before to investigate tributaries entering the Mis- 
souri from the north, Clark turning southeast to find the 
upper course of the Yellowstone and to follow the stream 
to its mouth. 

Clark on this side-trek reconnoitered the Bitterroot 
and the Big Hole regions, then struck southeast from the 
Three Forks, encountering the Yellowstone near the point 
where Livingston, Montana, now stands. Here his party 
was as near to present Wyoming as the expedition was to 
come. Strangely enough, however, the explorer did not 
ascend the river in an effort to chart its headwaters, but 
turned immediately downstream toward its confluence with 
the Missouri, where a reunion with Lewis' party had been 

In light of Clark's earlier zeal to explore lesser im- 
portant streams to their sources, his apparent lack of in- 
terest in the principal fork of the Missouri is difficult to 
understand. He seems throughout the entire reconnais- 
sance to have been impatient to rejoin Lewis and to con- 
tinue the homeward journey. At any rate, he neglected 
to name many important landmarks discovered by his 
party, and his journal entries from the time he left the 
Three Forks are casual and fragmentary in the extreme. 


Record of the names and naming of streams in the 
Yellowstone system suffers accordingly, and much his- 
torical information seemingly possessed by the explorer 
is not now known. 

Circumstances accounting for the naming of one trib- 
utary only — the Clark's Fork — are reported specifically, 
albeit casually and indirectly. "This stream we supposed 
to be the Bighorn," the journal records, "but afterward, 
when the Bighorn was found, the name of Clark's Fork 
was given this stream" — undoubtedly to commemorate its 
discoverer. Later cartographers, however, have varied 
the title into "Clarke's, Clarck's and Clake's" Fork or river. 

The name Big Horn, as applied to the Yellowstone's 
largest and most important tributary, also makes its first 
appearance in American literature in the record of this 
reconnaissance. However, evidence indicates the name did 
not originate with Clark. 

"This is the river," the journal reports, "which has 
been described by Indians as arising in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, near the Yellowstone and the source of the Platte 
... In its long course, it receives two large rivers, one 
from the north and the other from the south (probably 
Wind River and the Popo Agie) ... It is inhabited by bea- 
ver and numerous other animals, among them those from 
which it derives the name of Bighorn." 

The wording of the above entry and of the notation 
concerning Clark's Fork (i.e., "this river we supposed to 
be the Bighorn") suggests that Clark in listing the name 
"Bighorn" accepted and continued a term already estab- 
lished — probably among the Indians who described the 
stream to him. 

The Indian name for the big-horn sheep was rendered 
"arsata" by Lewis and Clark and "ahsata" by Irving, while 
Raynolds reports the river title was derived from the Ab- 
sarokian "Ets-p-ot-agie" — "Ets-Pot" meaning sheep, "agie" 
river. Lewis' map of the Northwest lists the stream as 
the "Arsata or Big Horn River," Clark's map simply as 
the "Big Horn R." 

Clark's map interesting shows the Big Horn arising 
in a "Lake Biddle" below his "Lake Eustis" (see previous 
installments of this article), in the approximate position 
of Jackson Lake. No such lake is mentioned in the jour- 
nal text, however, and since John Colter is generally 


credited with having discovered Jackson Lake, in 1807, 
it appears that Clark must have added the lake to his 
map after conversations with the former Lewis and Clark 
expeditionary after Colter's return to civilization. Colter, 
it must be concluded, supposed that the upper Big Horn 
(Wind River) headed in present Jackson Lake. 

Clark, in naming the lake, appears to have wished to 
honor one Nicholas Biddle, Philadelphia lawyer and a close 
friend of the explorer, who assumed the initiative in hav- 
ing the Lewis and Clark papers published, after the death 
of Meriwether Lewis by murder or suicide in 1809. 

There has been some dispute as to whether Clark 
did not err in tracing origin of the Big Horn Rivrr's name 
directly to the mountain sheep. Some take the view that 
the river must have been named for the Big Horn Moun- 
tains which border the river to the east — the mountains 
having previously been named for the sheep. These auth- 
orities contend in favor of their argument that mountain 
sheep would have been more likely to have ranged the 
mountains than the banks of the river. There is, however, 
little evidence to support the view. Most early western 
journals of exploration and travel report the presence of 
mountain sheep in the lowlands and valleys, and the Lewis 
and Clark papers contain repeated observations of big- 
horns along the shores of various streams in the Rocky 
Mountain region. 

It thus appears reasonable to assume that Clark's 
report is correct, that the river was .lamed for the ani- 
mal, and the mountains for the river. Indeed, since rivers 
naturally received the first attention of explorers and 
travelers, their titles were almost always bestowed before 
surrounding mountains were named. And, in cases where 
streams and mountain ranges bear identical names, the 
mountains in most cases took their styling from the rivers 
(e.g., Laramie River, Laramie Mountains: Snake River, 
Snake River Mountains, etc.). 

Unimportant but interesting variations of the name 
Big Horn occur in several early works dealing with the 
West. According to Coues (1898), the term "Big Horse 
River" ran through several early editions of Irving's Astoria, 
apparently by misprint; and in the manuscript of David 
Thompson the stream is called "River of Large Corn" — 
evidently mistranslating the French, Grosse Corne (Big 


A vexing riddle of the Big Horn is the styHng of its 
upper channel the "Wind River." It is not, ibr one thing, 
clear just where Wind River becomes the Big Horn. Some 
geographers have the Big Horn formed by the union of 
the Wind and Popo Agie Rivers, near present Riverton. 
Others identify the Popo Agie as a tributary of Wind 
River; these have the latter stream continue north and 
enter rock-ribbed Wind River canyon as the "Wind," 
emerging as the "Big Horn." Still others designate a 
definite point in the canyon where the Wind is supposed 
to change its name, and call the point the "Wedding of 
the Waters." This term also is confusing, since it implies 
a coming together, and no tributary joins the Wind River 
at this point. 

Origin of the name "Wind River" itself is obscure. It 
does not appear in any of the Lewis and Clark papers, 
and Clark does not use the term on his map of 1814. Yet, 
when Wilson Price Hunt encountered the stream, three 
years before Clark's map was published, he wrote as if 
the name and the peculiar division of the river were al- 
ready established: 

"We reached (today) the banks of the Big Horn, 
here called Wind River because in winter the wind blows 
so constantly that it prevents the snow from lying on 
the ground." 

Washington Irving followed Hunt's use of the term 
in recounting the latter's adventures in Astoria (1836), 
and the name has since appeared consistently in the lit- 
erature of the West. 

(To be continued) 


to the 
Wyoming Historical Department 
August 2, 1943 to October 1, 1943 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Hodge, Wallace B., West Plains, Missouri — donor of a 
sheet of music, "2d Cowboy Cavalry March," written 
and dedicated to Col. J. L. Torrey by F. A. Thole in 
1892, with the original envelope. Two letters and one 
telegram to Col. J. L. Torrey. Copy of a bill intro- 
duced by Senator F. E. Warren March 1898, 55th 
Cong. 2d Sess. S. 4296. "To provide for the organ- 
ization of a regiment of mounted rangers, in the in- 
terest of the public safety." A note in favor of this 
bill from General Alger is attached to this bill. Re- 
ceived September 1943. 

Erwin, Marie H., Cheyenne, Wyoming — donor of six 
photostats of an 1864 map showing Nebraska, Da- 
kota, Montana and Kansas. 

State of Wyoming, Visitors' Register of "Wonderful 
Wyoming Exhibition," International Exposition, Gold- 
en Gate, San Francisco, June 1939. 

Thomas, Lewis C, President of Wyott Manufacturing Co., 
Cheyenne, Wyoming — donor of a program of the Pre- 
sentation of the Army-Navy "E" to the Wyott Man- 
ufacturing Co., the first War Plant in Wyoming to 
receive this honor. 

Christensen, Mart T., Secretary of State, Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming — donor of a typed copy of an extract from the 
"Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great 
Salt Lake of Utah including a Reconnaissance of a 
New Route Through the Rocky Mountains." 

Brosnan, Dominic A., East Natick, Massachusetts — donor 
of a magazine of Philately "Stamps" which contains 
a very interesting article "The Utah Expedition 1857- 
1858" by Mr. Brosnan. 

Books Purchased 

Sandos, Mari — Crazy Horse. New York. Knopf, c 1942. 

McMurtrie, Douglas — Early Printing in Wyoming and the 
Black Hills. Hattiesburg, Mississippi, Book Farm, 
1943. $3.00. 

Books — Gifts 

Iktomi — America Needs Indians — donor J. O. Burdette, 
Denver, Colorado. Bradford-Robinson, c 1937. 

Morris, Robert C, Collection of the Wyoming Historical 
Society, volume I — donor Horace Jenkins, Cheyenne, 
Wyoming. Sun-Leader Publishing House. 1897. 

Roddis, Mrs. Charles, 1725 Central Ave., Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming — donor of Swinton's Word Primer. Ivison, 
Blakeman, Taylor & Co., New York & Chicago, 1878. 
James Montieth's Elementary Geography. A. S. 
Barnes & Co., New York, Chicago and New Orleans. 

Miscellaneous Purchase 

Photograph of Members of the 1897 Rawlins Cycling Club 
Purchased from Mr. Myers, photographer at Rawlins. 

Volume 15 

257, 264, 

Abbott, T. D., 15:4:396 

Abney, James, 15:4:376 

Accessions. See in each issue of An- 
nals under this title or 15:1:93; 
15:2:181; 15:3:307; 15:4:417-418 

Actors and Actresses, Cheyenne 
Opera House, 15:2:159 

Adobes and Irrigation in Utah, 1858, 

Adobes, 15:3:297 

Albany County Organized, 15:4:396 

Algonkin Indians, 15:3:234 

American Fur Company, 
235 (f.n.), 238 (f.n.), 
295; 15:4:317; 15:2:106, 170, 178 

Archambault, Z., 15:3:229-233; Sadie, 
229, 233; Alfred A., 229, 230, 231, 
232, 233; Leon, Edward, Charles, 
Alfred and Blanche, 229 

Argus, The, 15:2:153 

Arickara Indians, hostilities and 
causes, 15:3:201, 210-214; range, 

Arnold, C. P., 15:1:69 

Arrepaha Indians, 15:3:199, 200 

Ashley, General, 15:3:200, 201, 212, 
213, 218, 227, 256, 257; 15:2:173, 

Assessed valuation of Wyoming Ter- 
ritory, 1884, 15:1:69 

Assinaboin Indians, trade with Brit- 
ish, 15:3:202; hostilities, 213; 
range, 202, 213-214 

Astor, 15:2:136, 166, 167, 170, 171, 

Atkinson, Brigadier General Henry, 
15:3:235. 236; Colonel, 15:2:140, 

Aurelia, Sister Mary, 15:3:229, 233 

Averell, Jim, 15:1:49 

Ayer, Charles E., 15:1:18, 19 

Baggs Ranches (L7), 15:1:15-19; 
Maggie Baggs, 16-18 ; George 
Baggs, 9, 16, 19 

Bailey, Lieut. Edward L. 


Baily, Timothy O., 15:3:282 

Baker, N. A., 15:4:386; William, 15: 

Baird, John C, 15:1:40, 41 

Baldwin, Noyes, 15:2:179 (f.n.; 

Barry, Nelson, An Excerpt From the 
Journal of E. Willard Smith, 1839- 
1840, 15:3:287-297 

Bartlett, Judge J. P., 15:2:186 

"Beaver Dick" Leigh, 15:2:173; 15: 
1:81 (f.n.) 83 

Belknap, Secretary of War, 15:2:118 

Benham, Alex, 15:2:177 

Bent & St. Vrain, 15:3:293, 296 

Benton, Colonel, 15:3:225; Honorable 
Thomas H., 15:3:198, 225 

Berthol, 15:2:136, 137 

Bevins, Bill, outlaw, 15:1:60 

Bible, 15:3:193 

Biddle, Thomas, 15:2:140, 141, 142; 
Nicholas, 15:4:415; Lake, 413 

Big Elk, 15:2:138 

Biggs, Mr., 15:3:293-295 

Blackfoot Indians, range, 15:3:199, 
209; trade, 200, 209-210; hostilities, 
199, 200, 206, 207-209 

Blair, Jacob B., 15:1:39, 40, 41, 43, 
44, 45 

Blake, J. W., 15:1:44; Frank, 15: 

Blunt, Major General James J., 15: 

Bonneville's Expedition to Rocky 
Mou7itains, 1832-'33. '34, '35. '36. by 
Gouveneur K. Warren, 15:3:220- 
228; G. K. Warren (f.n.) 220; 
"Pierre's Hole", (f.n.) 221; Amer- 
ican Fur Company and Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company (f.n.) 221; 
Captain Bonneville departs from 
Ft. Osage. 1832. 221; Bonneville's 
maps. 223. 225. 226. 228; Humboldt 
River, 222-223; Rio Benuaventura, 
223. 224, 225; Bonneville's letter to 
G. K. Warren. 224-225; Lake Bon- 
neville, later Great Salt Lake, 224, 



225; Colonel Benton, 198, 225; Cap- 
tain Stansbury, 226; Bonneville's 
absence, 223 (f.n.), Fremont, 222, 
225; Great Salt Lake, discovery, 
etc., 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 
227; Baron La Hontau, 226; Father 
Escalante, 226, 227; Robert Camp- 
bell letter to. Lake Timpanogos, 
227; G. K. Warren, 227-228; James 
Bridger, Samuel Tullock, 227, 228; 
Henry & Ashley, 227; J. Bridger 
discovers Great Salt Lake, 228; 
Hudson's Bay Company trappers, 
228; Peter Ogden, 228; Ogden and 
Mary's Rivers named, 228; Father 
Font, 228 

Boomerang, 15:4:388 

Boswell, N. K., 15:3:245; 15:3:248; 

Bramel, Nick, 15:4:388; Charles, 15: 

Brands, (L7) 15:1:31-35 

Brayer, Herbert O., The L7 Ranches, 
15:1:5-37; H. O. Brayer's biog. 5 

Breckons, Bob, 15:1:41 

Bridger, James, 15:3:227, 228; 15: 
2:106, 174 

British Establishments, 15:3:200, 210, 

Brock, J. Elmer, Timely Arrival, 15: 
1:63, 67 

Brophy, Jack, 15:3:248; J. R. 15:4: 

Broseau, 15:2:136, 137 

Brown's Hole, 15:3:289, 290, 293 

Brown, M. C, 15:4:392, 402 

Brunot, Felix R., 15:4:403 

Bryan, 15:2:177-178 

Buenaventura, Rio, 15:3:223, 224, 225 

Burnett, F. J., 15:4:376 

Burnfield, Forest D., 15:4:390 

Burt, Major, 15:3:286 

Buildings at Fort Bridger, 15:4:368, 
370; Fort Laramie, 316, 330, 342; 
Camp Scott, 351, 352 

Buildings in Cheyenne, Dakota Ter- 
ritory, 1867, 15:2:153-154; Man- 
ning and Post, 153; The Daily 
Rocky Mountain Star, The Argus, 
153, George Tritch & Company, 
The Masonic Hall, Gallatin & Gal- 
lup, Jones & Gray, 154 

Buildings in Cheyenne are numbered, 
1867, 15:2:154-155 

Campbell, A. C, Judge, Fading Mem- 
ories, 15:1:38-49; Robert, 15:4:403; 
15:3:227, 228 

Carbon County, Early History of, 15: 

Carson, Kit, 15:3:265, 290-291; 15:2: 

Carter County, Wyoming, 15:1:67 

Catholic Hospital (Laramie) 15:4: 
389; church, 15:4:387; school, 15: 

Catlin, George, 15:3:234, 237, 238, 
240, 1941 

Champion, Nate, 15:1:48 

Charboneau ( Sharbenare ) , 15:3:287, 
296, 297 

Cheyenne City Council, Dakota Ter- 
ritory, Sept. 18 and 26, 1867, 15: 
3:197, 253; Council Hall, 197, City 
Cemetery, 197; Public Well on 17th 
and Thomas, 253; Members, 197, 
City Hall, 197 

Cheyenne First Bank, 1867, 15:3:286 

Cheyenne Indians, Migration of, 15: 
3:234, 235, 236, 237 

Cheyenne Indian Portraits, Painted 
by George Catlin in 1832, by Marie 
H. Erwin, 15:3:234-241; Algonkin 
Indians, 234; Lewis & Clarke, 235; 
Migration of Cheyenne Indians, 234, 
235, 236, 237; Major T. E. Long, 
235; Brigadier General Henry At- 
kinson, 235, 236; Major Benjamin 
O'Fallon, Indian Agent, 235, 236; 
First Treaty between Cheyennes 
and United States Government, 235, 
236; Forts Lookout and Pierre, 235, 
and (f.n.); American Fur Co., 235; 
Report on the Cheyennes by the 
Commission in 1825, 236, 237; Ref- 
erence to Maps, G. K. Warren, 
1826; George Catlin, 1833, 234, 237, 
238, 240, 241; Bent's Fort, 237; 
Laidlaw's Fort (Old Fort Pierre), 
Fort Union, 237, 238 (f.n.); Catlin 
encounters Cheyenne Indians and 
paints, 238 (f.n.); Nee-hee-o-ee- 
woo-tis, (Wolf on the hill), 15:3: 
238-239; Tis-see-woo-na-tis, (she 
who bathes her knees), 15:3:240 

Cheyenne Opera House, 1882, 15:2: 
156-159; opens, 156; Water Works 
System for Cheyenne, 157; Terri- 
torial Library, 158; Telephone Ex- 
change, 148; Actors and Actresses 
at, 159; closed, 159; Cheyenne 
Opera House and Library Com- 
pany, 159 

Chinese Riot, Rock Springs, 1885, 

Cholera at Forts Kearney and Lar- 
amie, 15:4:317-323 



Chouteau, Francis, 15:2: 136-137 ; 

Seres, 136-137; Lieut., 15:3:210 
Clark, Judge Gibson, Reminiscence of 

Civil War Days, 15:4:377-386; Red 

Cloud's Prayer, 15:4:403-405; Biog- 
raphy, 15:4:374; 15:1:41; Clarence 

D., 15:1:37, 45 
Coad, Mark, 15:1:61 
Collection and Preservation of Wyo- 

niing War Records, 15:1:92 
Collins, Colonel, 15:2:151-152 
Colter, John, 15:2:102-104; Coulter, 

John, 134; 15:3:257, 270; 15:4:414, 

Comstock, Prof. Theodore, 15:3:118 
Connor, T. W., 15:4:387; General 

Patrick Edward, 376 
Converse, A. R., 15:4:388 
Cook, C. W., 15:2:108 
Corlett, W. W., 15:4:389 
Council between United States and 

Sioux, at Laramie 1870, 15:4:403 
Counties in Wyoming in 1884, 15:1: 

Court House, Cheyenne, 1867, 15:2: 

Inside Cover 
Cow Creek Ranch, "'71", 15:1:13-14 
Cowpunchers' Attire, 15:1: 19-20 
Craig, Brigadier General, James, 15: 

2:150, 151, 152 
Craig's Trading Fort, 15:3:289 
Crisman, J. C, 15:4:393 
Curry, George, (flat-nose George) 



Daily Rocky Mountain Star, The, 15: 

Daley, Frank, 15:1:56, 57, 59 

Dawson Brothers, 15:3:282 

Day, John, 15:2:170, 171 

Day's Hole, 15:2:170, 171 

De Lacy, Walter W., 15:2:107 

De Lorion, 15:2:136, 137 

Democratic Convention, First in Wyo- 
ming, 15:1:91 

De Smet, Father, 15:2:106; 15:3:264 

Dewees, Thomas B., 15:3:286 

Dillon, Tom, 15:4:388 

Directory, Business and General, by 
Saltiel & Barnett 1868, 15:2:159-160 

Donnellan, Colonel J. W., 15:3:245; 

Donnelly & Bennau, 15:3:282 

Doty, John, 15:3:284 

Drake, G. P., 15:4:393 

Dramatic Performance in Wyoming 
1864, 15:1:84 

Doane, Lieut. Gustavus, 15:3:109, 
114, 116, 118 

Dunbar, Clarence, 15:4:389 
Dyer, J., 15:3:282 


Early History of Carbon County, by 
John C. Friend, 15:3:280-286; biog- 
raphy of J. C. Friend, 280; Rawlins, 
280; Pioneers of Carbon County, 
281, 282, 283, 284, 286; Wert P. 
Noble, P. L. Smith, John F. Foote, 
Mrs. L. Hays, Frank Blake, I. C. 
Miller, J. P. Keller, John C, Friend, 
Mrs. Mae Franklin, 281; Timothy 
O. Baily, H. C. Hall, Jerry Sheehan, 
E. Hunt, J. Dyer, Dawson Brothers, 
William Baker, M. T. Lockridge, 
Donnelly and B r e n n a n, Larry 
Hayes, 282; Charles Good, John 
O'Brien, 283; First Church, 283; 
First term of court, 283; Carbon 
County organized, 284; county offi- 
cers elected, 284; second term of 
court, 284; old court house, 1870, 
284; John Doty, 284; silver and lead 
discovered at Ferris Range, 1871, 
286; Captain Thomas B. Dewees, 
Major Burt, General J. M. Thayer 
(later Governor of Wyoming Ter- 
ritory), Frank and Boney Ernest, 
Eastern Records of Early Wyoming 
Newspapers, by Douglas C. Mc- 
Murtrie, 1869-1880, 15:3:271, 278; 
American Newspaper Directory, 
271; George P. Powell, 271 
Ell Seven Cattle Company, 15:1:8-9 
Ellis, Mrs. Charles, Robert Foote, 

15:1:50, Mrs. Ellis, biography, 50 
Encounter, An, 1867, 15:2:132 
Ernest, Frank and Boney, 15:3:286 
Erwin, Marie H., Cheyenne Indian 
Portraits Painted by George Catlin, 
1832, 15:3:234-241; Statistical Re- 
port on the Sickness and Mortality 
of the Army of the United States, 
1819-1860, 15:4:315-375 
Escalante, Father, 15:3:226, 227, 254 
Eustis, William. 15:3:270; lake, 270 
Everts, Truman C, 15:2:108. 112-114 
Excerpt From the Journal of E. Wil- 
lard Smith, 1839-1840. by J. Neilson 
Barry. 15:3:287-297: Biography of 
E. W. Smith, 287; Mr. Thompson, 
287, 289; Messrs. Vasquez & Sub- 
lette. 287, 288. 289, 293. 295. 296; 
Mr. Sharbenare (Charboneau) 287. 
296. 297; two hundred thousand 
buffalo, 287 ; Arkansas River 
boundary line between Mexico and 
Missouri Territory, 287. 288; Mr. 



Lupton, 288, Lupton's Fort, 289; 
Bent's Fort, 288; Spanish Fort, 
288; Fort of Messrs. Sublette & 
Vasquez, 289; Mr. Craig, 289; 
Thompson and Craig's Trading 
fort, 289; Brown's Hole, 289, 290; 
Mr. Spillers, 291; Kit Carson, 290- 
291; Fort Hall, 291; Hudson's Bay- 
Company, 291; Petrified buffalo, 
292; Mr. Walker, 292; Mr. Biggs, 
293-295; Mr. Baker, 293; American 
Fur Company, 295; Fort Laramie, 
295; Yellow Wolf, Many Crows, 
296; Missionary Station, 296; 
Messrs. Bent and St. Vrain, 296 


Fading Memories, by Judge A. C. 
Campbell, 15:1:38-49; Bill Nye, 39; 
James B. Sener, 39; Jacob B. Blair, 

39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45; Samuel C. 
Parks, 39, 40; Lawyers (Chey- 
enne), 40, Territory, 41-42; Joseph 
W. Fisher, 40, 41; Gibson Clark, 
41; John C. Baird, 40, 41; Bob 
Breckons, 41; William Ware Peck, 

40, 42; Judges, Territorial Supreme 
and District Courts, 42, 43, 44, 45; 
Ben Holliday's Pony Express, 46; 
Chinese trouble. Rock Springs, 47; 
cases tried by A. C. Campbell, 47, 
48, 49; Ella Watson (Cattle Kate), 
49; Jim Averell, 49 

Ferris, W^arren Angus, 15:2:106 

Finfrock, Dr. J. H., 15:3:242; 15:4: 

First County Library Law in United 
States, 15:1:84 

First Superintendent of Yellowstone 
National Park, 15:2:121 

First Term of Court, Buffalo, Wyo- 
ming, 15:1:45 

First Treaty between Cheyenne In- 
dians and United States Govern- 
ment, 15:3:235, 236 

Fisher, Joseph W., 15:1:40, 41 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas, 15:3:257 

"Flat Nose George", George Curry, 

Folsom, David E., 15:2:108-109, 111 

Font, Father, 15:3:228 

Fontennelle, Lucien, 15:3:257 

Foote, John F., 15:3:281 

Foote, Robert, by Mrs. Charles Ellis, 
15:1:50-62; Mrs. Ellis' biography, 
50; Herman Haas, 51; horse steal- 
ing, 51; Colonel Moonlight (f.n.) 
55; Fort Laramie and Fort Halleck 
post trader, 55; Rockdale Stage 
Station, 56; Bill Bevins, outlaw, 60; 

Mosgrove, outlaw, 61; Mark Coad, 
woodtrain owner, 61 ; Norrls, 
Amanda, (Mrs. R. Foote), 60, 62 
Forney, Dr., (Indian Agent), 15:4:375 
Forts and Camps: 
Bent's, 15:3:237, 288 
Benton, 15:3:207 
Bridger, 15:1:69; 15:2:152; 15:4: 

Craig's Trading, 15:3:289; Thomp- 
son & Craig's, 15:3:289 
de Prairie, 15:3:207 
Ellis, 15:2:109 
Fetterman, 15:4:389 
Hall, 15:3:291; 15:1:75, 76, 83 
Halleck, 15:1:55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62 
Henry, 15:2:169 
In Wyoming, 1884, 15:1:69 
Laidlaw's, 15:3:238 (f.n.) 
Laramie, 15:1:51, 55, 59, 69; 15: 

3:231, 232, 295; 15:4:316-323, 

323-347, 389, 376, 403 
Lookout, 15:3:235 (f.n.) 
Lupton's, 15:3:289 
McKinney, 15:1:69; 15:4:389 
Pierre, 15:2:152; 15:3:235 (f.n.), 

Platte Bridge, Camp, 15:4:323, 327, 

332, 334 
Randall, 15:4:344 
Russell, 15:1:69 
Scott, Camp, 15:4:348-358; 358- 

364, 364-367 
Smith, 15:3:203, 215 
Spanish, 15:3:288 
Steele, 15:1:61, 69; 15:4:389 
Sublette & Vasquez, 15:3:289 
Union, 15:3:237, 238 (f.n.) 
Walbach, Camp, 15:4:323, 327, 332, 

Washakie, 15:1:69 
Franklin, Mrs. Mae, 15:3:281 
Friend, John C, Early History of 
Carbon County, 15:3:280-286; Biog- 
raphy of, 280 
Frontier Index, 15:4:397 
Fryxell, F r i t i o f , Thomas Moran's 
Journey to Tetons, by, 15:1:71-84; 
Fryxell's biography, "71; (f.n. on 
Thomas Moran, 71-72) 
Fur Trade, 15:3:214; region, 202 


Gallatin & Gallup, 15:2:154 

Gas, Patrick, 15:3:270 

Gibbon, General John, 15:2:118 

Gold first discovered in Sweetwater 

district, 15:2:178 
Good, Charles, 15:3:283 
Governor Francis E. Warren A Cham,- 



pion of Woman Suffrage, by W. T. 
Jackson, 15:2:143-149; biography 
of W. T. Jackson, 143; letters to 
and answers from Francis E. War- 
ren, 145-149 
Graham, R., 15:3:198, 212 
Gray, or Grey, John, 15:2:170, 171 
Gray's or Grey's Hole, 15:2:170, 171 
Green, Emmet C, 15:1:9 
Grinnell, George Bird, 15:2:118 
Guerrelle, John, 15:4:393 
Gumry, Peter, 15:4:389 


Haas, Herman, 15:1:51 

Hall, H. C, 15:3:282 

Hat Ranch, (L7), 15:1:11-13 

Hauser, Samuel T., 15:2:108 

Hayes, Larry, 15:3:282 

Hayford, J. H., 15:4:388 

Hays, Mrs. L., 15:3:281 

Hazen, Joe, 15:1:66 

Hedges, Cornelius, 15:2:115, 116 

Henderson, Harry B., Sr., Looking 
Backward, 15:1:68-70 

Henry and Ashley, 15:3:209; and 
Ashley, 15:3:208, 213, 227, 255 

Henry's, Andrew, Missouri Fur Co., 
15:2:167, 169 

Hicks, Mr., 15:4:387 

Historic Document Tells Early Day 
Drama of West, by Amanda Z. 
Archambault, 15:3:229-233; Sister 
Mary Aurelia, Sadie Archambault, 
229, biography, 233; Alfred A. 
Archambault, 229, 230, 231, 232, 
233; Leon, Edward, Charles, Alfred 
and Blanche Archambault, 229; 
trading post of Sweetwater in 1853, 
229, 230, 231; toll bridge over 
Sweetwater River, 1854, 229, 230, 
231; Sioux Indian War, 230, 231, 
232; Captain Johnson, 230; Mr. 
Livingston, 231; Mr. Kinkaid sur- 
vives horrible ordeal, 231, 232; mail 
coach, "Brigham Young", 231; 
"Old Drip", 231; stock branded, 
1853, 233; Fort Laramie, 231, 232; 
Indians kill cow, causes disaster, 
232; Indian arrows topped with 
gold, 233; Sister M. Aurelia born 
1853, near Independence Rock 
(Wyoming), 233 

Historical Sketch of Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, compiled by John H. 
Raftery, 15:2:101-132; John Colter, 
102-104, 105; Potts. 103; "J. O. R. 
Aug. 19, 1819", 105; Warren Angus 
Ferris, 106; Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company, 105; Hudson's Bay Com- 

pany, 105; Father De Smet, Cap- 
tain W. F. Raynolds, 106; Walter 
W. DeLacy, James Stuart, George 
Huston, 107; David E. Folsom, 108- 
109, 111; C. W. Cook, 108; Wash- 
burn-Langford Party, and expedi- 
tion, 109-116; Lieut. Gustavus C. 
Doane, 109, 113, 116, 118; General 
Henry D. Washburn, 108; Samuel 
L. Hauser, 108; Truman C. Everts, 
108, 112-114; Cornelius Hedges, 
115, 116; first idea for a National 
Park, 115-116; Act of Dedication, 
116-118; General John Gibbon, 
U. S. A., William A. Jones, Prof. 
Theodore Comstock, Captain Wil- 
liam Ludlow, George Bird Grin- 
nell, Secretary of War Belknap, 
General W. E. Strong, General W. 
T. Sherman, General O. M. Poe, 
General O. O. Howard, Secretary 
of Interior Carl Schurz, General 
Crook, 118; Two-Gwo-Tee Pass, 
118; General John W. Hoyt, Major 
J. W. Mason, U. S.' A., General 
Sheridan, 118; Presidential expedi- 
tion, 1883, 119; Nathaniel P. Lang- 
ford, first superintendent, 121; sup- 
erintendents of the Park, 122-124; 
Park Administration, 121-125; Wy- 
oming Territory assumed protection 
of Park, 123; Wilf life, 126-128; 
Geological descriptions, 128-132 

Hoback, John, 15:2:169-170, 173, 174 

Hole-in-the-wall, 15:1:64, 65 

Holliday, Will, 15:4:388 

Holliday's Ben, Pony Express, 15:1:46 

Hook, H. M., 15:2:155 

Hospital, Sisters (Catholic), Laramie, 

Howard, General O. O., 15:2:115, 116 

Howe, Church, 15:4:389 

Hoyt, Governor John W., 15:2:118 

Hudson's Bay Company, 15:2:105, 
170, 172; 15:3:200, 201, 209, 210, 
213, 215, 216, 217, 225, 228, 238 
(f.n.), 291; 15:4:361 

Humboldt River, 15:3:222-223 

Hunt, Wilson P., 15:2:136, 166. 167, 
168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174; 15:3: 
255" 15:4:416 

Hunter, John, 15:1:51, 52. 53, 55 

Huntley, C. C, 15:2:177 

Huston, George, 15:2:107 

Immel & Jones, 15:3:207, 208, 209 
Incident in the Economic Develop- 
ment of the Western Cattle Indus- 



try, An, (The L7 Ranch), by H. O. 
Brayer, 15:1:5-37 

Incident on the Plains, An, from 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated News- 
paper July 9, 1870, 15:3:249-250; 
Indian attack on U. P. train, 250 

Index to Annals of Wyoming, 15:1:91 

Indian Attack Overland Stage Road, 
1865, 15:1:57 

Indian Portraits, Cheyenne, 15:3:234- 

Investigation as to the Causes of In- 
dian Hostilities West of the Mis- 
souri River, 1824, 15:3:198-220; 
Blackfeet, range, 199, 209, trade, 
200, 209-210, hostilities, 199, 200, 
206, 207-209, hunters, prisoners of 
Spaniards, 199-200; Arickaras, hos- 
tilities, causes, 201, 210-213, range, 
200; Messrs. Ashley & Henry, 208, 
213; Assinaboins, trade with Brit- 
ish, 202, hostilities, 213, range, 202, 
213-214; Indian tribes on the Ar- 
kansas River, 203; Arrepaha In- 
dians, 199, 200; General Ashley at- 
tacked, 200, 201; Hon. Thomas H. 
Benton, 198, 225; Minatare Indians, 
215, 216; Missouri Fur Company, 
200, 201, 205-210, 218; British es- 
tablishments, 200, 204, 210, 216- 
217; Messrs. Lewis & Clarke, 207, 
210; Fort de Prairie, 207; Hudson's 
Bay Company, 200, 201, 209, 210, 
213, 215, 216-217; Lieut. Chouteau, 
210; Indian Agent letter, 201; 
Lieut. Pryor, 210; richest fur re- 
gion, 202; Mandans, 200, 202, 213, 
215, 216; Spanish trade, 203; Fort 
Smith, 203, 215; British cause hos- 
tilities, 215, 216, 217; trade between 
Missouri and New Mexico, 202-203; 
British traders, 216-217; Major R. 
Graham, 198, 212; Joshua Pilcher, 
205-220; Indian tribes beyond the 
Mississippi River, their habitats 
and trade, 205-206; Messrs. Immell 
and Jones, 207, 2Q8, 209; Fort Ben- 
ton, 207; Major O'Fallon, 211, 212, 
Mr. Vandenburg, 213; Fur trade 
for U. S., 214; trade and inter- 
course with Indians, 218-220; Mr. 
McDonald, 211; Messrs. Berthold, 
Chouteau, Pratte, competitors of 
Missouri Fur Company, 218 

Jackson, W. Turrentine, Governor 
Francis E. Warren, A Champion of 
Woman Suffrage, 15:2:143-149; Mr. 
Jackson's biography, 143 

Jennings, Harry B., 15:4:390 

Johnson, Captain, 15:3:230 

Jones, William A., 15:2:118; W. T. 

Jones & Gray, 15:2:154 

Judges, Territorial Supreme and Dis- 
trict Courts, 15:1:42, 43, 44, 45 

Jundquist, Lillie, 15:4:390 


Keller, J. P., 15:3:281 
Kidd, Mr., 15:4:388 
Kinkaid, Mr., survives horrible or- 
deal, 15:3:231, 232 

La Hontan, Baron, 15 : 3 : 226 

Lake Bonneville, later Great Salt 
Lake 15:3*224 225 

Langford, Nathaniel P., 15:2:105, 106, 
108, 109, 110, 116, 121, 122 

Laramie City, Review of, from 1868- 
1869, from Laramie Weekly Sen- 
tinel May 5, 1883, 15:4:391-402 

Laramie, Jacques, 15:3:265 

Larimer, William, 15:2:177 

Lawyers, Cheyenne, 15:1:40-41; Ter- 
ritory, 41, 42 

Legarc, 15:2:137 

Letters of 1862 Reveal Indian Trouble 
Along the Overland Mail Route, 
North Platte and Sweetwater 
routes, 15:2:150-152, (From Official 
Records of the War of the Rebel- 
lion, series I, vol. 13, pp. 362, 468- 
469) ; Brigadier General S. D. Stur- 
gis, 150; Brigadier General James 
Craig, 150, 151, 152; protection of 
the Overland Mail-Route, 150-151; 
Captain Thomas Moonlight, 150; 
Major-General James J. Blunt, 150; 
Colonel Collins 151-152; Indian de- 
predations, 151; Forts Pierre and 
Bridger, 152 

Lewis and Clarke, Messrs., 15:2:167, 
168, 169; 15:3:207, 210, 235, 266, 
267, 269, 270; 15:4:413, 414, 415, 

Library, First, County, in Wyoming, 
15:1:67; Laws, 15:1:84; Territorial, 

Linf ord. Dee, W j/ o min g Stream 
Names, 15:2:163-174; 15:3:254-270; 
15:4:413-416; biography, 15:2:163 

Lisa, Manuel, 15:2:102, 103, 134, 135, 
136; 15:3:257 

Little Thunder, Chief, 15:4:376 

Livingston, Mr., 15:3:231, 232 



Logan & Lonabaugh (outlaws), 15: 

Long, Major T. E., 15:3:235 

Looking Backward, by Harry B. Hen- 
derson, Sr., 15:1:68; First herd of 
cattle north of Platte River, 68; 
Military Forts in Wyoming in 1884, 
69; counties in Territory of Wyo- 
ming in 1884, 69; assessed valuation 
1884, 69; oil drilling, 69; ranches, 

Lupton, Mr., 15:3:289 


Magic City, The, Cheyenne, Dakota 

Territory, 1867, 15:2:160-162; 15: 

3:250-253; 15:4:405-412 
Mail Coach "Brigham Young", 15:3: 

Mandan Indians, 15:3:200, 203, 213, 

215, 216 
Manning & Post, 15:2:153 
Many Crows, 15:3:296 
Marsh, Robert, 15:4:388 
Mason, Major J. W., U. S. A., 15:2: 

Masonic Hall, 1867, 15:2:154 
Masonic Meeting, July 4, 1920, 15: 

Maxwell, Tom, 15:1:51 
McClinnon-Crook, 15:2:135, 136 
McDonald, Mr., 15:3:211 
McKenzie, (Mackenzie) Kenneth, 15: 

3:238; Donald, 15:2:173 
McLeland, Thomas E., 15:2:155 
Meek, Joseph, 15:2:105 
Meldrum, John M., 15:1:44, 45 
Miller, I. C, 15:3:281; Joseph, 15:2: 

173, 174 
Minatare Indians, 15:3:215, 216 
Missouri Fur Company, 15:2:135, 

136; Andrew Henry's, 15:2:167, 

169; 15:3:200, 201, 205, 210, 218, 

Moonlight, Colonel, 15:1:55 (f.n.) 
Mosgrove (outlaw), 15:1:61 


Nagle, E., 15:4:393 

Nelson, Mrs. L. H., 15:4:390 

Noble, Wert P., 15:3:281 

Norris, Amanda, (Mrs. Robert 

Foote), 15:1:60, 62 
Northwest Fur Company, 15:2:173; 

Nye, Bill, 15:3:243, 245; 15:4:387, 388 

O'Brien, John, 15:3:283 

O'Fallon, Major Benjamin, 15:1:211, 
212, 235, 236, 264 

Ogden, Peter, 15:3:228 

Old Oregon Trail, 15:3:191-197 

"Old Pierre", 15:2:172 

Old Trail to An Empire, The, by Wil- 
liam A. Riner, 15:3:191-197; Ma- 
sonic Meeting, July 4, 1920, 181; 
Altar, 191; Bible, Oregon Trail 
started, 193; Marcus Whitman, 194; 
Cholera, 195; Song of the West, 
196, 197; Daniel Webster, 193, 194 

Osborne, John Eugene, 15:3:308-309 

Overland Stage, Indian Attack, 1865, 

Pacific Fur Company, 15:2:173 

Parks, Judge, 15:1:39, 40 

Peabody, A. S., 15:4:388 

Peck, William Ware, 15:1:40, 42, 43 

Pepin, 15:2:137 

Performance, Dramatic, in Wyoming, 

1864, 15:1:84 
Perkins, 15:2:136 
Petrified buffalo, Indian Legend, 15: 

"Pierre's Hole", 15:3:221 (f.n.); 15: 

Pilcher, Joshua, 15:2:136; 15:3:205- 

Place Names, Wyoming, 15:1:85-90 
Poe, O. M., 15:2:118 
Pony Express, Ben Holliday's, 15:1: 

Post Office, O'Neil street, (Chey- 
enne), 15:2:155 
Post sutler. Fort Laramie, 1870, 15: 

Post trader, Fort Laramie, 15:1:55, 

Fort Halleck, 55 
Pourier, Baptiste, 15:4:403 
Pratt, 15:2:137 
Prior, Lieut, 15:3:210 


Raftery, John H., Historical Sketch 
of Yellowstone National Park, 15: 

Rawlins First School Building, 15: 

Raymond, R. W., 15:2:178 

Raynolds, Captain W. F., 15:2:106; 

Red Cloud's Prayer, by Judge Gibson 
Clark, 15:4:403-405; Council be- 
tween United States and Sioux In- 
dians, 1870, 403; Felix R. Brvmot, 
403; Robert Campbell, 403; Red 



Cloud, 403, 404, 405; Spotted Tail, 
403; Baptiste Fourier, 403, 404; 
Gibson Clark, 403, 404; Seth E. 
Ward, 403; Lieut. Edward L. Bail- 
ey, 403, 404; Red Cloud's Prayer, 
404; Post sutler, Fort Laramie, 403 

Reminiscence of Civil War Days, by 
Judge Gibson Clark, 15:4:377-386; 
Gibson Clark's biography, 15:4:377 

Republican Convention, First in Wy- 
oming, 15:1:91 

Review of Laramie City, from 1868- 
1869, from Laramie Weekly Sen- 
tinel May 5, 1883, 15:4:391-399; 
Laramie City first surveyed, 392; 
Union Pacific Railroad sells town 
lots, 392, 393; first building, 393, 
397; Union Pacific Rails reach Lar- 
amie City, 393; provisional govern- 
ment, 393; M. C. Brown, John 
Guerrelle, E. Nagle, J. C. Crisman, 
G. P. Drake, M. Townsley, P. H. 
Tooley, 393; Vigilantes, 394-395; 
Albany County organized, Laramie 
County seat, 396; N. K. Boswell, 
L. T. Wilson, T. D. Abbott, Dr. 
J. H. Finfrock, 396; Wyoming Ter- 
ritory organized, 396; Wyoming 
Territory, Government, 396; first 
regular term of court, 396; first 
newspaper, 396, 397; Frontier In- 
dex, 397; Laramie Sentinel, 397; 
first white child born in Laramie, 
397; first substantial buildings, 
397; first public school, 398; 
churches, and lodges, 398-399; Ter- 
ritorial Politics, 399; Woman's Suf- 
frage, 399; Woman Juries, 400-402; 
Woman Jurors of the first term of 
Court, 400; business men of, 402 

Reznor, Jacob, 15:2:169 

Roberdeau, 15:2:137 

Robinson, Edward, 15:2:169 

Rockdale Stage Station, 15:1:56 

Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 15:3: 
221 (f.n.), 258; 15:2:105, 174 

Root, Bill, 15:4:388 

Ross, Alexander, 15:2:172 

Schurz, Carl, 15:2:118 
Sener, James B., 15:1:39 
Sheehan, Jerry, 15:3:282 
Sheridan, General Phil, 15:2:118 
Sherman Station, 1869, Union Pacific 

Railroad, 15:3:inside cover 
Sherman, General W. T., 15:2:118 
Sites Famous in History of Laramie 
City Marked During Jubilee, from 
The Republican Boomerang, July 

2, 1928, 15:3:242-246; Finfrock 
home, 242; Sarah Montgomery 
home, 242; Opera House, original 
school house, site of first news- 
paper. First Presbyterian Church, 
First Methodist Church, Catholic 
School, "Forty Liars" Club, Bill 
Nye, 243; first jail, first grocery 
store, first drug store, first build- 
ing, Trabing grocery, first theatre, 
first women's jury met, first court. 
Frontier Hotel, 244; Bill Nye's sign 
"Twist the Tail of the Iron Gray 
Mule and Take the Elevator", 
Home of the Boomerang; N. K. 
Boswell and John W. Donnellan 
residence; John Kane log house, 245 
Sioux Indian War, 15:3:230, 231, 232 
Slack, M. E. A., 15:2:178; 15:4:387 
Smelter, first in State, 15:1:37 
Smith, Jedediah S., 15:2:174; Wil- 

lard, 15:3:288; P. L., 15:3:281 
Snake River Cattle Company (L7), 

15:1:9, 11 
Song of the West, 15:3:196-197 
Stansbury, Captain, 15:3:226 
Statistical Report on the Sickness 
and Mortality of the Army of the 
United States, 1819-1860, compiled 
by Marie H. Erwin, 15:4:315-375; 
First report, 1819-1838, 316; Sec- 
ond report, 1839-1855; Fort Lara- 
mie, 316-323; Am.erican Fur Com- 
pany, 317; cholera at Forts Kearny 
and Laramie, 317-323; scurvy, 322- 
323. Third report, 1855-1860, 323- 
375; Northern Division includes. 
Fort Laramie, Camps Walbach and 
Platte Bridge, 323-347; Utah Divi- 
sion includes Fort Bridger and 
Camp Scott, 347-375; Camps Wal- 
bach and Platte Bridge, 323, 327, 
332, 334; Fort Laramie, December 
1858, 323-327; March, 1859, 327- 
333; December 1859, 333-347; Camp 
Scott, December 1857, 348-358; De- 
cember 1857, 358-364; January 

1858, 364-367; Fort Bridger, March 

1859, 368-375; scorbutic diseases 
treated with cactus juice, wild veg- 
etables, etc., 324-327, 328, 332, 345, 
346; two new wards added to Fort 
Laramie, 328; buildings at Fort 
Laramie, 1849-1859, 317, 330, 342, 
343; at Fort Bridger, 368, 370; 
breaking up of Camps Platte 
Bridge and Walbach, 1859, (Chey- 
enne Pass), 333-334; Fort Randall, 
1859, 344; Camp Scott, winter 
quarters of the Army of Utah, 



1857, 348; hospital at, 351, 364, 366; 
canvas tents at, 351; wall tents 
at, 352; Sibley tents at, 352, 362, 
365, 366; entertainments at, 353; 
Dr. Forney, 354; small pox at Fort 
Bridger, 1857, 361; Hudson's Bay 
Company, 361; dried beef hides for 
hospital flooring, 364; winter quar- 
ters, 365; Fort Bridger, quadrangu- 
lar wall, 368; mountain fever, 371 

Strong, General W. E., 15:2:118 

Stuart, Robert, 15:2:167, 170, 172, 
173, 174; James, 107 

Sturgis, Brigadier General S. B., 15: 

St. Vrain, 15:3:293, 296 

Sublette & Vasquez, 15:3:289; Wil- 
liam, 15:2:105 

Superintendents of Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, 15:2:121-125 

Swan Land and Cattle Company, 15: 

Swan, William Franklin, biography, 

"Sweetwater Miner", 15:2:178 

Sweetwater Stage Company, The, 
1869, 15:2:177-180; Alex Benham 
177; Wells Fargo Company, 177 
C. C. Huntley, 177; Bryan, 177-178 
M. E. A. Slack, 178; William Lar- 
imer, 177; gold in Sweetwater dis- 
trict first discovered in 1842, 178, 
179, 180; American Fur Company, 
178; H. S. Reedall, 179; Noyes 
Baldwin, 179 (f.n.), R. W. Ray- 
mond, 178; "Sweetwater Miner", 


Telephone Exchange, 1882, (Chey- 
enne), 15:2:158 

Tenonee, 15:2:136 

Tents, canvas, 15:4:351; wall, 352; 
Sibley, 352, 362, 365, 366 

Thayer, General J. M., 15:3:286 

Thomas Moran's Journey to Tetons, 
by Fritiof Fryxell, 15:1:71-84; F. 
Fryxell biography, 71; foot notes 
on Thomas Moran, 71-72, 73-74, 75 
"Beaver Dick" Leigh, 81, 83 (f.n.) 
excerpt Moran's Journal, 76-84 
Mount Leidy, 73 (f.n.); Fort Hall, 
15:1:75, 77 (f.n.) 

Thompson and Craig's Trading Fort, 
15:3:287, 289 
Thompson, David, 15:3:269 

Thorp, Russell Collection, 15:2:182- 

Timely Arrival, A, by J. Elmer 
Brock, 15:1:63-67; Mr. Brock's bi- 

ography, 63; George Curry, "Flat 
Nose George", 64-67; Wilcox train 
robbery, 66; Joe Hazen, 66; Logan 
& Lonabaugh, outlaws, 66; Hole- 
in-the-wall, 64, 65; Walt Monett, 
66 (f.n.), Barbara Curry, 64 
Toll bridge over the Sweetwater 

River, 15:3:229, 230, 231 
Tooley, P. H., 15:4:393 
Trabing Brothers, 15:4:397, 388 
Trade and Intercourse, Indian Af- 
fairs, Missouri River, 1820, 15:2: 
133-142; Manuel Lisa, 134, 135, 136; 
John Coulter (Colter), 134; Mis- 
souri Fur Company, 135, 136; 
Blackfeet Indians, 134, 135; Mc- 
Clinnon - Crooks, 135-136; United 
States boats carrying Mandan Chief 
attacked by Arickaras, 135; Wilson 
P. Hunt, 136; Astor, 136; Trade of 
Missouri River, 136, 137; Indian 
tribes and traders, 136-137; Indians 
mistrust whites, 138-139; Big Elk, 
138-139; whiskey given to Indians, 
137, 138, 139; placing Indian trade 
in hands of the government, 140; 
Colonel Henry Atkinson, 140, 142; 
Major Thomas Biddle, 140, 141, 142; 
traders, List, Pilcher, Perkins, 
Wood, Carson, Williams, Tenonee, 
Seres and Francis Chouteau, Leg- 
arc, Roberdeau, Pepin, Buthol, 
Pratt, Vasquez, Broseau, De Lor- 
ion, 136, 137; Indian tribes trading 
at or near Missouri River, 1819; 
Ottoes, Missourias, loways, Mahas, 
Pawnees, Piankeshaws and Sioux; 
on the Osage River, Osages and 
Kanzas Nations, 136, 137; United 
States Factory (trading post) 137; 
conduct of traders, 138, 139, 141, 
142; Government control of Indian 
trade, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142 
Trading Post on Sweetwater River, 

1853, 15:3:229, 230, 231 
Tritch & Company, George, 15:2:154 
Tullock, Samuel, 15:3:227. 228 
Two Face, Chief, 15:4:376 


Union Pacific Railroad tracks, 1867, 

United States Factory (trading 

posts), 15:2:137 


Vanderburgh, Mr.. 15:3:213 
Vasquez, 15:3:228, 289, 293 




Wagner, Henry, letter to W. E. Chap- 
lin, 15:4:386-389; Bill Nye, Captain 
O'Neil, Trabing Brothers, J. W. 
Connor, L. T. Wilcox, T. D. Abbott, 

E. A. Slack, 387; Albany County 
court room, 387; Catholic Church, 
387; Tom Dillon, A. T. Williams, 
Mr. Kidd, Bill Nye, N. A. Baker, 
J. H. Hayford, A. S. Peabody, 
Robert Marsh, Trabing Brothers, 
Will Holliday, 388; Weekly Senti- 
nel, 387; daily paper, 388; Boomer- 
ang, 388; Bill Nye, Bill Root, Buck 
Bramel, Charles Wagner, Charles 
Bramel, 389; A. R. Converse, 388 

F. E. Warren, 388; Mr. Hicks, 388 
Convention at Point of Rocks, 389 
W. W. Corlett, Judge W. T. Jones, 
Colonel J. W. Donnellan, Church 
Howe, 389; United States Govern- 
ment Contracts, 389; Sisters' Hos- 
pital, Public School, Peter Gumry, 
389; Bankers, Wagner & Dunbar, 
389; J. R. Brophy, Clarence Dun- 
bar, 389 

Walks-under-the-ground, Chief, 15:4: 

Ward. Seth E., 15:4:403 

War Records, Collection and Preser- 
vation of Wyoming, 15:1:92 

Warren, Governor Francis E., A 
Champion of Woman Suffrage, 15: 

Warren, Gouveneur K., Bonneville's 
Expedition to Rocky Mountains, 
1832-'33, -'Slf, -'35, -'36, 15:3:220- 
228, 220 (f.n.) 

Washburn-Langford, 15:2:105, 106, 
109-116, 121; General D., 108 

Water Works System (Cheyenne) 
1882, 15:2:157 

Watson, Ella (Cattle Kate), 15:1:49 

Woman, juries, 15:4:400-402; jurors, 
15:4:400; suffrage, 15:2:143-149; 
15 '4 '399 

Wyoming in World War H, 15:2:175- 
176, by Senator J. C. O'Mahoney, 

Wyoming Place Names, 15:1:85-90 

Wyoming Sheriffs, 15:3:247-248; 
Thomas J. Carr, 247; Will Schnit- 
ger, Nick O'Brien, Frank Canton, 
Red Angus, N. K. Boswell, Louis 
Miller, Jack Brophy, Malcolm 
Campbell, John Ward, John Wil- 
liams, Larry Fee, Billy Lykens, 
Johnny Owens, B. F. Lowe, J. J. 
Atkins, John R. Murphy, Thomas 

J. Keesee, Jim Rankin, Joe Ran- 
kin, William Hawley, Jim Ryan, 
George W. Laney, 248 

Wyoming Stock Growers Association. 

Wyoming Stream Names, by Dee Lin- 
ford, 15:2:163-174; D. Linford's bi- 
ography, 163; catalogue of Wyo- 
ming Streams, 164; interesting 
stream names, 165; Snake River, 
165-168; Yampa "Yam-pa-pah" 
River, 166; Pacific Creek, 168; Two 
Ocean Creek, 168; Hoback River, 
169; John Hoback, 173, 174; Ed- 
ward Robinson, Jacob Reznor, 169- 
170; Wilson P. Hunt, 166, 167, 168, 
169, 170, 172, 173, 174; Astor, 166, 
167, 173; Andrew Henry's Missouri 
Fur Company, 167, 169; Grey's 
River, John Gray, 170-171; Robert 
Stuart, 167, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174; 
Salt River, 171, 172; Ashley, 173, 
174; Lewis and Clark, 167, 169; 
Teton River, 172; "Beaver Dick" 
Leigh, 173; Bear River, 173, 174; 
Donald McKenzie of the Northwest 
Fur Company, 173, 174; Hudson's 
Bay Company, 170, 172; American 
Fur Company, 170; Thomas Fork, 

15:3:254-270, Green River, 254-257; 
La Barge Creek, 257; Fontennelle, 
257; Big Sandy, Black's Fork and 
Ham's Fork, Henry's Fork, 257; 
Little Snake, Battle Creek, 258; 
List of major world rivers as list- 
ed in Hammond's Atlas, 258; Mis- 
souri, Mississippi water-way, 259; 
Missouri River, 259, 260; Madison 
and Gallatin Rivers, 260; Platte 
River, 260-262; North Platte, South 
Platte, 262-263 ; Encampment 
River, Medicine Bow River, 263; 
Sweetwater River, 263-264; Muddy 
Creek, Lost Soldier Creek, 264; 
Bates Creek, 264, 265; Casper 
Creek, Boxelder Creek, LaPrele 
Creek, LaBonte, Laramie River, 
265; Chugwater, 265-266; Sybille, 
Horse Creek, 266; Niobrara River, 
266-267; Cheyenne River, 267, 268; 
tributaries of the Cheyenne, 268; 
Old Woman, Crazy Woman, Inyan 
Kara Creek, Belle Fourche, 268; 
Little Missouri, 268-269; Yellow- 
stone River, 269-270; Lake Eustis, 

15:4: 413-416 ; Yellowstone River 
System, 413; Clark's Fork, 413, 414; 
Big Horn, 414; Jackson Lake, 415; 

INDEX TO VOLUME 15, 1943 429 

Lake Biddle, 414, 415; Wind River, Y 

414, 416; Lewis and Clark, 413, 

414, 415, 416; Wilson P. Hunt, 416; Yellowstone National Park, Histor- 

W. F. Raynolds, 414; John Colter, ical Sketch of, compiled by Jolin 

414, 415 H. Raftery, 15:2:101-132; 15:3:270